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Author of the 'Sahityasarasangraha? &c. &c. 



Publisher : 

Snii clap Lai Jain 

Motilal Banarsidass, -, 
Bungalow Road, 
Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6. 

Printer : 

Shantl Lai Jain 

Shri Jainendra Press, 
Bungalow Road, 
Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-6. 


By a.rangement with 
M/S Gopal Narain & Co. 

f+ \ 

Books available at : 

Motilal Banarsidass, Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, 
Post Box 1586, Delhi-6. 

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Motilal Banarsidass, Bankipur, Patna-4 . 


The present Grammar has been prepared with a 
view to meet the growing wants of the Indian University 
students. The University examiners have been, of late, 
evincing a desire to exact a more thorough knowledge of 
the obscurer and therefore more difficult parts of Sanskrit 
Grammar, than was required formerly. In fact, a student 
of the present day, with Sanskrit for his second language, 
must, if he wishes to pass his University Eaxminations 
with credit, acquire more than a general knowledge of 
the various departments of Sanskrit Grammar, while none 
of the grammars now accessible to the Indian student, 
with the exception of one or two, supply him with the 
necessary information on the various topics discussed in 
the original Sanskrit works. Dr. Bhandarkar's books, 
though ingeniously sketched and^Jadmirably executed, are 
admittedly meant to introduce a student to the vast field 
of Sanskrit Grammar. Dr. Kielhorn's Grammar aims more 
at brevity and perspicuitv than at fullness of treatment 
with conciseness. Prof. Whitney's grammar is too elabo- 
rate, and therefore too high for the ordinary student. Prof. 
Monier Williams' grammar and others, though excellent 
in themselves, are expressly written for European students 
and are more suited to them than to the Indian students. 
I have, therefore, done my best to bring the present 
Grammar upto the requirements of the high standard. 

Now, a few words on the scope and arrangement of the 
work and I will conclude. As remarked by Dr. (Now Sir) 
Bhandarkar* "Grammar was not an empiric study with 
Panini and the other ancient grammarians of India." In 
fact in the hands of the ancient Grammarians of India, 
Sanskrit Grammar rose to the dignity of a science and must 

"Introduction to the 3rd Ed. of the 2nd Book of Sanskrit. 

> ii 

be studied as such. To quote the words of the learned 
Doctor again "its study possesses an educational value of 
the same kind as that of Euclid and not much inferior to 
it in degree. For to make up a particular from the mind 
of the student has to go through a certain process of 
synthesis." To split up, therefore, a general rule of the 
ancient Indian grammarians into a number of the 
praticular cases it comprehends, as is done by some 
modern writers on Sanskrit grammar, is not to build up 
but to destroy, not to simplify the difficulties of the 
student but to embarrass him. For a Grammar, then, to 
be practical and correct, in my humble opinion, it must 
be based on indigenous words understood and studied in 
their genuine scientific spiiit. In writing the various 
chapters of this book (except the one on the 'Conjugation 
of Verbs') I have closely followed Panini as explained 
by Bhattoji Dikshit (the Ka^hika of Vamana being also 
occasionally referred to). Many of the rules given are 
translations of the Sutras of Panini, much matter being 
thus compressed into a small compass. The original Sutras 
where necessary, are given in foot-notes as help to 
memory. Sandhis and declensions are very fully treated. 
Compounds which play such an important part in San c krit 
literature, and which, yet, are very summarily disposed 
of in many grammars, have received special attention, 
almost everything in the Siddhanta Kaumudi being 
included. The formation of feminine bases which is not 
considered separately in other grammars has been treated 
of here in a separate chapter (VI). The seventh chapter 
deals with the Taddhita affixes (i. e. affixes forming 
secondary nominal ba&es) which, for the convenience of the 
student and the occassional referer, have been arranged 
here in an alphabetical order, each followed by a number 
of the derivatives formed by it. The question of gender 
which so much perplexes the foreigner has been dealt 
with in the eighth chapter, while the ninth treats of 
"Indeclinables." The first nine chapters thus form what 
may be called the first part of the book, in as much as 
they deal with all that relates to the noun (declinable 
and indeclinable) But a special feature of the pres nt 
Grammar is the chapter on the 'Conjugation of Verbs/ 
No part of Sanskrit Grammar is more difficult and 


perplexing and therefore more calculated, to tire out the 
patience of the young student, than the conjugation of 
Verbs. ' It is, therefore, written with a special attention 
to th3 student's difficulties. The general rules given are 
amply illustrated by example. Almost all the roots 
which are likely to puzzle the student in conjugating 
them in a particular tense or mood have been fully 
conjugated. In the eleventh chapter, all the verbs which 
change their pada when preceded by particular preposi- 
tions are given in an alphabetical order with illustrations 
where necessary. Two more chapters, one on syntax and 
the other on prosody, have also been added. The chapter 
on syntax contains almost everything given in the first 
2G chapters of Prof. Apte's 'Guide to Sanskrit Composi- 
tion,' the same original having been followed by the both. 
The chapter on prosody is based on the Chhanclomanjari 
and the Vrittaratnakara. The book closes with a list of 
verbs (added at the suggestion of my publishers) contain- 
ing almost all the roots in Sanskrit and giving the 3rd 
pers. sing, in the important tenses and moods. 

Thus it will be seen that I have spared no pains to 
make the book as useful and as complete as possible. 
Also such of the technical terms used in original Sanskrit 
Grammars as the student always meets with in Sanskarit 
commentaries, are given in their proper places with their 

In writing this Grammar, I have occasionally used 
Monier Williams's, Dr. Kielhorn's and Whitney's gram- 
mars to ail of whom I make ample acknowledgements. 
My special thanks are due to Dr. Bhandarkar whose two 
books of Sanskrit were my chief guide in writing out the 
chapter on the 'Conjugation of Verbs,' and to the late 
Prof Apte to whose excellent 'Guide to Sanskrit Com- 
position,' I am indebted for some of the illustrations 
given in tha Thirteenth chapter. I have also to thank 
my friend Mr. IJUdhavacharya Ainapure for his occasional 
help and for the pains he took in preparing for this 
Grammar the list of Verbs added at the end and carrying 
it through the press. 

This being th? first attempt of the Author to bring 
into one volume che various departments of Sanskrit 


Grammar as full and as concisely as possible, the Author 
hopes that the public will take an indulgent view of the 
work, and pardon him for any of the inaccuracies,. 
mistakes of typography, &c., that might have crept in 
notwithstanding his best care. It is a sufficient excuse 
for these to say that the whole volume was written and 
carried through the press in less than a year. Before 
concluding I have also to thank Mr. Vinayaka Narayana, 
Proprietor of the firm of Messrs. Gopal Narayen & Co., 
my publishers of this Grammar, for the care with which 
he passed the sheets through the press. 

Lastly I beg to say that I shall be very grateful for 
any corrections and suggestions that may be sent to me by 
my indulgent readers and critics and will try to profit by 
them if the book reaches a second edition. 




I. The Alphabet ... ... ... 1 

II. Rules of Sandhi :- ... ... 12 

1 Svarasandhi ... ... ... 12 

2 Halsandhi ... 22 

3 Visargasandhi ... ... ... 28 

III. Subanta or Declension of nouns, substantive 

and adjective ... ... ... 32 

1 Bases ending in vowels (Section I) ... 34 

2 Bases ending in consonants (Section II)... 54 

3 Irregular bases ... ... ... 65 

4 Words of irregular declension ... 82 

IV. Pronouns and their Declension ... ... 87 

V. Numerals and their Declension ... ... 102 

VI. Degrees of Comparison ... ... HO 

VII. Compounds ... ... ... 113 

1 Dwandwa or copulative compounds ... 115 

2 Tatpurusha or the Determinative com- 

pounds ... ... ... 121 

3 Karmadharaya or the Appositional com- 

pounds ... ... ... 133 

4 Upapada compounds ... 144 

5 Bahuvh! or Attributive compounds ... 147- 

6 Avyayibhava or the Adverbial compound 1 6fr 

7 General rules applicable to all compounds 16& 

8 Other changes in connection with com- 

pounds .., ... ... 171 

VIII. Formation of Feminine Bases ... ... 180 

IX. Secondary Nominal Bases derived by the addi- 
tion of the Taddhita or Secondary affixes. 194 



X. Gender ... ... ... ... 219 

XI. Avyayas or Indeclinables .-, ... 223 

1 Prepositions ... ... ... 224 

2 Adverbs ... ... ... 228 

3 Particles ... 230 

4 Conjunctions ... ... ... 231 

5 Interjections ... ... ... 231 

XII. Conjugation of Verbs ... ... ... 233 

1 Active Voice (Section I) ... ... 235 

(a) Roots with unchangeable Bases (1st, 

4th, 6th and 10th classes) ... ... 24] 

(b) Roots of the 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th 
classes which from their bases irregu- 
larly ... 248 

(c) Roots with changeable bases (2nd, 3rd, 
5th, 7th, 8th and 9th classes) ... 254 

2 General or, 

Non-conjugational tenses and moods ... 295 
The two futures and conditional 

(a) First Future ... ... ... 298 

(b) Second future and conditional ... 300 

(c) Perfect ... ... ... 306 

(1) Irregular bases ... ... 321 

(2) Periphrastic Perfect ... 329 

(d) Aorist ... ... ... 332 

1st Variety ... ... ... 332 

2nd ... ... ... 333 

3rd ... ... ... 340 

6th ... ... ... 344 

7th ... ... ... 354 

4th ... ... ... 347 

5th . 352 


(e) Bencdictivc ... ... ... 356 

Section II ... ... ... 359 

(a) Passive ... ... ... 359 

(b) Non-conjugational tenses and moods ... 364 

1 Perfect ... ... ... 364 

2 Aorist ... ... ... 365 

2 Derivative Verbs (Section III) ... 367 

(a) Gausals ... ... ... 368 

(b) Desideratives ... ... ... 376 

(c) Frequentatives ... ... 3S4 

(d) Nominal Verbs ... ... 392 

XIII. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada ... 399 

XIV. Verbal Derivatives or Primary Nominal 
Bases ... ... ... ... 416 

XV. Syntax : ... ... ... 468 

1 Concord ... ... ... 470 

2 Government ... ... ... 475 

3 Pronouns ... ... ... 508 

4 Participles ... ... ... 510 

5 Tenses and moods ... ... 518 

6 Indeclinables ... ... 532 

APPENDIX I :-Prosody ... ... 1 

1 Samavrittas ... ... ... 3 

2 Vishama Vrittas ... ... 24 

APPENDIX II : ... ... ... 24 

Dhatukosha ..15-61 



Amara. Amarakosh. 
Bhatt. or Bhatti. Bhatti- 


Bh. Bhartrihari. Ni. Sa. 
Nitisataka. Vai. Sa. 
Dev.-Devibhagavata Purana 
Hit. Hitopadesa. 
Kad. Kadambari. 
Katya Katyayana. 
D. Kav Dandin's Kavya- 


Kir. Kiratarjuniya. 
Mai. Malavikagnimitra. 
Mb. or Mah. Bhas. Maha- 

bhashya of Patanjali. 
Mah. Bhar. Mahabharata. 
Meg. Meghaduta. 
Pan. Panini's Sutras. 
Rag. Raghuvamsa of Kali- 

dasa. Ramacharita. 
Sak. Abhijnanasakuntala 

of Kalidasa. 

Sid. Kau. Sidhantakau- 
mudi, Bhattoji Dik- 
shita's commentary on 
Panini's siitras. 
&c. &c. &c. 

Sis. Sisupalavadha. 

Uttar. Utcararamacharita. 

Vop. or Bop. Vopadeva. 

A- or Atm Atmanepada. 

AbL Ablative. 

Ace. Accusative. 

Adj. Adjective. 

Adv. Adverb. 

Avy. Avyayibhava. 

Bah. Bahuvrihi. 

Cau. Causal. 

Cf. Compare. 

Comp. Compound. 

Dat. Dative. 

Den. Denominative. 

Des. Desiderative. 

Freq . Frequantative. 

Indecl. Indeclinable. 

Inst. Instrumental. 

Loc. Locative. 

Nom. Nominative. 

P. or Par. Parasmaipada. 

Pass. Passive. 
Pot. P. -Potential participle. 
P.P.-Past Passive participle. 
Pres.p. Present participle. 

Pron. Pronouns. 

c. &c' &c. 




Chapter I. 


1. Sanskrit, or the refined language, is the language of 
Devas or gods * and the alphabet in which it is written is 
called Devanagari, or that- em ployed in the cities of gods. 

(a) The correct name for the Sanskrt alphabet is Daiva- 
nagari sometimes abbreviated into Ndgari, Perhaps in the 
word Devanagari we have a history of the times when the 
Aryans entered and settled in Northern India. The Aryans 
who were much fairer in colour than the aborigines of India 
are the Devas referred to in the name Devanagari ( from r%g^to 
shine, those of a brilliant complexion ); and Nagari means the 
Aryan settlements within the precincts oi which the sacred 
language was spoken. 

(6) The Sanskrit language is generally written in different 
parts of the country, in that alphabet which is used for the 
Vernacular ( e. g. Bengali, Marathi &c. ). That character, how- 
ever, in which the earliest monuments are written ( such as the 
inscriptions containing the edicts of Asoka ) and which is 
employed throughout Upper India is generally considered to 
be the real Devanagari. 

* Wf f 'TIT ?Cr ^TCFifUcqrai qf fffi: I Dandin, 


^ 2. The Devanagari alphabet consists ot forty -two letters 
or varnas, nine vowels or svaras, and thirty-three consonants 
or vyanjanag.* 

(a) These express nearly every gradation of sound, and 
every letter stands for & particular and invariable sound. 

Note : This explains why there are no names, as in Greek - 
for the different letters oi the alphabet. 

* Thus given by Pamni : 
Vowels: gr^or | =s<^ i <raft^ 1 ^fr^ | 
Consonants : U^f? I 5or \ 5W4944 I 

The alphabet, it will be seen, is divided into 14 sections by 
Panini, which ara called SivasutraQi, or the sutras revealed by 
Siva. Each section ends with an indicatory letter called ' ^ ' 
which is not to be counted among the letter^ of the alphabet. 
These " Its serve an important; purpose in Sanskrit grammar 
as they enable the grammarians to express several letters, or 
groups of letters, in a very convenient and condensed form. 
For any letter, with the following fc^ added to it, is not only 
expressive of itself but of all letters that intervene between it 
and this ^ 5 e. g. aqqr means sr, ? , 7, f^ means f , 3-, s^, ^ &c. 
Similarly 373^ means technically the whole alphabet, sr^ any 
vowel, and fw any consonant; qtn; semivowel, fsr a soft con- 
sonant, *T a hard consonant, 3^ a soft unaspirate, 55^ a soft 
aspirate &o. Each of these significant tetins is technically 
caUed a < n?qr^R'. 

Since ehort vowels include the long and the protracted vowels 
( See 3. a. ) another ^ ( <r' is generally employed to mark a 

s .' 


3. The nine primary vowels consist of five simple vowels 
viz. 3r, f, 7 t ^ and (g, and four diphthongs viz. <*> tir, 
aft and aft. 

(a) A vowel may be zg*? or short. ?rro or long, 6 u TO- or 
protracted ( also called prolated by some ) according , <> the 
time required to prononnoe it. * The vowels are thus div "' 

(1) Short vowels 3T a, f \, ^ u, ^ r, 55, 1 ; 

(2) Long vowels 3cr &, H 3T *> ^ ? e, ^ ai, aft o, aft 
an; and. 

(3) Protracted vowels aft ^ 3, | ^ f 3, 37 3, * =* ^ r 3 
c5 ^ 1 3, if ^ e 3, ^ ^ ai 3, ^r ^ o 3, and aft ^ an 3. 

JV. 5. As the Plata or protracted vowels are not commonly 
to be met with in classical Sanskrit, the vowels are usually 
given as thirteen, represented by the thirteen signs given above 
under (1) and (2). 

(b) Eaoh of these vowels may be again of two kinds, arg . 
^lf%<fc or nasalised, and 3HHI1%^ or without a nasal sound.! 

(e) Vowels are also further discriminated into 3<flrt or 
acute, <H^M or grave, and fCTTO or circumflex, g^nr is 

particular vowel : e. g. 3f means 3T, HT &d 3TT v, but 37^ means 
3f ( of six kinds ) only; so f^ means f and nothing ebe. 

* 3FR&\Z$ ^$yr: I Pan. I. 2. 27. The crowing of the cock 
in the morning represents in its three stages these three kinds 
of vowels. The time- required to pronounce a short vowel is 
called a matra. A long vowel hat two inatr^s and a Plut* 
wowel three. 

t OTr^*^*TT%qr. Pan. I. 1. 8. 



that which proceeds from the upper part of the vocal organs, 
3ta<"M that which proceeds from their lower part, while **ftft 
arises out of a mixture of these two.* But these are ignored 
'in classical Sanskrit. They are marked only in Vedic works: 
the Udattn is left unmarked; the Anudatta is marked with a 
horizontal line underneath; and Svarita has a perpendicular 
stroke above it. e. g. <& \ *ffa'3T:, &c. Bg. V. 61. 2 

&c. Bg. X. 78. 4. 

|r: &a* Bg. X. 145. 4. 

Thus there are eighteen different modifications of each of 
the vowels gr, f , 3-, SR- , and twelve of ^, <r, q;, aft and sft. for 
there is no long 1 and the last four have not their correspond- 
ing short vowels. 

4. The consonants are divided into spars' a or mutes 
C those involving a complete closure or contact and not an ap- 
proximate one of the organs of pronunciation ), Antastha ( or 
intermediate . . the Semivowels, ) and ushman or sibilants. 

These are represented by thirty-three syllabic signs arranged 
as below : 

f (1) ?F^f of ^e group $ ^ k,^;kh, IT g, g 


9, ^ ^h 

or the group 

(3) ^* r th gr Up *-* *' ^ ^ b ' ^ ^ ^ ^ h ^ 

- V' 

(4) ?W^ or the group g ^ t, u th, ^ d, vr 

( 5 ) wJ or the group 3 q^ p, qjr pb, ^ b, JT 

bh, ^ m. 

: I 

: I 

: I Pan. 1. 2. 29, 31. 

These are also called the five classes designated as 
kavarga, Tavarga, Tavarga ^ and Pavarga respectively. 
(b) Semivowels - y, ^ r, 5^ 1, v. 
(e) Sibilants IT s if sh, ^ a. 
(d) Sonant Aspirate j[ h. 
Besides these we have two more characters occurring in the 
v eda, viz. 55- and 553- (often substituted for i" and *; as fgfr for 
|%> Jfef> for jftf* &c.). In Marathi 5? is generally substi- 
tuted for the final & of Sanskrit words. 

5. The first two letters of the five classes and the sibi- 
lants are called surds or hard Consonants. The rest are called 
sonants or soft consonants. 

6. In addition to the characters given above there are 
in Sanskrit two nasal sounds : the one called Anvsvara, is 
denoted by ' i. . a dot placed above the letter after which it 
is to be pronounced, e. g. q; the other, called Anunasika is 
denoted by * t. e. a dot within a semi-circle placed above the 
letter after which it is to be pronounced e. g. *J. 

(a) And a sort of hard breathing is known as Visarga (gene- 
rally called Visarjaniya by Sanskrit grammarians). It if 
denoted by the sign : '. e. two vertical dots placed after tne 
letter after which it is to be pronounced. In pronunciation it 
is a harder aspirate than . The Visarga is not an original 
-character but only a substitute for a final ^ s or ^ r. 

(b) Jihvdmuliya ( fSrgrqigfrr ) and Upadhm&niya ( 
are terms given to a sort of Semi-Visarga, when pronounced 
before ^ o^, and 7 <*r respectively. It is written symbolically 



as ^. These may be regarded as the spirants of Kavarga and 
Pavarta respectively. 

7. Some consonants are pronounced with a slight as- 
piration and are designated as Alpa-praila, while others which, 
are pronounced with a stronger aspiration are call- d Maha* 
prana. The first and third letters of each class, the nasals 
and the semi-vowels belong to the first class; the rest belong 
to the second class. For the sake of convenience the first and 
tflird letters of each class are sometimes called "nnaspirates." 

8. In the following table is given a complete classifica- 
tion of these letters according to the organs with which they 
are pronounced. 

(a) The organs of pronunciation are the five pares situated 
in the mouth, viz., the throat, the palate, the roof or upper 
part of the palate, the teeth and the lips.. 

Note. In the following table the nether stroke (see a 10 
below) is omitted. It should be supposed to be present. 

The Five Classes. 








St. Lg. 







* f though not a semivowel is put here as it is a guttural. 


This can be more easily remembered from its Sanskrit form 
which is as follows : 

The linguals are called cerebrals in som^ European Gram- 
mars. q- and < are both guttural and palatal; aft and aft are 
guttural and labial; % is dental and labial. The nose is the 
organ of pronunciation of the Anuavara, while the root of 
the tongue is that of the Jihv&maliya. 

0. Those letters are called ^oj or homogeneous whose 
place of pronunciation in the mouth and the effort required to 
pronounce them is the same or equal.* Letters which are not 
^TToi or similar are called *^OT or heterogeneous. 

10. A svara or rowel is that which can be pronounced 
without the help of any other letter; a vyanjana or consonant 
is that which is pronounced with the help of a vowel. The 
consonants, therefore, are written with a slanting nether stroke 
to denote their imperfect character. 

(a) Hence the consonants are given, in the system of F&nini, 
frith an sr added to them for the sake of pronunciation. 

(b) As already remarked, there are no separate names for 
* 4*4 1*4 WH s*rorn i Fan. L 1. 9. 


the letters of the Sanskrt alphabet, except the two mentioned 
before, viz. Anusvara and Visarga, and Kefa which is the 
Dame sometimes given to ^. The word gnT is therefore used 
ae an affix to denote a particular letter; e. g. ar^Tt the letter 
3T ', 3RKTC the letter < ^ >, &c. 

11. A vowel by itself or a consonant, simple or conjunct, 
with a vowel added to it, is called an Akthara or a syllable. 

12. The form* which the vowel signs assume when added 
to consonants and the changes which some letters undergo 
when compounded are given below, under (a) and (b). 

(a) 3? added to a consonant is denoted by the rein ova I of 
the nether stroke; as 3? +37=91 ka. The remaining vowela 
when compounded with a consonant become r, p , *r> ^ > ^> c > ft t> 
%%>,1, respectively; as ^+an=^fea,^+f t =foki; similar- 
ku., < k, fr kr, kr', kl. % ke, |f kai, ^ ko, 

Exception : ^ when following upon ^ remains unchanged, 

(b) In compounding consonants they should be taken in the 
order in which they are pronounced; the last consonant takes 
a vowel, the preceding ones generally losing their nether 
and perpendicular strokes when combined e. g. t*na ought to 
be written as rfqr *?na as <mr, &c. Some letters, however, 
change their form slightly and others entirely, wnen com- 
pounded with other consonants; e. g. ^r Ipa; 9 tra$ ^ Sga; IT 
gra, &c.; fr immediately preceding another conscnant ( or the 
vowel ^r ) is denoted by the sign - written above the xollow- 
ing consonant as ^ rka. It is then neceesarily called a 

5 12 ] THE ALPHABET. 9 

( c ) In the conjuncts ^ ( ^ -f ^ ) ksh, and JET ( ^+ >l, ) jn*> 
the component elements are scarcely discernible. 

( d ) A few consonants are written in two ways; e. <j. T3(, ^f 
tra; =*r, ?fi, kra; ?q, qgr, stha; ^, <&t, kta; ?sr, ^, stra. 

( ) The following are the principal conjunct consonants :- 

$ k-ka, ^or k-kiia, ^fzr k-kya, ^?r k-kha, ^> k-ta, ^T k-tha. 
<f?^ k-tya, ^?r or ^ k-tra, ^^ k-t-va, sp^r k-th-na, & k-na, 
^T k-n-ya, *T k-ma, ^ir k-ya, ?F or gj k-ra, ^ k-la, ^ k-va, 
$y k-sha, ^r k-sh-na, ^IT k-sh-ma, $q k-sh-ya, ^ k-sh-va. 

<PT kh-na, ?s^ kh-ya, ?jf kh-ra. 

n| g-dha, ?r g-na, rq g-ya, q g-'a, ^^ g-'-ya, W g-la, T^ gya, 
fT gh-na, *n?JT gn-n-ya, ET gh-ma, ^ gh-ya, 57 gh-ra, z* gh-va. 

5: il-ka, -^ Il-k-ta, ? n-k-sha, ? n-k-sh-va, -g Q-kha, ? 
^T ^r i&\ 

D-kh-ya, jp D-ga, ^ n-gha, ^ D- gh-ya, g n-gh-ra, ^ D-ha, 5: 
D-ma, ^PQ D-ya. 

5-9h-ra, ^-^h-va, sr -na, r ?-ma, 

^T H7 5fT j-jha, 33- j-na, ^ j-n-ya, ^*T j-ma, 
^ j-va. 

^ n-$a, 3^ n-^ha, ^ n-ja. 

^ t-ka, ? t-ta, sr t-va, <RT th-ya, 7 th-ra, ^p d-ga, | d-gha, | 
d-ma, VET d-ya, ^r dn-ya; ^ dh-ra. 

a% n-ta, oy n-tha, <rg- n-da, ay n-dha, oof n-na, WIT n-ma, c^ 
p-ya, o^ n-va. 

?^T t-ka, ^SF t-k-ra, ^ *-*, W t-t-ya, ^r t-t-ra, TT t-t-v, 
nr t-tha, ^r t-na, ^7^ t-n-ya, ^ t-pa, ^ t-ma, r*^ t-in-ya, ?q 


t-ya, ^ or -ET t-ia, wr or &? t-r-yu, ^ t-v, 
cS^f t-8-n-ya, *w t-9-ya. 

vr th-na, v* th-ya, v% th-va. 

IT d-ga, 3- d-gha, 5- d-da, si d-ya, ^ d-dha, ;gif d-dh-ya r 
:g- d-dh-va, 3^ d-na, % d-ba, % d-bra, y d-bha, ^ij d-bh-ya, 
^ d-ma, 5 d-ra, gj d-i-ya, y d-va, ^?r d-v-ya, % d-v-ra. 

T dh-na, VRT ^b-n-ya, v*r dh-ma, UQT dh-ya, ^ dh-ra, v^ 
dh-rya, v^ dh-va. 

79 n-ta, 5r n-t-ya, ^ n-t-ra, ?f n-da, ^ n-d-ra, ^ u-dba, 
n-dh-ya, +% n-dh-ra, n n-na, ?g n-p-ia, wi n-ma, wr n-ya- 
n-ra, ^ -sa. 

ff p-ta, ?c^ t-p-ya, sr p-na, cq p-pa, qfy p-ma, c^ p-ya, 5? p-ra ? 
p-la, c^ p-va, c^ p-sa, c^ p-s-va. 

**T b-ja 7 ^ b da, *q b-dha, ^ b-na, ? b-ba, H b-bha, +q b-ya 

T bh-na, ^ bh-y a, ^ bh- ra, ^ bh-va. 

^T m-na, *q- m-pa, zsr m-p-ra ; 9^ m-ba, x>y m-bba, 77 m-ya, 5j- 
n-ra, 3. m-la, *^ m-va 

f y-ya, ix y-'a, c^ y-va. 

gf r-ka, ^ r-kha, ^ r-ga, &o.; $ r-k-sha, ?S r-g-ya, ^,. 
r-gh-ya, f4 r-t-ya, &c.; ^r r-k-sh-ya, ^ r-tt-ya, ^ r-t-s-ya^ 
^ r-d-dh-a. 

93F 1-ka, ?<r 1-pa, Fif 1-ma, c*r 1-ya, ^ 1-la, 5^r 1-. 

T v-na, RT v-ya, JT -v-ra, s^ v-va. 

V s$a, ^ s-^ya. ?r s-na, -^ s-ya, M s-ra, *ir s-r-ya, JT iia ; 
^ s-va, ^| sv-ya, ^j s-sa. 

^ ah-la, g^r sh-tya, ^ sh-t-ra, gq sh-t.r-ya, j eh-t-va. 
g" sh-th-ra, g^ sh th-ya, cof sh-na, co^ ah-n-ya, q* sh-p, 
^ sh-p-ra, Of sh-ma, ^ eh-ya, ^ sb-va. 

13-15 ] 




s-kh-e, w s-ta, &r s-t-ya, 



s-t-va, w s-tha, f* s-na, **r s-n-ya, *r s-pa, ^ s-pha, w s-ma,. 

*r s-ya, IT -*a, w -*a, w -. 

}gr h-ns, h-na, gr ^-ma, ^y r-ha, f h-ra, |{ h-la, g h-va. 

Sometimes five consonants are found in conjunction : e. g. 
^5$ r-t-s-n-ya, ae in frWrj. 

IS. AB sandhi is of primary importance in Sanskrtr 
rirama or pauae c*n be indicated only at the end of a sentence. 
The signs of punctuation, therefore, are only two, \ and il 
The former is need to mark the close of a sentence or the firut 
half of a s'loka or poetical stanza; the latter is employed to 
denote the close of a s'loka. 

(a) The sign called Avagraha ( and which represents half 
3T Ardh&kara ) is generally employed to mark the elision of 
short gf after tr or *ffr $ e. g. %^ (%-f grft )> ^Toyt^f^l ( 

The double mark^s is sometimes nsed to indicate the 
elision of 3ff after initial long grr ; fT^T-*-3!T^=?nn66^. 

(ft) The mark is sometimes nsed to show that something. 
is omitted, and which is to be understood from the context ; 
e. g. afo may stand for aqjsr, osrntf *or ^^^rrsn^'r, &c. 

14. Short vowels when followed by a coninnnt c.onsnn*** 
are said to be prosodially long 

15. The vowels 3?, q:, 3TT and the syllables 3R[ aad 3^ 
are called Gana; the vowels 3fT, ^-, afr and the syllables 3fnr and 
^IT^are called Vrddhi*. The Gana and Vrddhi vowels and 
syllables thai are substituted for the simple vowels will appear 
from the following table : 

Simple V. 





, 1, 2} I, 51, 


16. The three semivowels zr, JT and ^ are sometimes 
nasalised and then they are written with the anunatika sign 
over them, as |r, PT, $. 

17. The numerical figures in Sanskrt are : 

^ ^, \> V, ^ \, , *, S, o. 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. 
These are combined to express larger figures precisely in the 
same way as in English; ^x 125, HV 540, &c. 

Chapter II. 


18. By Sandhi ( from 3^ together, and \n to join ) is 
meant the coalescence of two letters coming in immediate 
contact with each other.* 

(a) Samhitaf or sandhi is necessary in the case of the in- 
ternal structure of a pada t prepositions and roots joined to- 
gether and a compound word ( *rar*T ), while in that of a 
sentence '. 0. in the case of the finals and initials of the different 
words in a sentence, it depends on the will of the writer. 


19. If a simple vowel, abort or long, be followed by a 

I P&n. 1. 4. 109. Samhita is the extreme 
contiguity of letters. 

t *jffi*q3 ifonsRPrr ^najroiffi: i RRI *rew ^ 5 *n i%w- 
U^KT. n Sid. Kau. This couplet gives the rule for the observa- 
tion of Sandhi. 


similar vowel, short or long, the substitute for them both is 
the similar long vowel e.g. *^r+3riT:=%rqrfT-i 3T5T + STRfitT; 
= arerefr<r> STT+ 3T*T**=tn[T**ff: T%rr + 3TTg^: = foir3T: eager 
to gain knowledge; *!?T + ?3r = faT* 3UT 4- ?^ = 3?<T?r?n 

:=^3?: the strength of the atmy; 3?$ 

:^pr;r:; ^ 4- cjaRr^ = 5Tf|^T? > : the Ikara pronounced 
by the sacrificer (since there is no long <% long 3 is substituted 
for both). 

(a) If ^f or ^ be followed by a short *% or c, short =5- or <% 
is optionally substituted for both; f )<3 + 3CTr-=it3^lT:> a - n( ^ 
also fir^^^r^: ( videj 23. sec. b m ); so three forms altogether 
*raW.-, ftgr^K: and 

20- When 3^ or 3TT is followed by f , 7? 3t 5> short or 
long, the JJOT letter corresponding to the latter takes the place 
of both} e. g. %q + 555: = 3^$: Vishnu; qTR-f-i !> ^C:=^R 5 ^^ the 
great lord; fm + ?*grr = *Hx^jT the wish of Rama; 
=T^f^r^ according to wish or desire; fj^-j- ^q^jr: = 
friendly instruction; ^or + 3j^: = f>cof[^: Krshoa'a thigh; 
3^=11^5**, ?fT--3^: = Wfi^:, ff OT + *lf%: = ^saTT%: Kr- 
shua's prosperity; wp -f ^ft: = ITfT'f : a great sage; ?T^-4-^^TT: 
=<TT?^rf The /Aora pronounced by you. 

(a) If a consonant be followed by homogeneous consonants , 
except the nasals, the semivowels, and f the first of them is 

: I Pan. VI. 1. 101. 

t *i3 S*rof w. m I ^ ^of ?s ?rr I Vdrttikas on the above. 
J 3TT|Ti: I Pan. VI. 1. 86. 


optionally dropped;* 3>wr-t-3Ef|[: =ffoif%: by the general 
rule; then frwr^+s^ + ar + frrr^jwirftj: by tbia rule, the ^ being 
-dropped; and also a third form 5ur^r%: ( vide 22, sec. d. 
below ). 

(b) A consonant of the first five classes except ^coming 
after a semivowel is optionally doubled; so aJffrETf: also be- 
comes y$K:, (TC&CT?: and ff^&Kv 4 forms altogether. 


Exceptions : Vrddhi substitute takes place in the follow- 
ing cases f 

(a) When a word ending in 37 is followed by ;$?, and sr by 
3T* 3S and grf; 9. ra + 3rS: = S*te:> chief guess (or this 
may be the ace. pi. of srgTTTiT a young bull trained to the yoKe); 
sr+3T?~J?fl?: principal reasoning. Similarly sfor: full grown; 
snr%:; but nfe^n^ ( & 3 3^?r^ is not mentioned in the Sutra ). 

(&) 3?^-fgrf^fr=3^f)rf5afr a complete army .J (The change 
of ^[ to or^ will be explained further on ). 

(c) When ^ is followed by f ^ and %r& both derived from 
ik to 8J e - 9 **+%*'=&* '> one acting wilfully, self willed. 

5 Pan. VIII. 4. 65. 

I Pan. VI. 1. 89. The first part of the sfitra (mz. 
) forms a counter-exception to 21. a ( which see ); 

r, > Virtikas on the above Sutra. 

t Properly an army consisting of El 870 chariots, as many 
elephants, 65610 horse and 109350 foot. 

3 1 JT^mTR Tsfrsrs^rft ^fn^ ^i^^n: u <T2^n%: ^?^T!% 

?5tfTKI!Sf ^ !i^Il^l?f ^T'n II Maha-Bhar. 
Ad. P. II. 2S-26. 

20-21 ] RULES OF SANDHI. 15 

(d) When 3? is followed by 3^3: and there is an mat. Tat.; 
* gW+*K<1=SWX'' blessed with Lipping ( 5*T ^tcf : > bnt 
rtmrS: very adorable ( ^srssrefi 3t*%ZT ). 

() When the word ^oi comes after sr, qroa?, q&Hfcj, T*R" 
and =ffUT; sr+qt<n=7ro^ , principal debts, so 3fH<UiUI debt for a 
calf; %mium ( a debt contracted to liquidate a previous debt ) 
^nof: (Name of a country; lit. the country with ten fortresses)^ 
also ^5iWf ST^T (^- ^^ river into which ten other rivers flow). 

(/) When* a preposition ending in 31 is followed by a 
root having an initial $; as S<THlt^3ri$=T<n^?n VTgfrtr, but 
if the root be a denominative, the Vriddhi is optional; 

acts like a bull: 

as the 5^ is long, also sr-< 

very much wishes for < Ikara; for ^r is grammatically 
considered to be similar to 3F 

21. When 3^ or 3TT is followed by ^ or ^ and aft or 3*r 
'^ and aft are respectively substituted for bothf; 
^r^; ^+qfW=%% 1 ^5^ the majesty of god; 
she alone; KT^-}-3TtW= *l*ltaviH medicine against Birth *nd 
re-birth; f^rr+a^cgept=f^ftfiicHJif longing for knowledge. 

Exceptions : 

(a) { If a preposition ending in 3^ be followed by a root 
beginuiDg with qr or aft, q" or aft is substituted; ST-Hf3^=?t3W 
quakes very much; ^+3^1$=^^ bums something near; 
but if the root be a denominative, vrddhi is optional* 

IIjfl I Pan. VI. 1. 91. ?rr SF^J?^: I Pan. VI. 1. 92. 
t tf% Pao. VI. 1. 88. t ^ R??R Pan- VI. 1- 94. 


Counter-exception: If a form of the root f to go, or q^ to 
grow, with an initial rj, comes after aj, and <rq- or q^g derived 
from fq^ cf the 4th, 6th or 9th conj., after sr, vridhi takes 
place; *q + <rTFT = *$rS; 3^ + <WT=3^I?iri ( bat ^-f f*: 
3r%ff know; from 3T^ + qY5 which is equal to 3^ -I- 3TT + ?ff , 
not ar^f?; ^r *srn* sr-t-ff%vy^=^f^r^)i xr-fr^:r=^ ; sending or 
directing: sr + trwT.-crqrsq-: a servant. Bat sr?:, sfaf: (from 

(b) *When 3j is followed By erg in an indt finite sense, IT is 

substitnted for both : ^-fxr9r= 1^5" ^r^f^T where will yon dine 
to-day ? ( The place beiug not definitely known); but cftcT 
( why ; I snail dine at your house ). 

(c) f ST followed by aTp^ and 3^ ( P^P- ) is dropped e. g. 

(d) tTne vrddhi is optional when the ending 3T of a word 
is followed by sfrg a cat, or 3frer the lower lip, in a compound 

(0) The final vowel or the final consonant with the pre- 
ceding vowel ie dropped in the case of the following words 
when followed by certain words in a compound f ; 37^ the 
country of the Sakas + ?^vj a well = 5r^r^:, ^4 name of a 
country + 3^:=^^^: ; *j>,& + 3?HT=^2T one who move* from one 
mansion to another, a woman of bad character; 

Vartik. f 3Tta#T* *>*" VI. 1. 95. 
^RT% m \* 513^^1135 <N^J ^^T^. Vart. 
f And also in the case of an onomatopaeic wording in 3;^ 
followed by %ft e. g. qj^+fi^srTi?^; but not in the case of 
a monosyllabic word n[ + gi<T = mfKT; an ^ when the word is 
repeated, only the <^ is optionally dropped, as 

21-22 ] RULE* OP SANDHI. 17 

<*rf bad character; jfm?-l-3Ts*':=*fln-d: ( the white line left by 
the parting of the hair on each aide of the head ); but HT*n*tT. 
when the meaning of the word is 'The last line or limit of a 
boundary.' *T^+t^=ERr i TT wish; so rirtfSMIl the pole of 
a plough; 5#T*T; W^ + 3nRl l &:=cRT53rT%*- name of the cele- 
brated author of the Mahabhasya ( a vast commentary on the 
utras of Panini ); lit. fit to be adored wfth joined hands; or 
according to tradition 'who fell down from the bands of a 
certain sage as he was offering water to the enn at the time of 
Sandhya adoration.' CTT+STl': =*rRlp: an antelope with a 
spotted skin or a kind of bird; but ^RT^f.' one with a beautiful 
skin. This is an Akrtiga^a i. . worcU of similar formation 
and requiring grammatical explanation but not actually found 
in the gaUa may be classed under it? . g. jrr -f- sjag-: 
( derived from flWT ? ) lit- b rn * a dead egg, the sun. 

22. When f , y, 35 sinfr-^r, short or long, are followed by 
a dissimilar vowel, ^r, ^, 3% aad;?^ are respectively substituted 
for them*; e. g. f^ + 3TT f = ??^7f ; g^T-fyn^T:= 
adored by the wise. R^-f 3?fr:=RW?- ^e enemy of 
Vishnu, qT3+3for-=?TO3T: portion of the creator; 
figure liko thatt)f ^ &c. 

06, Several of the above words may have more han one 
form when combined; e. g, iJ^-f-T r TW ;= 5^ ! +TnTBT.' by the 
general rule: 

N. B. The following rule* and the two (a), (6) given 
under 20, though they properly from the subject of the next 
section, are given here to avoid confusion. Ordinary students 
may pan over these except eec. (i) of the present art 

VI. 1. TI. 

H. 8. O. 2 


(a) A consonant except 5, preceded by a vowel, is optionally 
doubled, if no vowel follows*; ^5+^qTW-=S*prrer: and 

(b) When a consonant, exeept a nasal or a semivowel, is 
followed by a soft unaspirate or aspirate ( 3rd or 4th letter of 
a class ) it i changed to. the soft unaspirate ( 3rd letter ) of its 
elassf ; 

(<) Semivowels, when preceded by a lettei of the first five 
classes except --jrara optionally doubled-, thms 

: and ^raM- s-qm^^* -* s^m*: 
^TTW- I Thus there are four forms ultimately, 

Similarly ^4- 3rR: =IT^R:. W^rR:, Wf^ft:, and 
vrT^+^-^^En^TJandvrr^f^: In f5+3TT^: of course there 
is no possibility of any other form. 

(d) A consonant except ^, coming after ^ or s preceded by a 
vowel is optionally doubledj;*. g. ?f? + 3Tg^ > :=^5; + g ff 3 H ^ ;== 
: by the general rule-, and optionally 53334313*17: = 
: ( Hari's experience ) by this rule; so 
and ?r 

23. fa) f , s, ^t or cj, short or long, at the end of a word 
followed by a dissimilar vowel except in a compound, are optio- 
nally not combined, and when so they are shortened if 
long x e. 0/xT5N-3*3r = 5 grijnr;r, Vishnu here, and ^rfip 3^; but 
r: a horse iu a well, tft^r + tft (a 

VIII. 4. 47. 

t war TO IT | Pan. 4. 53. qojttft % ^r^ Vlft. 
t 3T% ^^% I P4n. VIII. 4. 46 

25-24 | RULES OF SANDHI. 19 

(&) 3T ?> 3" and eg, short or long, at the end of a word 
followed by a short ^ , are also optionally not combined, and 
when not combined are shortened if long*; e. g. aTRrr 4- 3tfo'' = 
TSTPT A Brahmana saint, and flTgr^tRr, ^ffnfflTrC o the seven 
sages, and TOftt'fluilH ( a eomp. expression ). 

24. 7, 3rr, <t an ^ <?r, when followed by a vowel, are changed 
to SIT, 3TST, 3Trsr, and 3Tr?^espectivelyt; e . g , ^ + if=^ for 
for Vi8hoa}^--3^: = 5frir^: A leader; 
: =qr^: the purifier t. . fire. 

(a) 7 or ^ at the end of a word and preceded by 37 or grr is 
optionally dropped when followed by a vowel or a soft conso 

rfT q%; fw*nt + S=ft*orfir* or 
OT: or fnrr ^a: intent on 

getting money ; r-f^?^:=^nj|r^: or ayn Tt^: longing to 
tee the preceptor. 

Note Two vowels brought together by the disappearance of 
an intervening consonant or visarga do not coalesce. 

(b) aft and aft, when followed by a termination beginning 
with tr, become 3?? and 3^ respectively {; e. g. if)>+ V=17^ 
produced from a cow as milk, ghes &c. ;ft -I- ^"rr^rsq^ accessible 
by a boat, navigable. 

N. E. This rale holds good, in the case of roots, only whan 
the afr or 3?r is brought in by virtue of a termination; x 0. 

fit to be lopped off. 3Wa5 + 4 
which ought necessarily to be cat off, 

(c)The 3ft ot the word if) 1 is also changed to 37^ when followed 

VII. 1. 1J7, 

t <RIOTTTO: Pan. VI 1. 78. ft : *xvs$w \ Pan. VIII 3.19 
J m^r ft Jif'fr i x nj?tw8W^r^ i P*9. VI. 1. 79. 80. 


by the word $fft ( in the Veda and ) in ordinary language when 
it means a particular measure of length*;*- 9- Tagli: four miles. 

(d) The q- of the roota f$r and i$r ia changed to ^ when fol- 
lowed by the q* of the potential participle indicating cap ability f 
c. 9- f$r+*T=$T+*r=8TW what can be reduced; so^w what can 
be conquered; but ^5 ^g tftnf $nf ( what is fit to be removed 
but may not be so ) trpT, 5T*T ( what ought to be curbed but 
which it may not be always possible to curb as ) 

25. When q- or aft at the end of a word is followed by 37 
the latter merges into the former and the sign 5 is sometimes 
written in its place; . g. f^+3pr=ffc&Y protect, Oh Hari; 

(a) JIf the word iff, ending in 9ft? be followed by 37, the 3? 
is Optionally retained, and if by a vowel, sw is optionally 
substituted for 3?T; It+3nr^=ThW[> *fhwn8C and *nmn* a 
multitude of cows or chief among cows; but if it be followed by 
and ar$r it recessarily changes its aft to sra; ift+f^^ 
an excellent bell; TOTtgr: & lattice-window, similarly. 

26. No sandhi is possible in the case of x 
1 What are called the Pragrnya exceptions; vis. 

(a) When a dual from (whether of a noun, pronoun or verb) 
in f , 37, or o;^-; e. g. ffV qftj f%^ frfh nf ^^5 <T^ IiV- 

I V^rtikai. 
t ^^rjftqt smft | PdQ, VI. 1. 81. 

N *& qfRfWt i Pa?. VI. 1. 109. { tfi ftmwr fr. i 
PaD. VI. 1. 122-24. 
PaD. VI. 1. 125. 


(fc) When f or 37 follows the ^ of the pronoun sf^* . 9? 
anft f 5TT: these lords- 3^ 3tran% the two sit down. 

Ob. The < of the Vedic forms gufir and 5** also doefl not 
blend with a following vowel ( ^t I Pan- 1. * 13. ); . 0. 3T^ 
r &e. Rg. IV. 49. 4. Similarly a Vaidic word hav- 

ing the sense of the loc. ( but not ending in the termination of 
the loc. ) remains unaffected by a following vowel; ^ffrift *Tftt 
ari^fSre: &c. Bg. X. 12. 3. where ifKV stands for ifNfa the 
loo. term, being dropped by g^fg^F Pan; VII. 1. 30. 

() Particles consisting of a single vowel, except sn mean- 
ing * a little, or a limit ' exclusive or inclusive or used as 
a preposition, when followed by a vowel, e. g. f f?jf Oh India, 
T TO5T, 3ff <rf S *F*% ah, you think BO ; but 

( a little warm ) &c. 

(d) When an indeclinable ends in 3?t} 0. g. 
'final aft of a noun the vocative case optionally combines 
wlien followed by f|n $ fWfr ff5r=f^orftm, an 

N. B. All these vowete which do not blend with others, 
and sometimes the words in which they occur are technically 
called sp5f 

II. and pluta vowels; . g. irjf ^cor ^ 3I5T >TtIfT Coma 
Krshna ; here is the cow gMing. 

A vowl becomes pluta under the following uitpumstances:-| 

( 1 ) The last vowei of a sentence uttered in reply to a 
salutation from a male person othor than a 8 x udra when the 

. 1. 11. 12. 

I tf5gt 5Tl^^R^?Tra^i^ I Pan. I. 14-H 
T: I HHrfw^8& P^&D. VIII. 2. 82-88. 
^r^i Vartikas on the 4atter 
tra. { ^ l%fR^tt^l I P^ VIII. 2 84-86. 


name or tfee" family is actually mentioned* e. g. 

\ live long, O Devadatta, which is said in reply to 
** 3Tft*T3[*r fS^fJ " I, Devadatta, bow to you; but the last 
* in *rt 3ff5RCr *& *nft" or in 3TT5r^T% is not pluta, for 
in the 1st we have the name of a female and in the 2nd no 
name at all. 

But if the sentence end in the word tff : or in the name of 
a Kshatriya or Vaishya the -last vowel becomes optionally 
pluta e. y. au^m 3 * ifo W or * ^ WSWWfrWlhc or 9* ^ ^ 

srrs^f^r^ft^sr^n^cr or ^ ^ i 

(2) The final vowel of a sentence addressed from a distance 
to a person; and that of the particles % and % used in such a 
sentence; e. g. fn* (3*^*9* , % *TR; WT; t \ 

27 The particle g-, preceded by a letter of the fiwt five 
classes except 3^ and followed by any vowel, is optionally 
changed to a;*; f%g &$ i%^rf^[ and f^ ^ (by 26 c. ). 



28 Wfien ^ or a consonant of the dental class comes in 
contact with: 

(a) t$r or a consonant of the palatal class, the correspond- 
ing letter of the ktter class is substituted for the former, and 
5T for CT 

Rama colkcts: ^tH-f%9[=^n%^ Reality and knowledge; 
3ro"= : = WlffoSra Be yon victorious, Oh Krshna. 

Exception :-(!) '"Dentals coming aftercare not changed into 
the corresponding palatals; e. g. f%%r: that which spreads 

Pan. vill. 3-38. 

I Pan. VIII. 4, 49 1 44, 41: 

28-31 ] BTTLES OF SANDHI. 23 

(b) w or a consonant of the lingual class, 3 is substituted for 
^ and the corresponding letter of the latter class for the 
former; nw+TO^Tm^TO: R&nia who is sixth. 

Rama goesj 

A commentary jon that; 

OhKrshna, thou 

one who pounds. 

Exception *(1) If a letter of the lingual class coming at tie 
end of a word be followed by ^ or a letter of the dental class, 
the ^ as well as the dentals except the ST of srp^, JTf frT and 5f*rfr 
remain unaffected; ^7 + ^^:=^!^: six good men } ( ees 
eleo 30. ); ^-f ff:=^?ff these lixj but | ( since the 5^ of f^is 
not at the end of a word ) he praises. So qporeffl Ninety-six, 
WGririf: six towns; but ^f^+ffST^flffei*^ abundance of 
ghee; as the exception excludes ?r. 

29. If a letter of the group 3^ be followed by qr^it does not 
substitute its corresponding ^gual[; ^+^s-: = *i?qe > : sixth 
good man. 

30. If a consonant; except ^ or *r, coming at the end of a 
word ; be followed by a nasal, the ncsal of its class is optionally 
substituted for it}; <r^+s^:=<r^gro7: acd 
(sec 22 sec. ft.) this Murari; 
: six months. 

N. B. If the nasal belong to a termination the change is 
necessary; ?f?m^ that alone; f%rRraf mere knowledge. *nF + 
Unrrr^iiFHq- I The word gj$ ^rq- ( gee Rag. IV. 22 ) is 
irregularly formed. 

31. A letter of the dental class, followed by ^ is changed 

* * T^pffifR^!^ I P&n. VIII. 4. 42. 

tt:(^. Paja. VIII. -4. 43. 

I Pan. VIII. 4. 45. 


to w, the nasalised f taking the place of ^ 

the destruction of thatj re^ + t%^=f^fWr%Tef learned 

man writes. 

32. The ^ of *srr and *<TP^is changed intoqr when after the 
preposition 35t3^^^ = ^+*3n^=SCWn* and 33[*JT^ 
( see. 20. a ), and then g^jfTO, ^f^^Tf^ rising up ; similarly 
and gr?$t|5Wf3 upholding. 

33. ^coming after any of the first four letters of a olass is 
optionally changed to the soft aspirate ( 4th letter ) of that 
olata}; *rsr + 5K:==*nrfft: (see 6. underg 22;, and by this <*rrerR: 
T 5TT- ) the possessor of speech, Brhaspati. 

34. Any consonant, except a nasal or a semi-vowel, is 
changed to the first of its class, when followed by a hard 
consonant, and to the first or third when followed by nothing; 

35. sj preceded by a word ending in any of the first four 
letters of a class and followed by a vowel, a semi-vowel, a nasal 
or ^,18 optionally changed to ^-r . ^.<n[-*-% ! f:=<T^+fiRr : aud 
?f? + fOT.S and then ?[?!+%*:, and ?T + flrf: by the above, and 
finally rrfi33: and ftfeg 1 ?: that Siva ( see. a. 28. ). Similarly 
^t%5Sf, ?T^5Jt%5T; bnt qT^pszhrifk speech faltecs ( as ^r is not 
followed by any of the letters mentioned in the rule ). 

36. x *3[ at the end of a word is changed into an Annswara 

* jftiST I Pan. VIII. 4. 60. 

t W ^iSTOf: <&W I PaD. VIII. 4. 61. 

t &W |i^?T^^l^ I Pan. VIII. 4. 62. 

r 3i*&\& I *si^ I Pan. VI. I. 4. 63. 56. 

X -tfj^Htf i ^aiq^i^!^ Ffe i Pan^VII. 3, 23, 24 and Pan 
,'I. 3. 10. ( see sec. b ). - 

5 36-38 ] BULKS OP SANDHI, 2o 

when followed by a consonant; e. g. 

salute Hari. But *T^+ir+%=iTwret as ^ is not at the end of a 

wozd. The word ^5TR is an exception (see Pin. VIII. 3. 25 V 

(a) ^ and q[, not at the end of a pada, are turned into an 
Anuswara when followed by a consonant except a nasal or a 
semivowel or f ; srr^^-f *3fr=3U*h^ he will overcome; TOP* 
fa =*r$TTf*T ( nom. pi. of q^rg; fame ); but R?9> he thinks, as sj 
is followed hereby q- which is a semi-vowel; irrRT^+*l^i?fil= 
as sj ia at the end of a pada ( grammatical form). 

(b) This change is optional in the case of ^ when followed 
by ^ comes after it; e. g. f%n + r$5<T^=f$S r far^ and 

what does he shake >; bnt if this * be followed by ^, and if by 
the nasalised ^ , ar, s^ , are optionally substituted for 
or % what does he conceal? 

and ^^ what ! yesterday ! so 
and f%9T^i|Q} but 

37. An Anuswara followed by any consonant except ^ q , 
^ or ^ is changed to the nasal of the class to which the follow- 
ing letter belongs, necessarily when in the middle, and 
optionally when at the end of a word*; e. g. 3ra;3r + frr:=ai + cF 
+ ?H : (^7 tne preceding rule and then) arr^rT: marked (by tlih); 
so 3T^r- f frT : = 3 Tf^rrT: honoured; $i%?n obstructed; ^\\^(: 
calmed; grPffrT: woven; f^-f ^f^=?^ ^Ifq or f?*if% thou 
doest; similarly 4^-ffT or ^H^TT a reutrainer; ^TCTrKT: or 
: year ; it ai*>H or T^ff^T to which people. 

38. If 5: and or bo followed by a sibilant, ^ and % respec- 
tively are suffixed to them optionally; and hard unaspirates are 
optionally changed into hard aspirates when followed by a. 

Pan. VIII. 4. 48-52. 


sibilant Uq+q\'=ST3FS-: XTTTO mttg 1 .- the Bixta 

man gone before; g*TOT+ TO: =Wf *!*:, *MIUs3l8:j ^u^g:, the 
sixth good counter. 

39. If ^or j at the end of a word* be followed by 3, %r 
( changed to ^ ) is optionally inserted between them; * e. g* 
*i:+*F*n=W5*ntf: or ^+ g+*reT;=^rqfft six good men; 
so OT +w:=w?e: or^r^r: that good man. 

(a) gr, or and q[ at the end of a word and preceded by a short 
vowel double themselves when followed by a vowel |; e. g. 

the individual soul; so ^qcroir^: the 

best reckoner; B^r^gft: good Achyuta. 

40. Ob. If the ending ^ of a word be followed by sr , 3; is 
optionally inserted between them ' J e. g. ^+3nj:=*|^fg: and 
Sambhu existing for all times 5 and ^^35: = ^5=^3: 
' (by 35); then by 28 (a) j being changed to ^ 
^5^t^ ^rs^fg: and ^5:^5: and finally by 
dropping ^ optionally (by 20 a. ) tfs^rg:, ?T5^^5; and 

41. ^ coming after ^, ^r, or ^p short or teng ; in the same 
word is changed to r^ even though A vowel, a semi-vowel 
except c^ , a nasal, or a letter of the guttural or labial class or 
if comes between ^, q^or ^ and qfi-r*. g. ^THT = ^ror; ^T N -f 5TT 
OTrby the sun, f^nm^&c.; but ^Tir+3?n?=TW SHT (as these 
are two separate words). This change does not take place 
when f IB at the end of a word x frJTTC- 

I p ^ VIII. 3. 28. 
* ^: fir ^ I fc I Pan. VIII. 3. 22. 32. 
t ft fW?1% ^T%?^ I Pao. VIII. 3. 32. 
t $T 5^ I Pan. VIII. 3. 31. 

T? ^Tf 5 ^ t ai$<4l<'o4Hftft PaD. VIII. 4. 1. 2. 
\ Pan. VIII. 4. 37. 

42-43 ] BULBS OF SANDHI. 27 

42. ^ belonging to a aubstitue ( 3Tr%5T ) or a termination 
( &jr<j4j ) and not at the end of a grammatical form is changed 
to q^ when preceded by any vowel except 3T or 3fT> * semivowel, 
a letter of the guttural class or 3*; e. g. rrfr + g=<IHSi; Dut 
TOOT as ^is preceded by M, 3Tft:$ffaft &c., as 5 belongs to the 
word gfq^. This change takea place even if an anuswbra 
substituted for sj, a visarga or ^ q; or ^ intervene!; e. g. 
nom. pi. of ^g^ neu. a bow. 

43. The *j of ^r^is changed to an Anuswara and Yisarga 
when followed by a form of the root g, the Anuswara again 
is optionally changed to an Anunasika- 0. g. *raC + 3FftT=^f^rf 
and ^^cfT ; ^ is affixed to the ending of the words frq(, 513; and 

N. B. The word ^^a? * 9 capable of having 108 different 
forms as several e&tras are brought to bear upon it; but they 
are not given here as being tedious and of no material value. 

Sections a, b, c, and d may be omitted by begincers. 

(a) x The ^ of 5^ is optionally nasalised and has ^ added 
to it as above, when it is followed by a hard consonant except 
a sibilant, preceding a vowel , a semivowel, a nasal or $. 5^+ 
^jrft^:=5i|;-f^-{-5|rft^y: = 5^ti%^;, f^ri%^: a male kokila 
bkd. so s*S5r; and vfv&j the son, a grown up manj but 3$TT*3T 
milk for a man; ^TT^: a man-servant. Exception J^H^ the 
account of a man 

(b) s^at the end of a word ( except srorq ) followed by 
% !> ^ 9 %\ OT < t^ which is itself followed by a vowel, a semi- 

i 3T/fcrs!r*R*ft: I Pan. VIII. 3. 55 

57, 59. 

rfl' I Pan. VIII. 3. 58. 
. 1 Vart. 

Pan. VIII. 3. 6. 


vowel, a nasal or g, undergoes the same changes*; . g. 

sec. a ) ^rrf^f*Rgr^j[ and ^rff|ff^f^[ Oh Krieapa, vat off; 
eimilarly ^%^+^rc?=xTrlF3IT*rc3 > and ^fifmmq; save, Oh 
Krshna; but 5 prT as the ^ is not at the end of a word, ^^n?, 
a fine handle of a sword. sr$TRrTnT^ a good man spreads. 

(e) The ^ of ^ when followed by q; undergoes this change 
optionally; sf q[-f trn? = H *-y \{% f ^<nff > and r:T r ff. 

(d) The { of ^f;j followed by ^\^j also undergoes this 
change optionally, ^T^ 4- ^f^[=^t^f? , ^t^T^ to whom? ^ 
or ^ is substituted for the visarga when the following sets 
are combined: ^: + ^:=^^:; similarly 3nd*$d** wherefrom, 
the present time- CTqc^fa^r a ghee-pot ; 

I^^TaTH; a sacrificial vessel; 

magnet; rm^|U<3; great darkness- snr^nr^:; ^T^ 
the sun. 

44. ^ is necessarily inserted between & and the preceding 
vowel, short or long; and optionally when a long vowel at 
the end of a word, except that of the particle JIT and the pre- 
position srr, precedes it f ; e. g, %? + amr-lljiq^iqT Siva's 
shadow-, so fgr^JTTT*, %fW^rl what is cut again and again; 

may he not cut; 3Hl-\-tt3[m'=3tt^&f%iTfft he covers. 


45. CT at the end of a word followed by any letter or not, the 

i Pan. VIII. 3. 7. 
f d ^ I Pan. VI. 1. 73. Properly <j is inserted, but it is 
changed to =f by 28. 3T[^ny?J I ?>l^ I q^T^l I Pan. VI. 

45-46J] KULBB OF BANBHI. 29 

Q^ of THT^ and ^r followed by a hard consonant or by nothing, 
are changed to a Vitargaj aa ft!T : 77% Ha ma reads. 
Oh father, ^fr: !fc-qfr| a brother's daughter. 

40. Vinarga, followed by =gr, ^, ?, ^ and ^, ^ them- 
selves not followed by a sibilant, is changed to w* 0. 
WrTT Vishnu, the protector : fffra%, Hari walks: 
Rama goes; ( Vide 28 ); but ^: f^nj: ( as the ^ is followed 
by *r ); and optionally when followed by -sr, <r or ^ f ; 
or ffHHVJMT Bama who would standj fft: ^r?t or ffr^^frT &c. 

(a) Viaarga, not belonging to- an indeclinable is changed 
to r when preceded by 3T, and to f , when preceded by f or & f 
short or long, and followed by the terminations qr^r, ^T, ^ 
and ^rr J; . g. ^rn^rr^C Bftd milk: T5R?9?^ little short of 
fame ; Z(3R^ with fame; q^ltfeiujft he desires fame; but sn?f!- 
^rA|H almost dawn ( where m?f: is an indec. ); ^rf^7T9T^[ bad 
ghee, q?WyMH> ^rf^^T, 'HflvfclWj^. If the visarga y how- 
ever, is a substitute for a final ^, it is not changed to 5- be- 
fore $!**; ft: q?Tnff apeecn desires. 

(b) x The Visarga of ST>TJ and 5^: when prefixed as indec- 
linablea to verbs beginning with ^ or IT and t|- or ^ is 
optionally changed to H in the case of the former and neces- 
sarily in that of the latter . g. sm^urorw q*YnT, S^JStflK 
puts in the front; but TT; ar%S5qr: towns fit to be entered ( aa 
^r is a noun ). 

. VIII. 3. 34-35. 

| Pan. V. 3. 36. 
I Pan. VIII. 3. 38. 

Vartikaa. for: f: Pan. VIII. 3. 39. 
ir*Wt I Vart. 
: I Pan. VIII. 3. 40. 


(<?) * Visarga, preceded by f or gr and not belonging to * 
termination, ia changed to CT except in the case of m: often, 
if followed by a hard consonant of the guttural of the labial 
class : T%'-t-sr?q^=:T%r??J5^ without obstacle. Sfmhfoff^ dis- 
olosed; sf><TJj a bad action; but g: ^rac; ^% : ^tft aa the 
Visarga is substituted for * a term. BO JRTJJ: ^r and not 

is an exception. 

optionally retains it* w when followed by ^, 
* $ or *$ fift : ^tRT or f^TOCTT?r hides or scorns. 

T%:> fair: and ^:; all of them adverbs showing frequency, 
change their Visaing* to ^ optionally nuder the same circum- 
stBncesJ; l^^ftfff or 7%:q?ftfir does twice; but ^gc^TTH^ hav- 
ing four parts ( where t^Tg: is not an adverb ). 

(e) The ending 5-: or sr: of a word changes its visarga to 
^ optionally under the same circumstances when the presence 
of the following word ia necessary for the completion of the 
sense. fWfUft or ^r^^ifk turns into ghee; ^g^% or 
VT5:^rm makes a bow; but mBTg ^w: f^T **53>?% as there is 
no connection here between the words ^rfqr and fifr. 

And necessarily when at the end of the first member of a 
compound; as ^rrq^^ju^-^T a pot for clarified butter; but qrriT- 
^r1?> ^f"4^i'l a big ghee-pot ( as the word ^rf^: is an uttara 
pada ). 

(/) Visarga coming after the 3? of a word other than an 
indeclinable and forming the first member of a compound is 
changed tog- when followed by a derivative of the roots f, 
q?H, and by c$r, ^*, <rr$r, <prr and ^Jiolr X e. g. 3^n?^Tt: an 
iron-smith; arq^W one who desires iron; grq^rff^ an iron 
pot; irqwsn*;. 3fnr^?TT a bridle; ar^^^off a kind of iron pofc 

Pan. VIII, 3. 41. 
Pan. VIII. 3. 42. 
Pan. VIII. 3. 43. 

Pan. VIII. 3. 44-45. 
| P&n. VIIL 3. 4. 

46-49 ] BULKS or SANDHI 31 

but iftiOTC' Brhaspati; **:gjm: one desiring heaven ( where 
is an indec. ) : IT^T: T&nft (as there is no comp.); and 
: producing great fame (as the word q-^ is not the 

first member of the com.). 

(0) *The words aro: and %*: change their visarga to ^ 
when followed by <H[ under the same circumstances as those 
mentioned above; am^H, TOT^^ bufc 3TO:<r when there is 
no comp.; tlT*r%*: <r<rc (as %f is the latter member sWHp. 

47. Visarga ( substituted for ^ and not ^ ) preceded by 
short 3T and followed by short & or a soft consonant is 
changed to ^ f|R: + 3^ = r^ 
finfttj; Siva is adorable; ( see 25 ); 

should be saluted; but frog qq* si ^ TJT^T (where the ar after 
<rq-: is pluta)- m&: + *i : 5f=*rRK3 ( for here the visarga is sub- 
stituted for ^ ); so MMM^ &c. 

$ 48. Visarga preceded by HT dropped necessarily when 
followed by a soft consonant, and optionally when followed 
by a vowel; it is also optionally dropped when preceded by 3? 
and followed by a vowel except ar; when it is not dropped it 
is changed to ^ in both these cases, ^r: +;rrr:-%*T 

49. (a) Viearga, preceded by any vowel except aj or 3fc 
and followed by a vowel or soft consonant, is changed to ^ ; 
Sft: +5Tq-rer=gRsfaiar Hari conquers; so yr^^ft the sun rises; 
a cow or bull comes. 

Exception : The Visarga of the particles ^p> ^ift: and 
obeys 48; e.g. ?ft + 3r^=*jr sr^T or ^fnrs^ Oh Achyu. 
ta 5 nft 5TR^r Bhago ! a bow to thee ; 3TOV *lff Oh you go. 

(b) The ^ of 3ff^, not followed by a declensional tormina 
tion, ia always changed to ^ but if followed by <rft J and other 
words snch as f}^, ^ &c. the change is optional and if by ^;q- 

I Pan. VIII. 3. 47. 
\ Virt. 


and nft> viearga is substituted for it 5 3f$:, 3TfTf ' day by day. 
3*5:iffT* or 3^%: the lord of the day, the sun; *f)Ml5: or 
*frrfff: Brhaspati; or<ff?f: or a^rrff: a leader; but 3Tffqr^ Inst- 
dual; 3*5t^?*T the form of the day 4|<w) Tffif^T} <R^yaf: day 
and Bight; 3ftf RFRT^ * protection of Saman to be chanted 
by day. 

(c) *^ or ^ followed by ^ or ^ respectively is droppped t and 
the preceding 3T, f or % i* short is made long; 3*f; + OK*=S5Tr 
w ft sports again; fR;:+^q-=ff^;4-CPT:=^t W: Hari is 
graceful; but f5+S:=fS: ( form fg+ft ) p. p. of ^ to grow. 

50. f() The ^ of the nom. sing, of ^ and q^ OTa. is 
dropped before a consonant when they do not end in ^ or are 
not used in a negative Tatpurusha; 0. g t ^ ^:; qq- f%^:} but 
tr^c^T T : this Kudra; a?^n%T^: that is not Siva ( a neg 
Tat. ); irf& 

(b) f Sometimes in poetry the ^ of ^: and q^f: is considered 
as not existing wben followed by a vowel other than 3f, so that 
the two vowels may combine in order to meet the exigencies of 

the metre; f. g. %^wftf STfPi viAft &<> Rg. II. 24. I. 

THfT ^jrtle<J t 

Chapter III. 

51. In the present chapter Deehnrion or the inflection of 

nouns, subatantive and adjective, is considered. 

52. The crude form of a noun ( any declinable word ) not 

yet inflected is technically called a Pratipadika ( grffrrifris ). 

Pai"vra. 3. 14. VI. 3. 111. 

t <HRft: ggfilCT*HHEKH1% *fo I t * 

Pan. VI. 1. 132, 134. 




58. A noun .baa three genders: masculine gender (mas.), 
a feminine garde? (fern.), and the neuter (Ben.). The ques- 
tion about the determination of the gender of nouns will be 
considered in a separate chapter. 

54. There are three numbers : -Singular (fling.), dual 
(da.) aud plural (pi). The singular number denotes one, the 
dual two and the plural three or more . * 

55. There are eight cases in each number: Nominative 
(Nom. or N.), Vocative (Voc. or V.), Accusative (Ace. or A.) 
Instrumental (Ins. or I), Dative (Bat. or D.), Ablative (Abl. or 
Ab.), Genitive (Gen. or G.), and Locative (Loc or L.). These 
express nearly all relations between words in a sentence. 

N. B. These genders, numbers and oases will, for the s*ke 
of convenience, be denoted by their abbreviations enclosed into 
brackets after each. 

56. Sup (QTf) is the technical term for a cue termination 
in Sanskrit. Declension consists in adding the case termination 
to the crude form or base. 

. 22. 21. 

f The general terminations as given by Panini <vre 
dftCI*4 ll$K*q l*Kff flN l*wi UKhCT^QlWCt I IV. 1. 2. i. e. Nom. 
5 ah srat; Ace. a^atr^ $nr Ins. JT nw IHH; Dat. %. *n*r x WTJT ; 
Ab SFI% wnq.nT; Gen. g^;s^3TW| Loc. dp art"; ^T. Some of 

these terminations, as in common with Panini 's system of nomen- 
clature, have certain Its ( servile letters ) added or prefixed to 
them; e.g. ? in g/gr in STH &c. It will be easily seen that the term 
55 is obtained by taking the first letter and the list It in the 

H. 8. O. 3 


34 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ g 57-60 

57. Tho following are the normal case-terminations : 
Mas. and Fern. Aeu. 

Sing. Dual Plural. Sing. Dual Plural. 

N. V, ( aft artf N. A. * i * 

A. 3H^ , >> V. ,, 

I. 3TT *n*C ft^ The rest like the mas. 

L. f ,, B: 

58. The Vocative is considered to be a different aspect of 
the nom. and is identical with it in the dual and plural, It is. 
therefore, supposed to have no separate terminations of its 
own. In the sing, it sometimes coincides with the original stem, 
sometimes with the nom., at others, it differs from both. 


59. Declension is for the sake of convenience divided into 
two classes: 



60. The declension of adjectives does not, in general, diner 
f zom that of substantives. It will not, therefore, be given here 
separately; the points of difference only will be noted. 



Not*: The variations and modifications, which the general 
termination* given above undergo when applied to several of 
the vowel bases are so numerous, that it has been thought 

60-63 ] DECLENSION. 35 

advisable not to notice them here, as being tedious, but simply 
to give the forms and leave the students to find them out for 
themselves. Every word declined here should be considered a 
model and words alike in form should be declined similarly to it. 

Nouns ending in 37 Mas. and Neu. 

61. TTJT m. Rama. 5TPT . knowledge. 

Sing. Dual. Plural. Sing. Dual. Plural. 

N. fnr: TTm ti*n. N. 31 inn, ^FT^ 

V"\T i ji 
^I*^ )9 99 * 3111 f9 j; 

A* ti*in ,, rmin. A. 3nTnV 

The rest like nrr. 


1- TTR 

^ 62. Decline all nouns ending in 37 mas. and nen. 

(a) The Loc. sing, of words ending in 3*3 ( substituted for 
3T$^ a day, at the end of a Tat. oomp. ) is optionally formed 
like that of nouns ending in 3- . g. 90$ has serf*, ssifg or 
o4jgfH- So 3q^ f oi|f^ or otjgQ &c. See p. 73. 

Nouns ending in an Mat and 
63. iftqr mas. a cow-herd. 

(a) Mas. nouns ending in 3PTT take the general terminations. 
The final 3ft is dropped before a vowel termination beginning 
with the Ace. plu. 

* The ^ of & is changed to or by 41. Ins. sing, of ^ is 


N. V. 


64. Decline similarly f^qr the protector of the world r 
^FOTCTT a couch-shell-blower, ^tR^T one who quaffs the some-juice, 
-vgOTT one who inhales smoke, sr^r strength-giver or Indra ; and 
other comp. no and derived from roots ending in an*- 

(a) If the latter member be not a root the final an* is not 
dropped; e. g. fffT name of a Gandharva, Ace. plu. ^TfT^; D- 
Ab. G. and L. sing. 5$, fr^:, 5^: and ff^ respectively. The 
rest like 

'65. WT fen. the goddess of wealth. 

N. fin fit 

V. W >r 





g 66. Decline all other fsn. nouns ending in 3ft similarly* 
67. Irregular bases: The Voc. ding, of 
> all meaning 'a mother' ' is rf , 315 and ^^ respectively 

68-69 ] DECLENSION. 37 

68. Several adjectives ending in 3T follow the declension 
of pronouns, for which see the chap, on pronouns. 

Noons ending in f and 7 mas. fern, and neo. 
69. jft &c. 

3R mas. Hari. 

Sing. Dnal. . Plural 



Ufa fern, inteller' 



D. fffliroi 
Ab. ift: or 

* or 









<*. snft 

$3 fern, a cow, 







i. water. 

N. ', 




I P4n. VII. 1. 73. Nieu. nouns ending in 
or ij take the augment -^ before vowel case terminations. 

09-70 ] 

neu. honey. 






70. Adjectives ending in $ and ^ when used with neuter 
are optionully declined like mas. nouns in f and 3 in the 
Da. Ab. Gen. and Loc singolars and Gen. Loc. duals^ 0. ff. 
. white, pure; &$ nen. heavy : 





: or 


: or 5T%*ft-' 



Ac. fj^r gftftfr 

D. g^- or 

Ab. : or 

71. Decline all other nouns and adjectives ending in 
or 3- mas. fern, and neu. similarly. 
72. Irregular bases : 

mas. friend. 




Ob. (a) The words 33% a good friend ( $Tfr*rar: ^rwf ), 
3fl$fTf% a close friend ( arfifcaftfa: TWT ), TOfrftr a great 
friend, or one having a great friend ( q^R: fr^r q^> TW ^nar 
rr ), are declined like ^rr% in the N. Y. and A. and like gft in 
other cases; but arftflrf^T (qr^fr*TfrioRI*ff: one who has abandoned 
a female companion ) is declined like yfc A r . 5. ^T^fjr fom. is 
declined like sr^r- 

" 7io8. a master. 

v. q^r 


73-75 ] 




73 Compound nouns ending with qft such as rqft &c. 
are declined like $ft regularly, nfafar ( firn: 3W* 1W ?TfTT *T ) 
is declined like ?ft mas. & ir^ fern., the Gen. plu. ia optionally 
like that of f& ; mnjimm, or osnrrorr^. 

74 06. ( a ) aftgoftlQ a descendant of Uduloman ( 

) is declined like $ft in the sing, and du*l and like 
the plural, the original word vj<jfR being substituted;* 

( 6 ) Words of similar derivation (see Fan.. II. 4. 62. 63. 65. 
66 and IV. 1. 105 ) also substitute their originals in the plural, 

ftf irr*J: N. 








Words ending in f and 3? mas. and fern. 
nrt/ A river; ^\/. & woman, a bride. 


name of a sage, -f f^ ( f ) added 3ra?zwf by 
Pan. IV. 1. 96, the final ^ being dropped 
( Pan. VI. 4. 144 ). 

* From 

r=~rW^.-r > 


Decline all other fern, nouns in f similarly. 

( a ) The words STOT a woman in her monthly coarse, 
wealth, fffr a boat, *?rfr smoke, and <Tr?ft a late, do not drop the 
^ of the nom.* e. g. snft: ; afSRT: &c. 

D - 


L - 

Decline xg-^ a mother-in-law, ^ an army, ^^ the jujube 
tree > fc*^ a pblegmatic woman, JJ^TIJ rice-gruel, q^; a clats 
of compositions, and other f sminine nouns in gj- similary. 3^1^- 
^FT mas. and fern, is declined like ^i except in the Ace. plu. 
mas. which is aif^jpj. 

$ 76. Mas. nouns ending in : 

2TRT srfmffiT 3TWr ifmsnfr: ' n antelope as fleet as the windj 
| Un&di IV. 1. 


A. b. 

76-77 ] DECLENSION. 43 

Decline ( qrrar 3^ ffa ) WH a way or horse, (TTT& 

qrfr the sun, &c. similarly. 

Ob*. Decline (^gq: *WW *7W) T^W^fr mas. one having 
many good wives, and ( cJ$lfr?3ii?rau<T: ) 3lfifiwfr mas. like 33? 
except in the Aco. plu. which is ^"Sfrmfrr and 
respectively. 3Tfft&$Rr fern, should bo declined like 

The word ^rrasTRT, derived with the affix t%qr , is declined like 
sr\J7 which see. 

77. Root nouns in f or ^ M. F. N. 

Rule of Sandhi (a) The fending f or g-, short or long, of 
nouns derived from roots with the affix r%<r (o) and of *r, is 
changed to f^r or 3-^ before the vowel terminations*; the fern. 
nouns of this description are optionally declined like ^r in 
the Da. Ab. Gen. and Loc. singulars and the Gen. plu. 

(b) But if the ending ^ or gr of a many-voweled nonn having 
a root at the end be not preceded by a radical conjunct conso- 
nant or the root noun has a preposition termed irfff (e. g. as 
added to the root ) or a word governed by the root preceding 
it. it is changed to cr^or ?r, except in the case of g\fr and nouns 
ending in Tgj-. 

>ifT fem. 
N. tfr: 

V. , V. 

A. f^nr V. 

Pan. VI. 4. 77. 
I t: 5'T P^n. VI. 4. 82. 83. 
Var. ^ ^giw^'r: I Pan. VI. 4. 85. 


I. fan tftar* tfrft: I. g*r 

D. *-$ 

Ab. far:-irr:, Ab. 

Decline similarly r, ^r. E*> Decline similarly $, ^, 

. ( 



D. snftr 



Decline similarly %ifr 
&c. mas. and fern.; the Loc. sing, of nouns ending in ;ft is 
made np by adding arraf I* 






See * on page 45. 



Decline similarly g^ ( 
Indra or the god of death), 
and fern. 

new. like 
N. A. 


I. Jreqi-ftsn &o. option- 
ally like the mas. before the 
vowel terminations. 

), p^( the thunderbolt of 
*<9TC> & c - mas. and mas. 




7TT &o. option- 
ally like the mas. before the 
vowel terminations. 

m. mas. 

' fern. ST5OT <TTOT: ^TW ^TT *em. 
Yoo. sing., Da. Ab. Gen. and Loo. sings. Gen. pin. like 
the rest like spfr mas.; 0. g. 








Decline similarly $mr ( ^mfl^ 
err ) except in the Norn. sing, which is 


: I Pan. VII. 8. 116. STI^ is snbsitnted for the 
loc. sing, in the case of words ending in tff, an and the word :ft. 
,t W s^% rt?iqi^Fr I Pin. I. 2. 47. A prtoipadika ending 
in a long vowel hat a short vowel substituted for it when 
becoming nen. 


5^ ( 51 ^TOft ) w. and f. also according to 

N. V. U^f: tji^4Mf 




Decline similarly gasfr, ^c^vfr, <JTinfT, fT &c. mas. and fern. 
The L. sing, of ^ is 

) self-existent. 


N. V. 



Decline similarly 
&c. mas. and mas. and fern. 

gr^T ne u. like 

N. A. 3jr^- ^r^ 

V. ^i-^ o 

&c. optionally like the mas 
before the vowel terminations. G. Dual 
N. A. ^^ nr^fr 

v. f^-^r 

^- S^T-TT &c. optionally like the mas. before 
the vowel termination. 








Decline similarly sjjj, gfaw , 5*pf a widow remarried; &c 

78. obs, ( ^r^nrf^s^cftm ) *rcfr, (^f ^sr ^^ ff^ 
) ^^fr; ( *jHfaxyffrm ) ^tu ; ( ^^m^^rfrf^ ) 
) *&\, ( sTTTf^aFcfrr^ ) ^TRt; ( 









N. V. 

The rest like the other ^nff Decline flimilary TT^r- 
Words like si^afr, ^gfr should be declined like 

rs r**. f% ^^. ^ 

xi ^ST \ vit5i^4i*i^^9niin / 


79. 5ft/fl. a woman.* 

N. ^ft fa<4\ f%nr D. f%rq- 
v. fir n i ft Ab. finnj > 

A. R*<4v3frc >, >, ^t: G. f^rOT ftnfr 
i. finn ^fiv^rf^ 


N. grf^f%r". 

V 3tfH% 


D. u7te*T 99 3ifii%w 

Ab. 4<fft<j: _, 

Ace. plu. Hm^RT: grfiftfr:; the I. D. Ab. G. and L. singu- 
lars, arf^feim, irfiiffer^ ^nfr> 3rf8f%niT" 

^ respectively; the rest like the mas. 


except in the Gen. and Loc. duals forms which 
are grftf^qt: *:. 

80. Mas. words ending in 37 not derived from roots; 0. g. 
; name of a Gandharva. 


I fWfret: i Pin. VI. 4. 79. 80. 

80.81 ] DECLENSION. 49 

Decline similarly ?vig; ( |*rift ffir one who strings together ). 
Nouns ending in ^ mat. fern, and ti. 

SI. Nouns derived from roots with the affix 3 (raand 
^fr PAn. III. i. 133. and 2. 135 ), snch as ^ a maker, &o. ant 
the worda *?n?/, ^ ^ ^^, ^3, qnj, and sn$n^ as also ^rjg 
change their ^ tc arr in the Nom. sing, and to 3*n; in the first 
five inllectious. The ;& is lengthened in the Aoc. and Gen. r 1 
and changed to &% before the Ab. and Gen. sing; the Voc. air 
eiida in 3?^. 

mas. the creator. 



Decline similarly ^3, 33, ^, 511*** 3$Tf &c 


TaflrJ neu 






P4n. VI. 4. 11. 
Sid. Kau. 

H 8 o 4 


Ab. vrrg:-3<n: 

Decline similarly 

and other fern, nouns should be declined like \jrar except 
in the Ace. plu. which is *gr*r:. See below. 

82. Nouns expressive of relationship like fq^ m. a father, 
a mother, ^cr m. a husband's brother, &c. with the excep- 
tion of ?rcrT a grandson, qp[ a husband and ^^j & sister, as also 
the words 31^5 one who praises (Un. II. 92), ^ a man (Un. II. 98) 
and ^req^r a charioteer, do not change their ^ to 3N^ in the, N. 
dual and plural and Ace. sing, and dual} e. y. 


-V. r%:(i;) ,, V. nni:(t) > 

A. fqRV-^ R?|^ A. RfffT^ 

The rest like ^r? . The rest like ^Q* 

Decline similarly ?TT<. Decline similarly q-jij a hua- 

r, ^N^i 'HSTO and.., band's brother's wife, gffc a 

The Gen. plu. of ^ ia daughter, and HHT^ or 

or iTr^* a husband's sister. 

\83. The woid ^r? a jackal, is declined like a word ending 
in 3 necessary in the first five inflections and optionally before 
the vowel terminations beginning with the Inst. sing, except 
that of the Gen. plu.J . g. 

\ Tan. VI. 4. 9. ^ f?^T^ ^im ^C $*-. W1<{ \ Sid. Kau. 
^ 5f^: I Un. II 97 5f ^F?I% ^nr^ri f^- ti^fa^ f?^ ' 

3 wr Tr^^^r 5rf^=ft ^w 7 ff^ 5151^: i Sid. Kau 
: finm rfi^Rr i P&n. VII. I. 95. 97. 



D. - 

Ab. gftjr :-^reY* 


(o) SBlj becomes 5Rf in the^iw. also ( by T%T3T 
VIII. 1. 96.) which with the^fli. torm. f becomes 3?t^T and is 
declined like 

Ois. The word frogKTJ neu. is declined like H$ and option- 
ally like tKJrc mas. before the vowel terminations from the I. 
sing.; . g. D. uing. r5WaCT^-S% % 

Words ending in 5j and ^5. 

84. There are no words ending in ^ or <; therefore, the 
imitative sounds of the roots <F and rT and <|^ and ^rqp^ are 
take a to show what the forms of such words will be, if there 
be need to use such words. 

N. V. <&:, ar : 


Decline sr similarly. 








I*- IHI 99 

Decline $\+ similarly. 

Words ending in tr and <h 

85. Here simply the terminations should be added and 
Sandhi rules observed. 

Iff ^5f isi ) m. f. wealth. 

N. %: OTT flT N. V. 

V. %* A. 

A. ffirac 9 ! fWT 

I. fWT %*TI^[ f5f: 'tl^' >, 

D. ^Ir %ViT- Ab. ^m: ,, 

Ab.%: G. 

G. | 9 ^^t* ^n^ I j - 

*The Kau. does not specially mention this form. Just as it 
stopa miter giving the Nom. forms in the case of words like 
% *tt, *g3t &c., BO does it do in the case of % also, implying 
thereby that the Yoc. forms of % are also like the Nom. ones. 
But the Sutra ^^WlrH^J: P*D. VI. 1. 69 (<?g^tTi^ f^F?n^ 
aifn^S^Vf^M) (Kau.) seems to apply in the present 
and by dropping the final ^ we get the form %. 

85-86 ] 



Decline similarly ^ ( 
f: OT ) one who has thought 
of fforoa. 

The neu. sre 

) changed to srft 


I. 2. 47. ) should be declined 
like 3TTT except before the con- 
sonantal terminations, when it 
should be declined like T *-/ 

N. A. jrff scRafc 

Words ending in aft an( 3 aft- 

$ 86. Vriddhi ( 3ff ) ia substituted for tha ^r of words ending 
in aft in the first five inflections except the Ace. sing.; srr ia 
substituted for gfr in the Ace. eing. and plural.* Noons ending 
in 3?r are regularly declined. 

*ff mas. fern. 

a ball or a cow. 

the moon. 

N. &V 






Decline similarly 

( *5cT: tf: ^c: ^r ) and 
/ the iky. The nea. 

N. &V. 







Decline similarly 
a ship. The nea. 
^Rm[)j changed to 
bd declined like ir 


changed to sr 
declined like 

should be 

: I Pan. VII. 1. 90. VI. 1. 93. 



87. Bases ending in any of the first four letters of a class, 
and in or , ^, %> , ^ , s^, ^ and ?. The declension of these bases 
consists, for the most part, in adding the general case termi- 
nations and observing the rules of sandhi. 

88. Bases ending 3;, p^, and r. 

S9-. (a) After final w the 3 of the loc. is changed to 3. 

(6) ( optionally changeable to ? ) may be optionally 
inserted between <^and fj. 

mat. fern. neu. naming the goddess of wealth or a lotas 
otT-OT-^fT ) 

Mas. and Fern. 






G. ^R^r: 

I*. 3Tirf% 

Decline similarly 3^qor^, grirror , m.f. one who counts well, 
f. a door and other words ending in ^ or < The loc. plu. 
of STT is ff*Trs-T?:S,-^?rff. The Norn. sing, of grrr is grr:. 

N. N. &A. 
The rest like the mas. 

* See 91. a. 

89-92 ] DECLENSION. 55 

Decline similarly $ir*T, wnc and other words ending in or , 
or fj- 9. g. 

N. A. *r: 

90. Bases ending in f, or, IT, ^, , ?, f , 5, 3, r, v, g, 
and*, <*>*[,*. 

91. (a) As a general rule the f^ of the nom. singular ia 
dropped. If there be a conjunct consonant at the end of a 
word the first consonant only is retained. 

(6 ) The final letter is changed to the first or third of its 
class when followed by nothing, to the third when followed 
by a soft consonant and first when followed by a hard 
consonant and remains unchanged before a vowel termination. 

( e ) ^ IB prefixed to the f of the N. & Ace. plural in the 
case of neuter nouns ending in a consonant except a naaal or 
a semi-vowel* but not in the case of a noun derived from the 
frequentative base. 

92. Paradigms : 

^rii^I/. a holy stick. 

N. & V. ^rffrj; *fff>ft *rfwvr: Ab. 



N. V. A. 

The rest like 
Decline similarly 

.} . g. 


Norn. sing. Nom. dual. I. dual. LOG. plu. 

N." V. A. N. V. A. 

The rest like the mas. So %?%3T? N. V. A. pi &o. 

^ 93. Bases ending in ^ , ^, ^ , or |^and ^, ^, 5. 

94. (a) ^ or ^ is changed to ^ when followed by a hard 
Consonant or by nothing, and to IT when followed by a soft 

(b) The ending ^ or ^ of root-nouns and the final of 

^> ^% "^ ^r3T, ad w^ are changed to * when 
followed by any consonant except a nasal or a semi- vowel or 
by nothingf; tne ^ changed bo ; or ^ when at the end of 
a word, and to 3- when followed by a soft consonant. The ^ 
o* T^TT^ is similarly changed to ^or ? . 

(0) But the si of the root-nonns f^BT^,^! , *$5T, and ^sr^is 
changed to 3? as also the qr of 3^ ' a bold or impudent man ' 
and the ^of snch words as f%tr^ &c The ^ of ^5^ is 
optionally changed to g^or gp, as also the ^ of ^ar and 
The XT of %-fe^ri is changed to ^. 

* %: ^: i Pan. VIII. 2. 30. f 
Pin. VIII. 2. 36. 

94-97 ] DECLENSION. 57 

(d) 3 may optionally be inserted between ^ and the loc. pi. 

(e) Before vowel terminations final ^ may optionally be 
changed to ^. 

1)5. (a) * is changed to ^when at the end of a pada or when 
followed by a consonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel, (b) In 
the case of roots beginning with ^ it is changed to Bunder the 
same circumstances; (c) when forming par* of the roots g^, g, 
*j and fi^, it is optionally changed to q;*. . to ^or CTJ (d) 
and in the case of the root r? it is changed to vj under the 
above-mentioned circumstances.* 

() The ij^of sfstJT^ /. a kind of metre is changed to ^ when 
followed by a hard consonant or by nothing, and to TT before a 
soft consonant ( Pan. III. 2. 59). 

96. When a mono-sy llabio root (or root-noun) begin s with ? , 
ff or ^ and ends with tr, ^, \j , w or g, the ? f ir^or ^ is respecti- 
vely changed to *r, ^ or^tr before ^ or ^o"r when followed by 
nothing: or when the final soft aspirate is changed to an unaspi- 
rate letterf. 

97. Paradigms TT^(/. speech, fj^ shining, g^ becoming 
faint &c. 

KTT ^*i XT TT 

- v . m%> ^r^rr ^r^r^ N. v. 

A. 9TO*^ ,) A. 

I. ^1^11 ^T^WT^ MiP^: ! 

T> ^ mn&t* Tl 

Ab. ^T^: A! 

* ft 5: I ?i^W: I fl 'gg^^^l^l^'H' ^ff^ I P^. VIII, 
. 31-34. 

t 'J^T *tfl ^!W*?fW f*: I Pan. VIII. 2. 37. 


G. sre: srrer: ?rarq( G. 
L. *TT% *TJ L. 

Decline similarly ^nfrg^[, mx&t^ Decline similarly 

;, |^and words ending in 3? 

t^[ ; 37*If> f^n^j ft^T^, the sun, f^CT f 

f^T^> f%fi^. and words ending fj[^, jj^j SJT^^> f%^.*> XC^eaTj * n ^ 

in ^ and *r. root nouns in ^, ^r , ^ and ir. 


N. Sing. N. dual I. dual. Loc. plu. 



&C. <KC. &C. 

derived from sni^ mentioned along with ^ &c. 7^ 
^r ^^R^ I Sid. Kau. The other msn^ is 
derived from 5>*Ki| ffffi mentioned in the qjoni^ g'oup. 

f Hereafter only the first letter will be given, the third 
letter should always he supposed to be understood. 

79 ] DECLENSION. 59 

N. Sing. N. dual. I. dual. Loc. pin. 




STx^ XT? 


Irregular base : 5^ N. V. 5^3^ 5?f: A. 
the rest like $55^. 

S^ mas. 

Ab. : 


Deoline similarly fw^ } *g, *?# ?&r, jfa& and | &c. 
N. sing. N. dual. Instr. dual. Loc. pla. 

or ? 





The neo. formi of these have no peculiarities other than 
those mentioned above. 9. g. 

N. V. A. 

or or 

The remaining forme like those of the mas. or /em. 


98. (1) The ^ of &l\W < Indra ' is changed to ^ before 
the consonantal terminations;* e. y, 

N. V. 5^n"T^ ^Tr^T^ ^Tf^rrf : I. 

99. ftsq- becomes ft-^T when followed by n^t ( tnafc 
particular form of the root-noun ?r^ ) 

N. V. 

100. The erf of root-nouns ending in *r^ is changed to 
before the vowel terminations beginning with the Ace. plu 
* ff. f^^ the sustainer of the universe^ a lord : 

* Pan. VIII. 3. 56. 
t (WT *TCl: I Pan. VI. 3. 128. 

I ^If S3J ff^l^rra I Pan. VI. 4. 132. VI. 1. 108. an and 
coibine into ^T by Pan. VI. 1. 89. See 20. 

100-103] DECLENSION. 61 

K. v. 


Decline similarly 55^^, ^m^f^ 5*1* > ^tf*!^ &c. The 
Ace. plu., Inst. sing. &c. of ^[^, are ij$:, ij^ &*-* 

101. The ^ of g^TRg/ .-'a shoe' is ohaoged to q^ before 
fT and to ^ before the vr of the termination; e. g, Norn. ^^rf^f. 
xJMMg: 7 Ins. sing, and dual TTT^F, ^TTvqr^i Loc. 





N. V. A. 
The rest like 

103. The words 3re<n^ c * kind of priest ' and 
' sacrificial food' change their final to ^ before consonantal 
terminations the preceding grr becoming 3^- 



[ 103-104 

N. V. 

N. V. 




Bases derived from the root 

104. Nouns derived form the root 
of such affixes as fk^, fl^r &c. such as 
( srffT-StS^ ) western, ^vsrs^ ( 
(mT^-3^) going away, 
with or well, i^v^^a ( f^wfo.^ 

)adoring a deity, 
where, aqoTj northen,, a|r^3.^[ following, 

o- going to that ( all these derived from 

go' to worship, 

' to go ' by means 
( m-3T5^) eastern, 
13^ ) a companion, 
( ^H:3?5^ ) going 
) following, ^^jy^ 
) going every- 

(a) In the Nom sing, sr^^ becomes 3^. The nasal of 
is dropped before all terminations beginning with the 
Ace. plu. and the preceding semi-vowel is changed to its 
corresponding long vowel before the vowel terminations after 
which 3i is dropped. When 3755? is not preceded by a semi- 
vowel, its 3T is changed to f if not preceded by a long vowel; 
otherwise it remains unchanged. f*r>^ becomes Q<^ under 
similar circumstances. In other respects these words are 
declined like words ending in . 




















The forms of the rest should be similarly made up; e. g. 

N. sing. N. pin. A. plu. lust. duel. Loo. plu, 



The neu. forms should be similarly made up. 

N. V. A. 

The rest like the mas. 

(b) When 3*5^ means < to worship ' or ' honour' the nasal of 
JHo-T^ is not dropped and these words are regularly declined. * 
They drop their final ^ only before the consonantal termina- 
tions* . g. 

I Pan. VI. 4. 30. 

104-105] DECLENSION. 65 

N. V. 

&c. &c. 

L, snftr Jnsafc srcs or 




&o. &c. 

The reat should be similarly declined. 

N. V. A. ftfe fti,%^t 

Irregular Bases. 
105. ^3^ a heron &c. ( derived from K 

a ^ ame man ^ an ^ E^T, beautifully bounding become 
an d ^s^ before consonantal terminations; 0. y. 

N. sing. N. dual I. dual. Loc. plu. 

The remaining froms should be similarly made up. 

N. V. A. 

The rest like the mas. 
H. s. G. 5 

66 SANSKRIT GEAMMAE. [ 106-108 

106. 35-1^ n, t n. strength, is regularly declined; 0. g. a. 

N.V. A. "3^ stfi 3rfSl; *the rest like the mat. 

107. Nouns ending in q[. There are a few nouns derived 
from the roots ending in '3. They have no other peculiarity 
than this, that thej change their ^ to ^ before consonantal 
terminations, 0. g. sr^rr^ m.f. one who is tranquil. 



N. V. A. 

The rest like the not. 

Bases ending in ^ : 

108. The penultimate 3? of nouns ending in ^ is leng 
thened in the Norn. sing, if it does not belong to root nouns, j 

. the moon. 




Sid. Kau. t^^f ^fff^r? I 3W*iir<cB ^l 
3* I Vart. 

J 3T?^eFrR^ ^WiHt: I Pan. VI. 4. 14. The penultimate vowel 
of noons ending in q<^ or ^ and in 313; not belonging to a root 
ii lengthened when followed by 5 ( fj; ) not belonging to the 

108 ] 




Decline similarly 


god Brahmi, wq^^ good-minded, 
anxious-hearted &o. 

the mind. 

N. V. A. I^T. 
The rest like ^fj^g;. 

Decline similarly q^T^, milk, nn^ age, ani^ protection, fame 
, &o. 

&c. ^r^ good, 

(a) Nonns in ^, g^ or ^^ such as xi^M^ flaring upwards 
af^a^ Wind ' ClVfg^ long-living, ^r^ an arm &c. are similarly 
declined; e. g. 

N. sing. N. dual. I. sing. I. dual. Loc. plu. 




Decane similarly vr^rfff^ lustre, ff*^ an oblation, 
e , ^3^ a bow, &c. 

S*^ ( 55 TOT ) one who wears a garment well. 


68 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 108-112 

Mas. Neu* 

N. 5^: tj^tti gTO : N. V. A. |j*: 

The rest like ^??H3[. The rest like 

Decline similarly fqug'mfe NU4 4 ^^ &c. 

109. The Nona, sing, of 3?%f^ time, 5^ET^ name of 
India, and S^R^ name of Sukracharya is 3T%fT, 35$CT and 
a$MI respectively; the Voc. sing, of g^R^ is TWT, 3^R- 
and 73R:; the other forms are regular. 

110. To feminine nouns ending in ^ simply add the 

*n^/. splendour. 

111. Obs. The ^rr of 3ct-^i^n^ uttering hymns, becomes 
37 before the consonantal terminations, except that of the Nom. 
ing.-, . g. Nom. s^JW- sing. ^5F5^rT^ dnal. ; Instr. sing. 

dual sftwn Loc - 

Irregular bases. 

112. ^ that falls, ^^ a destroyer, ^nj^ one who kills 
well, ;f^^f^ desirous of killing. The first two change their ^ 
to ^ before consonantal terminations while the last two change 
their ^ to ^ under the same circumstances, the preceding nasal 
being dropped. 

N. V. sing. N. V. dual. I. sing. I. dual, Loc. plu. 

The remaining forms should be similarly made up by adding 
the terminations. 

N eu . 

112-114 ] 

N. V. 

The remaining forms like those of the mas. 

m. a man. 


I. 5*rr 

D. 3% 
Ab. r: 

N. V.A. 

The rest like the mas. 

114. The penultimate f or 3- of the words flfaft^ wishing 
to read, ?r^^ m.f. a companion, f%^ wishing to do, ^fr^[ 
one stepping well, 3 ! ffl%'$r/ a blessing, ggf^, catting well, and 
also of nn[, speech, gf; a yoke, 3^ a town all/era, is lengthened 
before consonantal terminations; their final is changed to visarga 
in the Nom. Sing. e. g. 
N. V. 

I Pan. VIII. 3. 58. The ff belonging to 
a term, coming after ? or 3, short or long, and after a guttural 
letter, is changed to ? even when either a nasal, or a visarga or 
7 ^ or S> intervenes. 

70 SANSKRIT GEAMMAB. \ 114-115 

The remaining forms should be similarly made up by adding 
the terminations, ^^r and the following words should be simi- 
larly declined. 

N. sing. N. dual. I. sing. L dual. Loc. Plu. 



iff: PKf f^RT ffiwn\ 'fit 

It '" ifr- ; 10 


N. V. A. 

The remaining forms like those of the mas. or fern. 
Nouns ending in 3^,, H^, and *q;: 

115. 37 is lenthened in the Norn, sing.*, and 5j is inserted 
between 3T and the final ^ in the first five inflections. The final 
g; is dropped in the Nom. sing.* the 3? of JTf^ i* lengthened be- 
fore this ^ except in the Yoc. sing. 

. talented. 


See ft. note p. 66 

5 115-116 ] DECLENSION. 71 

I. vftacu 

D. tfraft 

Ab. ifrjrff: f , 

G. *HtT. 


N. V.A. vfnrg; 
The rest like the mas. 
Decline similarly jfttflt having cows, 

mas. great. 

The rest 

N.V.A. TOCT iifift irfrf^ The reit like the mas. 

116. Participial hues ending in 3*3; : 

(a) The declension oi these does not differ from that of 
noons in irg; except in the Norn. sing. mas. in which the 9f of 
3KT is not lengthened. In the case of the dual of the Nom. 
rr oc. and the Ace. neu. ^ is inserted before the final g- neoes- 
larily in the case of the present participles of the roots of the 
lit. 4th, and 10th classes, and of causal, desideraiive and 
nominal verbs, optionally in the case of those of the 6th class, 
of roots ending in aft of the 2nd class, and of those of the Fat. 
in rot or q^, and not at all in the case of the remaining 
participles of the present tense. 


being. 3?^cJ eating. 


N. V. inn* W<ft W^: N. V. 

A. snrrflir *raw: A. 

The rest like sftro Tne rest 

Decline all other participles o* the Present and Fa. Par. in 
the mas. similarly. 

N. V. A. Mu; 




Decline q"^^, ^N^, JliH 

like in^.5 ^ftq^ &c. like g^ ; 

JV. ^. The fern, of these ends in $ being the same as Norn. 
dnal of the Nen. and has no declensional peculiarities. 

Decline &$ ^ m. n. great, 3^3 f*. a deer; . a drop of water 
and snra; the world> like 3^^ wa*. & nw. 

(5) 3 is not inserted at all in the case of the participle of the 
Pre. of roots of the third class and of the Parasm. fre- 
quentative and the participles ^rm^, 3T$r^, ^5TCn , 2[fbe^ * 
3Tnnj, sf' 5 ^ an ^ ^oq^ ; in the case of the Norn. Voo. and Ace. 
pin. neu., however, it is optionally inserted : 


^ giving. siro^ awaking. 

N. v. 


&o. & c . 

116-117 ] DECLENSION. 73 

N. v. A. 55^ $5?ft ^fitT-ft STWJ. srnrar 

The rest like 

Nouns ending in sjg; and ^. 

117. sj is dropped in the Norn. sing, and before all con- 
sonantal terminations. In the case of mas. nouns the preceding 
3T is lengthened in the first five inflections and f in the Nom. 
sing. only. The 3T and f are lengthened in the pin. of the Nom. 
Voc. and Ace. of neuter nouns. The 3f is dropped before the 
vowel terminations beginning with that of the Aoc. plu. except 
when it is preceded by a conjunct consonant having ^ or ^ for 
its latter member; it is optionally dropped in the Loo. eing. of 
mas. and neuter nouns and optionally in the Nom. Voc. and 
Ace. dual of the latter. 

In the Voc. sing, the ^ of neu. nouns is optionally retained. 

Nouns ending in 373. 
tfOT; TTios. the creator, 



D. argrdt 

Decline similarly 3Wim the self, q-T^q; a sacrificer, 

<T^R^ mas. a king. 



Ab, jr^r: 

Decline similarly ^Tm^fsm. a boundary, ffQT^ ft carpenter, 
. marrow, 4|R*4< greatness, irf|R^, ^fwfc 3lforiW[ &c. 
^IH< auspioiouB-named, ^ffTTO, sr&f^[ a day or the sun 
of the word ii lengthened when the ar is dropped ), &c. 

& 9- 
Horn. sing. Ace. pin. Loc. sing. 

N. V. 

The rest like the mas. 

Decline similarly ^ifa( a hide, 3773 an armour, nfa( * boose, 
old fcc., ^[ happiness, ?|^ sport, jest, 

117-1 18 ] DECLENSION. 75 

5TO 3 * neu. 




L. nfft-Rft 

Decline similarly o4lU< the sky, fftH^C ^ bladder, !m^ love r 
bymn, ^TR^ lustre, a house, &c. 

Irregular Bases. 

118. o^ apfR[ and nouns ending in (^ lengthen their 
in the Norn. sing, only; the ^ of 5^ is changed to or after 

mas., the sun. 








mas., 'name of Indra 7 . 


76 SANSKKIT GRAMMAR. [118-119 

D. ^t S*Wn* TOW 

Ab. fro: 


>. name of a deity. 



&c. &c. &c. 


N. v. A. > 

119. The ^ of 5f^ mas. <& dog,' 5^ was. < a young man/ 
and TOF; ma. ' name of Indrs,' is changed to ^ before the 
vowel terminations beginning with that of the Ace, plu,* 

^*j[ It 

A. "cnH 1 ^ 99 






^T I Pan. VI. 4. 133, 

J 119-120 J DECLENSION. 77 






&c. &c. 


The rest like the maa. 

120. ^f ^ n. meaning ' a day ' changes its final to 
(and finally to risarge ) when followed by consonantal termina 
tions or by nothing; in other cases it is declined like 

N. V. A. 



* Also the optional forms in 3 in the Voc. sing. 

78 SANSKRIT GBAKHAB. [ 120-122 


Obs : jfiTrfe* when mas. is declined like ^fjw^ when it 
takee the consonantal terminations and like *J3T* * nen 
the vowel terminations; when n5. it is declined like 




The rest like the mas. 

121. 3T&[ OT. a horse, except when preceded by the 
negative particle 3^1 ( forming a neg. Tat. ) is declined like a 
word ending in ^ in all cases except the Nom. and Voc. 
singulars; e. a. N. a^f 3ffoft 3^^:j V. 3f^ 3R??fr, 3T^?T:; 
A. JHJrdu, 3T^fr, 3?^: &c. But gw^ ( ^ T%rar^ r rw ) is 
regularly declined like q^t^ ; 3R^Tf 3R^foft &c. 

^q; MU. ie declined as ^J^ Frfefir .^iRtT' Nom. Voc. 
Ace.; the rest like 3^5; mas. 

122. Words ending in 53 

The ^ may be optionally retained (3tai(i$ &o. ) by 
Pan. VIII. 4. 11. 

122-123 ] DECLENSION. 

mas. an elephant 





Decline similarly ^rf^f the moon, 5^73 one having a stick, 
a wealthy man, ^f^t an elephant, ^|7^< one haying a 
garland, STRlirrfN d all other words in f^. 


N. A. 

V. ^T- 99 

The rest like the mat. Decline similarly $n?^ ., 
eloquent, imR^ & c - 

Irregular Bases. 

123. The first five forms of qr%I a road, j?f^[ a churning 
handle, and 3$n$ft( name of Indra are irregular.* They drop 
their f^[ before vowel terminations beginning with the Ace. plu. 

N. V. 



* <Tftirc3g?n*n^ I f%SWRW?n> I ^W \ TO %fa : I Pan. 
VII. 1. 85-88. 



Decline similarly nfqig and ^t^n^f, the latter word, how- 
ever. does not insert the sj in the first five inflections; *. g. 

Nom. $r: *rif Heit? :-nijf-'F Ace. 

Basea ending in 
124. These are the perfect participles derived from roots 
with the affix q^ to which the intermediate f is prefixed in 
some cases. They have a 3 prefixed to their final ^ in the first 
five inflections, the penultimate 37 being lengthened before it. 
In the Nom. sing, m, the ^ is dropped and the Voc. sing, ends 
in qig.3- is substituted for 5>, before which the preceding short 
f, if any, is dropped, before the vowel terminations beginning 
with those of the Ace. plu. and before the { of the Nom. Voc. 
and Ace. dual of the neuter nouns. The final ^ of a root is 
changed to 3 before q^ reappears before this 3*; final ^ is 
changed to ^ before the consonantal terminations and in the 
Nom. Voc. and Ace. sing of the neuter. 

fij^rr m. a learned man. 

N. f%5ra[ f^ffofr 

V. . Orsn 

A. ft^r^ 


124-125 ] DECLENSION. 81 

N. V. A. ft'** T%fT 

The rest like the mas. 

Decline similarly ^T?j^r^ or ^<l-q^ one who has gone, 
HlT^qq, OEe w b k* 8 stood, fjfcfr^ one who has carried, JU|^ 
bountiful, ^J%.^"^ one who has heard, ^f^T^ one who has sat, 
^T^ honouring or serving the gcds, &o. m. and. n ; e. g. 

Nom. siog. Nom. dual. I. sing. I. dual 

Bases in 

125. Comparatives in q-^ are declined like bases in 3-^ 
in the first five inflections and the Voc. sing, and like nouns 
in other respects; 0. g. 

(comparative of SRM ) more praiseworthy. 




The rest like ^r^^- Decline all comparatives in fqr^ auch 
Tfm^;> Stfta^, Jl^^, &o. similarly. 


N. V. A. <te 4^ft ^^fi% 

The rest like ITf^. Decline n. nouns in fij^ similarly. 

H. 8. G. 6 

82 SAXSKHIT GKAMMAB. [ 126-128 


126. 3if|sT n. a bone, %j . curds, ^rf^j . a thigh and 
. an eye, become 3JW*, 3[q^, ^F^ra;, and a^r^C respec- 
tively before the vowel terminations beginning with the I. 
sing. * and then they follow the declension of nouns in 3; ; in 
other respects they are declined like 




ffij- and the rest should be similarly declined. 

127. sr^/ water, is declined in the plural; it lengthens 
iti 3T in the N. and changes its q 1 to 5- before consonanUl 
terminations. 3TT^:-3?^:-3^:-3T?r^>3(|?^:-3^rri3r-3Tcg. 

128. The words ^TTf/ old age, srvfT one not getting 
old and f^r a god, optionally assume the forms 
before the vowel terminations : 






VII. 1. 75. 

128-129 ] DECLENSION. 83 

Decline f^rar &o. like nw and 



. like 



The rest like the ma 

S 129. The words <TT3> ^Pcf, 

optionally assume the forms q^, ^, ^ 7 

all terminations beginning with the Ace. plu 

^ft-^w. an arm. 
N. V. <fr 


D. qi^- ui 

A 1- J*V_ 

Ab. 5T^T^Wf : 99 


VI. 1. 63. 




N.V.A. <: 5fft 

The rest like mas. 

foqif. night. 









. a sum mi t, a table -land. 

is also 77i. declined like 35 with the optional forma from 
the Ace. pi. which is qrrvj^, ^3;. 

The remaining words should be similarly declined according 
to the declensions which their various endings follow : 

tfl^ *w. a foot. 



. the nose. 


m. a tooth. 









L. *TR 

4TTO wi. month 


n. heart. 




L. _. _ ^ 

3T^3^n. blood. 


iS^rfri mwmm* *w 


^ m. soup, 


.A. 5? 

w. the liver. 


1*. T^fff> if^-T^l^ 1^H 

^T^( n. dung. 

^- ?T^ 

. water. 


W. HiOutll. 

, airc: 

i flesh. 



120-132 ] DECLENSION. 


. an army. 




130. The following suffixes are sometimes added to 
nominal bases to express the meanings of cases. 

(a) The inffix ^^ added to the base of a noun gives it the 
sense of the Ab.'*; as smr3[?T: , from carelessness'. ^^T: from 
the real state of the thing, in reality, jjrRfT ' from knowledge/ 

(If) The suffix 5T is used . ^ denote the meaning of the Loc.* 
case, and is generally added to pronominal adjectives; as ft-r 
*in that place, there'; ^?nr <in every place, everywhere, &c. 

131. A few nouns such as -q^ 'the lowest world/ ^r 'hea- 
ven,' tf*^ 'a year of an era', 3Tn* Betting,' 5^ 'ease,' ^^^ 'a 
bow', ^|% 'hail, farewell' &o. are indeclinables. 

Chapter IV. 


132. The following 35 words are termed* 'Pronouns' in 
Sanskrit: ^rJ, ft 5 *, ^ 3^*, 3flT> ^cm (. e. the word form- 
ed by the addition of the terminations 3TFTT *nd 3TfTW to the 

1 ^ff"Tf^5 P^n. V. 3. 7. 10. * By 
| Pan. V. 3. 14. ?riy , 5j^ &c. may stand for all cases ex- 
cept the Nona, (though they may be used for the Nonx also }, 

88 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. f 132-133 

pronouns ffa% 9 q^ 7 and ?r^ which become ^, q- and & respec- 
tively before these; e. g. ^?Tf, ^R, q-ffT? TcTR, and 

, T^g[ and {%&. 

1 Personal Pronouns. 

133. The pronouns 3T*R^ 'I,' g$R[ 'thou', and 
honour :' 

JV. B. The declension of the first two of these pronouns 
the same in all the three genders. 

3^f^* m.f. n. 

Ab. R^ 

G. RR, 

.. n. 





i ^i^^r^f ^ i 
i Pan. VIII. 1. 20-53. 


be declined like H*T^; *3T^ *nr?rfr H^cf: N. 

A. &c. 3T^H^, ff^Wat( see Syntax < Pronouns ' ) 
fire similarly declined. 

134. (a) The optional shorter forma of the pronouns 
3^R^[ and 5JT^ &re never used at the beginning of a sentence 
or of a foot of a metre; * nor can they be used immediately 
before the particles ^r, g-f, 5 or 57, 3*5 and q^-f; aa TO ^If my 
house, and not ^r ^5^;%!^: ^ftifrwrac *$&*'. *HrfT*3 (Sid- 
Kau. ), < may Krshna, revered throughout or capable of being 
known properly from all the Vedas, always protect us; and 
not rf: ^sor: &o.j ff^r ^c^TffcTc^ * this is surely your deed/ and 
not tf <pr &c. But if these particles do not connect these forms 
they may be used with them}; as 5ft ^ftsg- ^ ^mfr ( Sid. Kau. ) 
Hara and Hari are my lords, &c. 

Obs. (b) The shorter forms may be used in a sentence 
having one verb; ^rrsfat ^ 3Tt^t ^r^rf&i but sf|^ ^^ &* 
*rf^rfar as there are two verbs J. 

(c) These shorter forms are not also used immediately 
after the Vocative case except when a qualifying adjective 
follows it;+^rreRT^ (and not *: > <m? ^T (Sid. Kau.) 
'Oh God! do thon protect us always'; but ^ fqr^t T ^nt (Sid. 
Kau. ) 'Oh merciful Hari, protect us.' 

*T?T^I 3T5?ra ^qn?ltl I P4n. VIII. 1. 17. 18. The follow- 
ing couplets illustrate the use of these short forms 
^3 *W 
: II 

^: ?r ^: u Sid. Kau. f 
Pan. VIII. 1. 24. 

Sid. Kau. 

iJ I Vart, 

Pan. VIII. 1. 72. 73. 

90 . SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 134-135 

(<J) The shorter forma may or may not be used when there, 
is no 3^1457 ( the subsequent mention of a thing already 
mentioned ) ; qrKTT ?T ^Tr^f?(T, V TT?TT <T^ *TTfitffa> fTO 3T i; but must 
be used when there is anvades' a*; <TC& ?fr *fR: c bow to thee 
( already described ) only.' 

2 Demonstrative Pronouns. 

136. The pronouns ^ 'that or he, she, it,' qr^ 'this/ 
firq 'this' and 3TT3C 'that'. The Nom. sing of the first two is 
respectively ^: and tr^f: mas. and ^r Q d rrqr fei** I Q other 
cases they become ft and tr-ft and are declined like nouns in & 
except in the Nom. pi., D. Ab. sings., G. pi. and L. sing, the 
terminations of which are J, ^, ^RT^, ^IH and f^T3[ wat. 
and fq-, ^Tf^ , HO^ , 5ETT^ and ^rri^ / OT . respectively. All 
pronouns ending in 3T are similarly declined. 


N. *: ?f> 

A. ?T^ m 













I V4rt. 


Decline HT^ which means the same thing as <r^ , similarly; 
' <? *$* tsflr *T Nom.; at aff 

N. and A. ^ 

The following cases like the 








N. <rn 





The rest like the mas. 


T: I Pan. II. 4. 24.^ [9 optionally substituted 
for f^ and ^^ in the Ace., Inst. Sing, nnd Gon. and TOO. 
Duals when there is 3i^i>$T ( see g 137 ). 


Notes: The visarga of ^: and trq 1 : is dropped when followed 
by any letter except 8? in which case the usual Sand hi takes 
place; ^r iFRS'g, <TT 3TWrfSi but tr^tsT^tFI. &o. Vide 50. 










The rest like the mas. 






N. araft 3 




N. & A. 
The rest like the mas. 

136. The following couplet ( Karika ) gives a rule for the 
correct use of theae pronouns : 

is used with reference to a person or thing near at hand, 
and q^ to one nearer still; 3?^ id used of a person or thing 
at a distance, while ^ is used of one that is absent. 

137. The optional forms of f^ and TT^ in the Ace., 
Inst. Sing, and Gen. & Loo. Duals are to he uaed whc-n there 
is anvades' a* i. e. their proper forms have already been used in 
a previous clause; a. g. 

has studied grammar, teach him prosody,' 3T*nfh 

rr^ft: sr^rf ^^ , * The family of them both is pure, and their 

wealth ample/ 

3 The Relative Pronouns. 

138. The pronouns q^ 'who, which'; mas. fern, and neu.^ 
mat. base *TI fern, base qr. 

Sid. Kao, 

94 SANSKRIT GF.AMMAB. [ 138-139 

^ man 

^_ ^ 

N. *T> 







N. *T 

D. *W js 

Ab. *FFir: 



N. & A. T^ ^ 

The rest like tbe . 

4 The Inter rogati ye Pronoun*. 

| 139. The pronoun fa^mat.fem. & .; . Base 



N. ^. ^ * 









Ah. <fct<ri: 


N. & A. f^ % 

The remaining cases liko the flias. 

5 Reflexive Pronouns. 

^ 140. The sense of the reflexive pronoun is ; in Sanskrt, 
expressed by the word 3firR^ '**&' which is invariably used 
in the masculine gender and singular number, and by the 
reflexive adverb *ro^ e. g. gtf 3[?^f?WR *TCT: ^fff ^nw: 
" they all (the wives of Das'aratha ) saw in dreams that they 
were guarded by dwarfs ; " so fr or ^rr 

G Indefinite Pronouns. 

141. Indefinite pronouns are formed by the additiop 
n or 3q^ and sometimes of f?^ to the varioafi 
cases of the pronoun f%^ in all the genders; e. y. ^f%^fc ^OT 
a certain one, ff<T, ^^Tl^, ^TT^^, SnTTft; ^Tr?^5[, &c. 

ji 142. The terminations given above are also added to 
interrogative adverbs in the sens? of indefiniteness; aa tfe$n^<i 
at some time, ?j^r^T, ^f^f%^ some, Ir7f%r^ somewhere, &c. 

7 Correlative Pronouns. 

14H. Correlatives are formed by the affixed ar^ added 
to q^, ^ and ^^- ? and q^ added to f^ and f%^ in the sense 
of -as much asi 7 and ^^ror^^in the sense of 'similar to'; 
and q^ become ftr, ^T a^d qr respectively before 
and f ^ and r%^ ? a n( l T% before q^ and f and ^r 
before ^ or f ^ ; . g. m*^ ( cTfTKRmR^r ^, ?q^ ( ? 

), Tf ^1 li^e that, f ^ like this, T%trf how rnucD, &c. 



[ 144-146 

144. The affix aim is added to ?r^, *T^ and r%^to show 
number or measure e. g. ifa 'so many', q-fSr 'as many/ and 
3sTft < how many'. These are declined in the plural only, and 
take no termination in the Nom. and Ace.; 0. g. Nom. and 
Ace. $m Inst. 5Fnrft: the rest like 5 R. 

8 Eeciprocal Pronouns. 

145. Reciprocity is expressed by the repetition of the 
pionominal adjectives 3f?q-, 5^ and trj; e. g. a^sft^ HdRdT> 
and q*<^r^. These are generally used in the sing, and also 
adverbially e. g. <r^Kor ^^(q^Fftf &c. . ( Rag. VII. 14)j 
qTfTT R^s% &. They are more commonly used as the first 
members of compounds; as 9T?'ff<3r3T\WMrMI^ 3"^ &0- (^ u - 
I, 44; SrftcWmr: (Sifl- X. 24.) &c. 

9- -Possessive Pronouns. 

146. Possessive pronouns are formed by means of the 
secondary affix q- added to cf^ , tr^ , 3T?R?1, and 5H5 ; and 
3T and |^ added to s?f^, and gR^, changed respectively 
to Rm^ and cTfsp|j in the sing, and 3TWr> and mlTT in the 
plu. before these; e. g. 




'my, mine' 

'our, ours* 


my, mine' 


3rcR3ffcT 'our, ours*" 


mas. fern. 

Sing. Plural. Sing. Plural. 

*thy, gwtfv ' your, r^mf * thy, ^CR^pT 
thine. ' yours.' thine.' yours.' 

iHiMUi ,> 
T. mas. fern. 

N. B. These are declined like nouns ending in r, 3TT or f 
regularly. ^ is a possessive pronoun by itself. 
10 Pronominal Adjectives. 

147. gfwr 'another/ 3t?*nrc 'either of two/ fflt 'other,' 
q<fedH 'one of many/ ^^T 'who or which of two/ ^fir 'who or 
which of many/ qrcTT *who.,or which of two/ jr^-jr *who or which 
of many/ <f^ <that $oe ( of two )/ ?nnT 'that one ( of many )/ 
are declined in all the three genders like ^ e. g. 


N. (fcflil 


. &. A. 

JV. J5. 3TTrf JT is not a pronoun, as it is not mentioned in the 

jroup 4Juf^ ( H^MJHU^I^-HI 1W mdNl^l^l ^IT Sid. Kau. ). It 
is, therefore, declined like nouns ending in 37. 

148. Decline ^f, f%^, *rw and ffor all having the same 
meaning, 317 ( declined in the dual only ) and srvrq* ( which has 
no dual according to Kaiyatft and other grammarians) both 
meaning 'both/ f <K & Q<1 jrqaft? 'one of two/ like ir^ except in the 
Norn, and Ace. sing, of the neu. which is formed by adding *^; 0. ^. 

H. S. G. 7 


3$ mas. 'all.' 



L *nror fNYuiNi 














N. &. A. OT* 

The rest like the mas. 

( a ) CTT when it means 'equal 7 is not a pronoun and is 
leolined like nouns in 3f; e. g. frtf: ^mV tfm: Norn., 
Jingo CTTTHTO G. plu. as in the Sutra of Pail. 
I 1. 3. 10. 

149. 03s : ?cr and ?w ( the 10th and llth ^wrRs ) the ore 
( ud^tta), the other <^|^|^ (anudatta), both synonymb of 
are declined like ^r$. The former is of the form f^g; 
according to some and then it is declined regularly by adding 
the terminations ; e.g. tQT?^ Pftft ?3tt: Nom. &c. 

150. ^ when it does not mean " a class " or < wealth " is 
a pronoun aod is declined like ^* m.f. n. but it forms its 


Nom plu. and Ab. and Loc. sing, optionally like rrtr when 
mas.- as ^% or ^jj: 'one's own' Nom plu.; but $37: 'people of 
one's class' only ( declined like ^ftr ). 

151. 3jnU is a pronoun ( and therefore declined like ^m 
n.f.) when it means " exterior, outer; or what is to be worn 
out-aide, as a garment"* except when followed by 5^; it is 
optionally declined like nouns ending in 3? in the Nom. pi. and 
Ab. and Loo. sing, of the mas. 0. g. 
*T STTOPT: ( garments ). But 

152. %JT meaning 'half is a pronoun, but it is optionally 
declined like TTO in the Nom. pin. mas in other respects it is 
declined likd 37. 

153. if$ 'prior, eastern', 3T*T 'posterior, western', ^t%ur 
Southern,' g^R 'superior, northern, subsequent', 3HT 'other/ 
and aro?[ ^inferior, lower,' when they denote relation in space, 
time or person with reference to a particular thing or point of 
time &c. and are not a name, are pronouns f and are then declin- 
ed like 9$; but they are optionally declined like rot in th* 
Nom. plu. and' Ab. and Loc. siog. when ma*, e.g. Nom. ^}: 


&c.. but ^T%UTT: <IPT^T: ( skilful musicians ) only, and not 

for ^T%or does not show any rektion herej so ^WfT* ^T9 : and 

not ^pft, as s^m: is a name here. 

154. n;$r when a numeral is declined in the sing, and fg 
in .the dual only; fj[, is considered as f, and they are both 
declined like 9$ in all the three genders; 9 y. 

Mat. fern. mas fern. &c. neu. 


: I Pan. I. 1. 36. 
g|fboM*C I Vart. 

. 1. 11. 34. 

100 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [154-157 

A. <r*5n <n?T* tf t 

J. <j%sr <TOTT span* The rest like 

D. qr**& ^^ the mas. 




(fcjr MM. q^j^ N. A. The rest like the 
cr^ when it does not mean 'one' is declined in the dual and 
plural also. 

5 155. The various meanings of V& are: 


or little, q^TR or chief, pre-eminent, xnnr or foremost 
or sole, only, ^rvTROi or common ( as 3ttWS^Tg?rRf3r ff 
^ %g: ), *WR or the same ( as gtf Kr^Tr^?jt JTR ), and 
or number ( one ). 
156. HOT, ^TCH, 3(^T, 3Tvi, ^W, and words ending in 
the termination OT optionally form their Nom. plu. like that 
of pronouns} e, y. 

1 1 -Pronominal Adverbs. 
157. The pronominal adverbs that are moat commonly 
met with are derived from the pronouns a<r, q<!^, *^[, f^ r 
I%^ 7 and ^r? and the pronominal adjectives ^cpc c. by means 
of such affixes as ^ , 7, ' ;: f , ^ &c. added in the sense of the 
Ab. or the Loc., ^T, f^Rin, f| &c. showing time, fu^t showing 
point of time, place or direction, 3TT, 3Tf^ 3tTTf &c. expressing 
direction, TIT, $r+&c. expreseing way or manner &c.; e. g. 

See 130. 

t ti^l'tffi^TT^" ^y& ^T I ^'Tl^?'?^ I 3l^TT ^T^T ^ ' ^^ ^T 
I Pan. V. 3. 15-19. 21. 

. V. 

S- 27. 

arrf? ^ > i Pan. V. 3. 

34. 36. 3. MK^^^Trl msi5 ; HWW \ P&n. V. 23-25. 


W^T, thenj d$|rflq, at that time; 
then, therefore; TOT, so, ?nr, there; 
Oft, thence, thereupon, therefore, &c. 

, now,??*n*, thru; 3^, here, 
therefore; f?r:, from this, hence; 
now; f , here. 

nowj frr^ thus; 3^: hence, 
therefore; aw here. 
*$, when; ^ when; *nrr s; q^ 
where; q^f:, whence J? since, because, 
^f}, when; qp^r, when; sp*r^, how; 
^5T, where 5 ^, where; ^r:, where, 
whence; ^5, whence, how. 
wf^, always; ?ar^f, always; ^ff:, 
everywhere, on all sides; *rg=r every- 
where, in all places. 
q^f: further on, beyond, &c. 
3*:, S^ffTec before, in front, &c. 

own below. 



behind, below, downwards. 
T^cTRl, from behind, afterwards, 
westward, &c. 

or in 

the south, on the right side. 

SMS 3Tm^, ^^^mft to or in tne 

north, &c. 

158. When a pronominal word is used as the subordinate 
member of a compound, or is at the end of an Inst. Tat. , or of 
a sentence having the sense of the Inst. Tat., or at the end 01 a 
Dwandwa, it is not declined like a pronoun*; 0. g. 3| 

Pan. I. 1. 30. 31. * 

I Vart. <{|<JI4<m*l I 



[ 158-159 


r wfor T*I* and not 

in the case of a Dwandwa comp., however, it is optional!/ de- 
clined like a pronoun in the Nom. plo.,* as WrT$9^ or 



159. Cardinals and Ordinals 


















* fie 
3 ft 



Pan. 1.1 32, 

f Th word qf^ also denotes ten. Cf. Rag. IX. 74. 

} ^ becomes ^ff necessarily when followed by ^ ( substi- 
tuted for ^ ) and ^T^, optionally when followed by vnr, after 
which 3- is changed to ^ and vj to ^ . y. ^TTT ( vide 169. b. ) 


17 ^ 

18 % 

is ?<<. ;nre5T5r or 

or rr^Rn^r, o^tY, oif^fH^rjr, otff or 
or v4tiffci&T osftt ofaaiiffriH. orfT or 

22 ^ 5T'f^^rf& ^rft^r, o^fr, or of^nr, 

23 ^ ^^rfif^TRT rrq^ifif^T, o^fr, or oMdU, ojfr 

24 9 

"<" > >> > 
25 9H 

w yi > 

26 ^ T^J^T^nn ^T^^T, o^fV ,, 99 ), 

27 9v 

"*( >/ > 

F, o^ or 

, oiff 

30 ^o i^SJuiH^f l^ttfty $TT or fg^f^ffr oj^r 

31 ^ 

32 ^^ 

33 ^^ 

34 3V 

35 ^H 

36 35 

37 3\s> 

38 3<s 

39 3<l 

41 V? <pP^?1Tfi[?tT^ 


49 VR 5TO*Tf?STS or 


43 V aiHMNififcl^ or 



49 ^ grc^^uffd or 

50 Ho q*m$l</ qs^n^T, o^ or 

51 H^ ^^r^rn^m 

52 H^ ftlM^I^I^ or 


53 H^ 

54 HV 

55 HH 
5o H^ 

57 *W 

58 H^ 3>'i< or 



63 53 3nr*i% or 

04 sv 


68 ^c 

69 S^ *i*i^fe or 

70 \So ti urn /<"? ttHmtiH* oift 

71 vs^ it<etiHi?T H*ilHd> orff or 

72 vs^ S'lfVHPf or 

73 VS3 

74 V9V ^ 

75 an IT 

76 vs^ 

77 vsvs 

78 vs<s 

79 vs^ ?f^fiV.M or 

80 Co 

82 <^ 

83 <-^ 

84 <^V 

85 <JH 

86 <i^ 

87 iv? 

88 <:<- 

89 <i9 TCf5T?fff or 

90 ^o 

^2 ** ffTii5r^ or 

93 9.3 SUJRaf^ or 

106 SANSKRIT GEAMMAB. [ 159-160 

94 V<* 

95 *H 

96 <^ 

97 ^V5 

98 9 3KLM<4f<f or 


200 9 o o i%5T?T neu 

300 Boo firSTrT nu. Or 

1000 \ooo ^rfw r 


10,000 8T5?r ". 100,000 s$r eu, or 


neu. Each of these is ten times as great as the preceding.* 

160. The cardinal numbers between fiferft and 
f^T^and ^TflR^a> i4 ^^ be fleen are made U P b 
tr^, T%, &c. up to SCT; to the lower. The ninth intermediate 
number may also be made up by prefixing q-^Ffr, 3T^ or q'*W 
to the higher. In these compounds (5, |% and &&^ aie changed 
ao ^r, 9<P, and 3^1 necessarily before f^rfff and fg^r^, and 
optionally before the rest except SR^nm before which they 
remain unchanged, f 


: t*4lflft cqq^Ki^ fTtTT: ^: II 

, Pan. VI. 3. 47-49 


161. The cardinal numbers between 100 and 200, 200 and 
300, &o. are generally expressed by means of atnN added to 
the number showing the excess and then optionally prefixing 
the whole to 100, 200, &c, e. g. <rqnf^fc $ra or ^Fn^^nt 101, 

or r3*$rtfre3T<T H2, traro^ft** $ra 150- &c. 

After 1000 this srfre may be repeated 'with every multiple of 
ten er hundred; . ^ 

Similarly OTT may also be used insted of arrq^ * 9- 

754. Or these may also be, at times, expressed 
by the copulative particle ^ as ^HT 5f 3nm% ftSTRW 720. 

162. The Tad. affix 3f* may be used, instead of 
in the ease of the cardinal numbers ending in ^^T^, the numeral 
RsTTfT and those ending in 313 t. 0. in the case of the numerals 
111-159, 211-259, 811-359, &c. and qualifying the numerals 
^nr and qffif before \vlaeh the final 3^, grf^r and 3^g^ are dropped 
^m^ HI, ft^T 5T<t 120, q^r^T ^ 150, 

217, f%^t 1%^nt 330 and so on. 

163. The ordinals from ir^, rj, f^ ^% and ^ f are 
irregularly formed. The ordinal from other numerals up to 
^513; inclusive are formed by dropping the final ^ and adding 17 
and after ^r^[ up to *i<i^^l< by simply dropping the ;j. The 
ordinals from fgr^ri% t above are iormed by adding ^rr or by 
dropping the iff of fersrfk and the final coneonant of the rest; 
the compound numerals, in this latter case, change the final 
vowel to 3T, while the simple ones ending in a vowel i. t. 

: i ^riftsrasa' i Pan. V. 2. 45. 

46. ^Tff^r^TOf^'^ I Vart. 

t ^T^filTiraSft '&$ \ Pan. V. 2. 51- so q^^: y ^5^: &c.; 

'Vart. efar, i, 

Pan. V. 2. 54, 55. 

. V.3.56,58. 

108 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. (163-160 

and snrfir form their ordinals in the first way 
only; as *?&&: or trgpfffew:, but *f%<m only, ^m has invari- 
ably 3ma*T. 

164. ^ ( <rj T fem.) y ft ( *T>. ), T% ( fitaV* )> "* 
^gT ( ^TO/m. ), are all adjectives and takes the gender, num- 
ber and case of the nouns they qualify. 

165. <3 is declined in the sing. ( though it may have the 
dual and plural also ), and ft * n tlie dmtl alone. For further 
particulars see 154. f% and ^5^ are declined in the plu. 
Alone. E. g. 

mas. fem. mas. fern. 

A. ?fa[ A. 

D. Ab. fiinwp iffQW D. Ab. 


N.v. A. sfrflr N.V.A. 

The rest like the mas. The rest like the mas. 

166. 7333 ^T33R(. These are also adjectives agreeing 
in case with the nouns to which they are applied. They are 
dech'ned in the pi. and are uniform m all the three genders. 



Dat. & Ab. 

: ft^Tt m^^ Pan. VII. 2. 99. 




^[ and the following cardinals up to 
to be declined like 



and other cardinal numbers up to 

are all feminine substantives, the numerals ^TrT, ^Kf5T, 
&c. are all neuter, with the exception of $$r which is 72011. and 
fern. OTTZ which is fern, and ^ and 3TWTO both of which are 
mas. and have no declensional peculiarities. They are 
declined in the sing, and so used with a plural noun; e. g. 

25 Brahmanas; qfrl^irnre^nfa or 
;*>: or ^frf*: by 111 men or women; q 

: with Rs. 999 &c. They may be made to have duals 
and plurals by being used as fixed standards of counting* 0. g. 
STTSTOTRr f%5T?TT: many twenties of Br$hmanas ; \ ^ 
two hundreds of women &c. 

168. The ordinals are declined regularly except: 

( see 156 ) and fjrfor and ^fft^ which are optionally 
declined like pronouns in the Dat. Ab. Gen. and LOG. sing ; 


169. ( a ) ^^ once, f|: twice, T=T: thrice, ^5: four 
times; from qn^ onwards adverbs of frequency are formed by 
adding ^^: before which final ^ is dropped 0. g. q^i^jF^: five 
times, ^nrfir^: seven times, &c. 

( * ) ^T^n* or ^^q-ij; in one way or part, f|qr or gpjr or \$ 
in two ways or parts; fgTjr or g-qri or Ifir^in three ways, &c.; 
? in four ways, <riT or frS^TT in six ways, *wn, s?^TT, &c. 

Pan. V. 3. 42-46. 


( c ) <rs3r: one by one; fer : two and two, by twos; ao 

170. Other derivatives from the numerals: 

( a ) by the Taddhita affix ^ which is added to numerals 
ending in 5^ and fif e. g. <ngra?: bought for five ( rupees &c. ) 
^*Tnfo?*: bought for forty; %tff?ne: bought for twenty 
( ooinf , &c. ) 

( b ) *by means of the Tad. affix a^ in the lense of " consisting 
of parts" or " collection "; . y. ^TgW ( ^g^tfV / ) consist- 
ing of four parts or a collection of four; so <na?TO (fern, ift); 
OT is optionally changed to 3TO after f$ and f^ . 9* %& or 
f-jr^q- (_qr /0m. ) twofold, consisting of two parts, or a pair; 
=nr or fiftf? (.^/m. ) threefold or consisting of three parts, a 
collection of three, a triad. 

( e ) by means of ^ and 3R . y. ^ a collection of six, 
collection of five, 331^ & collection of ten, a decade, &. 

Chapter VI 


171. or and HIT are the most common terminations of the 
comparative and the superlative degrees respectively.! They 
are added to that crude form of words which they assume, be- 
fore the Inat. duftl termination; e. g. WJtta<jUfcUl*J<1 33*- 


* See Chap. IX. Intro, 

: Pan. V. When atit'aya or 
excess of the one thing over many is to be shown ?nr and f g- 
are the affixes used; and when out of two things one is, to be 
separated as possessing some quality in excess ft? and 
are affixed. <r? and rm may also added to verbs. 


172. Before these the final f and ^ of a pratipadifca are 
optionally shortened, e g. sftSTTT or m?rn, Tmm or |%nTT; 
^Tf T ( more lame ) or *T5?m, ^dUT, ^Tgrfm, &o. 

173. JTT and ?rw when attached to verbs, and indeclinables 
forming adverbs, assume the forms of <TTT^ and rTPrn^* 


&c.; but rt^T: a^j- (higher). 

174. fii^ is another termination of the comparative degree 
and $% of the superlative. These are added to adjectives of 
quality only f. Before these the last vowel of a word with the 
following consonant if any is dropped; e. g. P 

<*, tnfnre; , <ri%er} w^ wfT*m , wf^; &c. but 


175. The possessive affixes at the end of words and the 
affix 3 are dropped before ir^ and fgr{ and then these 
terminations are applied subject to the above rule; e. g. 

so ^rrfrqia , WI^B' ^rom $rfo^ one having a garland &c. 

176. f is substituted for the ^ (short) oi a base 
preceded by a consonant before fq^, ?F and the Tad. aff. 

I Pan. V. 4. 11. arr is added 

to r?T and air after r%^C 7 or a word ending in qr or a tubanta or 
tiiianta ( ms^^rf ) except when they form adjectives. 

t 3T3ITafT ( f . . fr* and f y ) ^N^MI^ I Pan. V. 3. 58. 

J f^rnt^W I gHTO^rg I Pan. VI. 4, 154. 

* ^T *3T^Ht: I Pan. VI. 4. 1J1. 

112 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 176-177 

f^T thin' comp. tf^ftq^ superl. Sfcf$ig 

3S 'strong, firm' 

<rft3? 'head, chief 

^ 'broad' 

ygSf 'much' ^fpr^ 

^'aoft' a^m^ 

177. The following is an alphabetical list of the irregular 
comparatives and superlatives that are commonly met with: 

Positive Comparative Superlative- 



'mean/ 'smalP 
'heavy 1 

'restless or anxious' ? A, ^^^ 

'satisfied' $ *^ 



'praiseworthy' x w^ or ^q-R^ -W <> r 


i Pan. v. 3. 36. 

t yno"^"!' tfeHH^d^-WIH I P&n. 3. 64. 


: I Pan. VI. 4. 167. q, w, WT, ^ &c. *r 

mhstituted for ft^, t^r, forj, &c. respectively. 

^8^253^5 **%sj$pnirr irf^t i#w ^ SUT: i Pan. vi 4. 

156. The words ^9 &c. drop iheir final portion beginning 
with m^ ( , f;, i^ or q[ ) and the preceding vowel takes guna. 
I vf^T ^ I ^S[W ^ Pin. V. 3. 60-62. 

I fW ft I Pan. VI. 4. 158-159. 

177-179 ] 
^g- mvch ' 

' 91 

* firm, well ' 
t much ' 



great lovely ' 
' big, large ' 
' much ' 
' short ' 

178. Sometimes the terminations ^ and tpr are added to 
the comp. and super, in JOT and 53- to intensify the meaning ; 

Chapter VII. 


17fr. Vritti ( % ) is the general term, for any complex 
formation in Sanskrit requiring explanation or resolution. Tbesa 
Vrittis are five in number ; viz. q^f% or tho formation of words 
from roots by primary affixes ; cTf%a^r% or the formation of 
derivative -bases from nouns by secondary affixes ; ^TgfRf or the 

formation of derivative Verbs from 'primitive roots; 
or the formation of a compound word by the composition of 
several words and irtp^^fTw or the composition of words in 
which one of several nouns generally alike in form is retained, 
The first throe will be treated in their proper pjftoes. We will 
troat of the last two in this Chapter. 

* See note x p. 112. 
H. S. G. 8 

114 SANSKRIT GRAMMAS [ 180-184 

180. In Sanskrit simple words, whether substantives, 
adjectives, verbs or indeclinables, have the power of entering 
into combination with one andther and forming what are called 
* Samasas'*', compound words or, in short, compounds. 

(a) A compound tLug formed may further be compounded 
with another simple or compound word, and this again may 
become the member of a new compound. 

181. In a compound, as a general rule, words are simply 
joined together, without any relation between the component 
parts being actually expressed ; the whole compound word has 
the power to exprees the various relations that exist between the 
several parts. The last word only takes the case termination 
required by its grammatical position in a sentence, the remaining 
words (those ending in a consonant ) generally assuming their 
crude forms before the consonantal case terminations; e. g. 
ffTC^+ 3R:=fis[3r!T: ( see below ), *TSra( + S^ : =*nTS$T : > &c. 

182. Final vowels or consonants (modified as mentioned 
abo^e ) of preceding members of compounds combine with the 
initial letters of the succeeding members according to the usual 
rules of Sandbi. 

183. In a few cases, the intermediate members retain their 
case endings in which case the compounds are called '^-llv?:' 
(3T3^);. 9. ^Rtf&T: a fool, gfSrfBT' name of the eldest 
Pandava &c. 

184. The expounding of a Samasa (i. e. giving its Vigra- 
hatak-ya ) consists in the expression of the various relations 
existing between the objects or ideas denoted by the various 
members of a Samasa by means of the proper eases or sub- 
ordinate sentences. 

(a) When the VigrahavaJtya cannot be given, or cannot be 
given by nsing the words actually compounded, the compound 

is called nityasamasa ( ^ftjrfr RcHimifr: 
Sid. Kan. ). 

* From 31^ with ^nr to throw together. 

185-186 J COMPOUNDS. . 115 

185. Compounds are divided into four principal classes:*- 
( 1 ) Dwandwa or Copulative, (2) Tatpurusha or Determinative, 
(3) JBahuvrihi or Attributive, and (4) Acyayibh&va or Adverbial. 

N. B. These names themselves mean nothing t. e. they do 
not denote any of the characteristics of the different compounds. 
They are simply proper names distinguishing the various 
classes from one. another ( to which they vaguely refer if they 
do so at all ). 


166. A Dwandwa compound consists of two or more uouns 
which, if not compounded, would be connected by the copulative 
particle ^r (a*d). f as TfR^fr *hich is equal to w. ^ tnr: ^T> 
<TTft<TT5 which is the same as qrofT ^ TT^T ^T. There are three 
species of the Dwandwa- viz. ?d^H*, HHIKi&-8[ and qg^tq-. J 

* This is true only generally speaking. For there is a fifth 
class of componnds, Hz, ^rj ^crr-compounds not governed by 
any of the rules given under the four chases but explained on 
the general principle that any sulanta pada may be compounded 
with auy otiter subanta pada. According to some there are six 
kinds of compounds, viz. ^qf g^r f^r 5TmT mg^T^T TrTST 

$: <> g. 

: i Sid.Kau. 

\ ^T 5=^:1 Pan. II. 2. 22. 

J The Ekasesha is not strictly speaking a subdivision of 
Dwandwa. It is a separate Vritti by itself ( Vide 179 ), 
Sanskrit grammarians do not regard it as a Dwandwa, though 
it may be so regarded for the sake of convenience. ' It is not 
a Divandwa,' remarks Bhattoji Dikshita, 'as it does not contain 
more than one subanta ( 3j5f3r^tU*ngr^gy ).' I* should be 
further remembered that since it is not a samasa, its filial vowel 
does not become udatta, as in the case of a Dwandwa compound. 

116 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 187-^189 

187. When the several members of a Dwandwa. compound 
are viewed separately, it is called Itaretara Dwandwa, e, y^ 
trTOT^ft fijFF<T, 'cut down the Dbava and the Khadira trees ' 
In this species each member is of equal importance '. 0. has its 
own independent meaning. It takes the dual or the plural 
according as the objects denoted by it are .two or more in num- 
ber; the gender of the final noun is the gender of the whole;* as 
cock mzfr a pea-hen ^ f^FfdW^f f ft ( fom. dual of 

) ; but 

Exceptions ar^W gr^^T ^ 3fiW<W ( ** dual ) a horse and 
a mare; gftist w&ff 3^TTT3T: ( **<"- sing- daj aud night ). 

188. Sainah&ra Dwandwa is that species of Dwandwa 
which implies an aggregate or the things enumerated in which 
constitute a complex idea. It is always singular and ntuter. 
Thus 3rrfRl%raqi^ does not merely mean 'food, sleep and tear 7 
but all that characterises animal life. In. this species the 
meaning of the different members is subordinate to the 
collective sense of the whole compound. 

189. f A Dwandwa compound of words denoting limbs of 
the body of an animal, players on musical instruments, parts of 
an army, inanimate obiects ( things or grars and not qualities ) 
names of rivers differing in gender, as also of countries ( and 
not villages ), and insects , and animals between which there is 
natural autip&thy, is always of this naturej 
hands and feet. 
."nd horse-men RiiJfitOTS* WTWiTSa' niftfi<n<mfi9vr players on 

Pan. II. 4. 26. 

t ffr snuhttiSwis^RR i Pan. n. 4. 2j 

4. 6.; ftftrvftfr sn^t^irrm: I P^n. U. 4. 7., ^ffSfrtre: Pan. II. 
4L 8. %v *.fiKfc: ^rrra^: Pau. II. 4. 9. 

189-192 J 



mridanya and panavn ( kinds of tabors ) 
rioc rsq-sa- a kind of sweetmeat 

fried barley or 
but tf 

form and flavour, as these denote qualities; ifirr 

the rivers Ganges nd Sopa; but *i*rnnpT 8B these 
do not differ in gender- ^far ^T^T ^T J^$^|nnr names 
of countries; but 3fry?y3rT<%H->J> ( two villages of that name )j 

( two names of the same gender )j 
louse ^r 1%^TT a nit ^ ?j^rfRT^; 3fl|v ^^ys? 3TfJH^^H 
a snake and an ichneumon, &c. 

190. Names of trees, deer, grass, corn, condiments, blasts. 
birds, the pairs of words- ?ro and W* t p and 3fq-^ t 
Trpr and 3^*aT and words of opposite import not qualifying 
things ( jTBtrs ), are optionally compounded into a 8 am aha* . 
Dwandwa ; * instances in order ^^rrW ?iRinTra' ^^iHM^ 
-Vr: ; similarly ^maq-an ( kinds of deer ), 
kinds of grass, rfrrfir^.^r: kinds of corn, 

191. The names, of fruits, parts of an army, herbs, deer. 
birds, insects, corn and grass-; form a Ssmahara-Dwandwft, 
only when they are taken in the plnral;f as 


192. The following compounds are always what they 
are laid down to ba ( though they do not conform to the proper 
rulea ); viz. 

( a ) Samahara D wand was: TNT*I 

118 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [. 192-194 

so 9ft$ffrTOC> ?^r^ camels and asses, 
camels apd rabbits, jmr*frW?re(, *&*W hol y 8 ra89 and 
grass and soft grass or shrubs, 

(i)Itaretara D wand was: ^TW^T curds and milk, 

holy sticks and grass, .^forgA, W^prfqfr honey and ghee, 

and the Saman verseg. ^|^HH% ( *T^+ WT^ ) speech 
and x mh)d ( the ^ of CTIT3 dropped and a? added to iw^ 
irregularly by Pan. V. 4. 77 ) 

193. When words ending in 35 and implying relationship 
by blood or literary .avocation are compounded together, the 
last but one word changes its 55 to 3?T. The same happens 
when the word g?r follows a word ending in ^ under the 
same circumstances; * 5t?TT ^T 'qftJTr 5 ^ !arircTr?r two priests BO 

called, frar ^r <fr?rr ^r %sr ^ ^T?TT ^r ft<j<?t<3:>^!^R : , ( bufc if 

two words be taken at a time the ma y> at every step, be 
changed into 3TF; as jtar'^T ^rTT ^ ftcTnmrft eft 
- &c. ); f^cTT ^ SST^ ftcn'jsft'? HTHT 
also HmTft^T ( Pan. VI. 3. 32. ), and 

( vide 197 a). 

194. (a) When the names of deities well known to be 
in constant association with each other are compounded, 3TT is 
substituted for the final vowel of the preceding word, except 
in the case of the word errg x; .. g. 
o. but ^fciT or 

(i) The word 3rf?T followed by the word ^ffar or 
lengthens its r , as 

Pan. VI. 3. 25. 
Sid. Kau. 
I Pan. VI. 3. 26. ^[|^T srf^T: I Vftft. 

: i Pan. VI. 3. 27. 

195-197 ] COMPOUNDS. 119 

g 195. When a Samahara-Dwandwa ends in a consonant 
of the palatal class or ^, ^.or ^, 3? is added to it : 37^ ^f ?^r 
speech and skin, r^p^rn^ a bark and .a garland, 
9TT3FW*, ^striR^ an umbrella and shoe?, &c, 
But srTI?$T^ ( as it is not a Sam. Dwa. ). 

196. The following compounds are instances of irregular 
D wand was: 

( a ) sfiseT gfafr ^T SjnSTTSfasft or f^rezfiterft t heaven and 
earth; so qranglft, ^n^F^J 3^+^=OTWrnp?f tfa e goddess 
of dawn and the sun. 

(&) 3Tror-r-<mr=5WTcfr,l 3fWTrft and arraTOir husband and 

) U ^r ^ s^tsa' ^ftneV, ^gw 3Wft%r 

3*18?!^ ^TTT^ m^TW ^TTITWT3C 
thighs and knees. ), trnfr ^ ^873T-rTT 

^ meaning day and night '. 

197. When several words of the same form ( or dis- 
similar in form but of the same import x ) are compounded to- 
gether, only one of them is retained with the necessary number- 

Pan. V. 4. 106. 

t f^fr errar i ft*w sfaam* i P^n. VI. 3.. 29, 30. 

i ^^Tcfr is considered by some to be a word of regular for- 
mation. JT^ in the Vedio literature means * a, house ' and q^- 
1 a master ' m Hence the full word ^rqcfr wonld mean ' the 
mistress of the house. ' 

[ A final ST is added in the cae of these compounds accord- 
ing to a Sutra of Pan. ( 3^<f* V. 4. 77. ) quoted further on 
under 284. 


120 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 197-198 

. 9. *mar TTOW *mr, nw TTOS* *TTOT TTHT: i This is called 

t^^Hfl^:. In the case of the mas. and fern, genders the one 
ot me mas, gender is retained;* as ^ff ^ &FBT ^ffb similarly 

( a ) This principle is farther extended to some wprds dis- 
similar in form, as in the following examples: WcTT ^T t*TOT ^ 

? ^ ftoT ^ (toft ( see alsc193. ), 

also ^^7^V ); ^r ^ m ^r ^ ^T ^ 

ift or ?ftx. In the case of words of the 
mat. fern, and neu. gender that of the ntu. gender is retained; as 

l ^T aim I 

198. The following rules should be observed in arranging 
the various members of a Dwandwa Compound: 

( a ) A A word ending in f or 7 should be placed first, and 
when there are more than one of such words one of these should 
be placed first, the rest being arranged according to the will of 
the speaker or writer; 

{b j ff Words -beginning with a vowel and ending in 3r 
ought to precede others; as 3T^f5T: or iril^^l-'- Tilifl Iule 
should have preference even over the above rule in case both 
would be simultaneously applicable; fftnfK 

(e) || A word that has fewer syllables should be placed 

* STOC ftnni Pin. 1. 2. 67. 

t m^ft **3%3Wr I faTT-WTTT I Pin. 2. 68, 70. 

t T^r: W^l ^ c^KiPi ^fHrg^ i Pan. 1. 2. 71. 72. 

x V^d^R r^ ?iff ^TT^m; ' S1 d - Kau. on Pan. 1. 2. 72. 

Aft firi Pin. II. 2. 3*. ^^irprr^f^ftiT^m: ^ri Virt 

tt 3f3TT^nT^ I Pin. II. 2. 33. 
II 3ty?T5ff*iy I Pan. II. 2. 34. 

i ^uif|(i ^ j V&rt. 

108-202 ] COMPOUNDS. 121 

first and in case there ore more words one having a* equal 
number of syllables, the oae that baa more short syllables 
should be placed first; . g. %*^rft, 3frJT7*F?ft, $5TW5T^, 
&c. ; the names of seasons and stars, uuder this latter circnm 
stance, should be arranged according to their astrononucal 
order; as %*^f$Tf$Rcrtf??rT:, S^FRKiaift, & Also a word 
of more important significance should precede others; 


( d ) * Names of the four castes of men should be arranged 
according to their order, beginning from the highest and so 
should be the names of brothers beginning from the eldest ; 

. 9- m^ow%*fite3grr: , 

199. In the case of words of the TCT^pfTTT^ class that 
which ought to be placed first is placed last; while in the case 
of words of the V|U|fj group ( a sub-division of TT^T^rfff^ ) 
the rule is observed optionally f ; ^5T^fl[ a Sudra and an Arya, 

so 3W5T5T or 


200. When a compound consists of two members and the 
first determines the sense of the other, that is called Tatpurusha. 

201. According to the grammatical nature of the first or 
attributive member the Tatpurusha is divided into six varietios:- 

(1) Tatpurusha proper or the Inflectional, (2) Nan or the 
Negative Tatpurusha, (3) Karmadfiaraya or the Appositjlonal 
including ^Dwigu', ($.5) Pradt and Gati or the Prepositional 
compounds, and (6) V^pnda. These are either nouns, adjectives 
or abverba. 

202. The final vowel of a feminine noun ending in any of 

I ^gvHTnrer- I Vartikas on the above Sutra. 
I Pan. II. 2. 31. V4HlMMq^: I Vart. 

122 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 202-204 

the affixes grf, fr or 37 and forming the second member of a 
compound used adjectively is shortened; the aft of ift la changed 
to 3- under the same circumstances* ; e. g. srnr + 3mir^=sronfT- 
f%g: (Tat.), 3Tnfan^ ( Tat -); ^^ : something bought for five 
cows ; srggr *nrwr *n%^ ^TTT%: mary-veined ^5: (Bah.); 
f%5TT TT^T qR*T f%r=ra: having variegated cows, &c - but qxOTJT- 
q^amqF'- as the f- is not final. 

(a) If the final f or 37 be not a fern, termination; it remains 
unchanged^ 55 tfr. FT 

1 Tatpurusba. 

203. The first variety cons is ts of such Tatpnrusha com- 
pounds as have the attributive member in any one of the 
oblique cases when dissolved. There are six sub-varieties of 
this corresponding to the six oblique cases 

204. (a) A noun in the Accusative case is compounded 

with fsm, sTrfar, qmar, Trr, 3???T*rr, srnr. STTTO, rotr, $g> and 

others f ; as ^or f^ii; f>corfrrT: one who has resorted to Krishna 
( as his refuge ); ff^rama- f'^llrffon one who has overcome pain f 
5^ 3OTO : ^^IM'rf: one who has obtained happiness, gTW *T*ft 
going to a village, a passenger; 3^ ^g: 3l^r^g: &c. 

. B. srnr and anrr^r may also be placed first; as srnfr gfrTt^t 
.* or ^frR^nrnr: one who has obtained livelihood. 

similarly BTTq^r^fH^P: or sftfr^FRT: ; smr^fRr^T ^f, &c. 

(ti) A word expressive of the duration of an action or state is 
compounded with another expressive of the action or state, in the 

* 'ftftmlvmJHW I Pan. I. 2. 48. 

t ^tftai f8rcfl<?lriMidri*ltilr<J4d!4|Cfll<4& I Pan. II. 1. 24.?]Uj|df|- 

I Virtika. 

204-205 ] COMPOUNDS. 123 

Accusative case; . g. ggS &S( %% ^H* * happiness lasting fo 
a moment'; ^q^f m^f: ti^rH^lw ' residence for a year 7 &c. 

( c ) The word ^|T forms an Accusative Tatpurusha with a 
p. p. participle when censure is implied or contempt is to be 
shownf. as HHj 3*TW ^l^'a silly fool', o/. Bhatti. V. 10 

( d ) Sometimes a preposition or a word denoting a period 
of time may take the place of the Accusative^; as mfft&cT 
'half done;' JTRnTTOT-' ( srfirq^sr: ) ' what marks the commence- 
ment of a month as the new moon. 7 

205. A noun in the Instrumental may be compounded 

( a ) x with another expressive of an effect produced by 

what is denoted by the noun in the Instrumental case, and 

with aref , as ^iffgWr W&- ^T^OT^r^: severed by means of a 

knife; \^tf g^T- ^T^Tr*i wealth obtained by means of grain, 

( b ) -r- with verbal derivatives when the Instrumental has 
thes ense of the agent or the instrument or means of the 
action; as sftoiT 5rra: fftsrra: saved by Hn; 5rctf$n5F 
torn with the nails &c. x 

( c ) with the wordsft ^f, *r?5T, ^T, 3J^f and words having 
the sense of g^T, &&% , R5T, ^T, sg^T and g^TT; as irr%5T f^: 
.'; JTT3T ^?5T: WTcf^f^T: like his mother; fqr^TO: equal to hia 

II. l. 29. 

I P^. II. 1.26. 
r^r: I Pan. II. 1. 27, 28. . 
X ^cfarr cTr^ffWT 9019^7*1 Pan. II. 1. 30. 
I Pan. II. 1. 32. 

tt ^JsfrreSNJK W^J*<j6 ftu u l UW J 5Wii^: I Pan. II. 1. 31. 

124 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [205-207 

father; HT%HT 17* wrwt; BO W!<rfTOFJ ( less by one wiMa, a par- 
ticnlar weight ); *rer ^5Jf : *T1*5J5: a quarrel ( in wordi >, 
3?J*rer:, 3TT^m:g^iT: 'thin by the discharge of 

religious 'duties' jmfcT *W W^TI^: ' younger by a month.' 

( d )* With another noun signifying an article of .food or 
something eatable, the noun in the Instrumental case denoting 
tome kind of condiment used to season it or another article' of 
food mixed with it; as *STT 3TfH7t: *WCT : rice mixed with curds; 
3%f qTTT : SJ^VTRT: fried rice mixed witn treacle. 

() Sometimes ^-q- may take the place of the Instrumental 
done by one's self. 

206, Instances of the Aluk of the Instrumental! ( t. e. in 
which the noon in the Inst. does not drop its case term. ) 
*<lone honestly^ 3fnTHIg>dH ^one with 

might'. ^rr^Tf: l one having an elder brother'; ^|M|rM; * blind 
from birth'; jpr^T5HT, W^T^rnflr, when proper names, other- 
^i 8 WttfJFTT, ^s^^TT<fr, &c. 3?r^R[ followed by an ordinal 
number retains iU case ending, at srjrR^T T8HT: 

207. A noun in the Dative is compounded x 

( a ) with another expressive of the material of which the 
thing expressed by the noun in the Dative case is made-, as a 
, ( wood for a sacrificial post. ' 

< * ) and with the words *, ^fT, ffcT, 5W wd *(%*. The 
compound with 3^4 is a nityasimasa and takes the gender and 
number of the noun it qualifies; 

* 3T5PT ?T^rn ! W^TOT fWmoi^ I Pan. II. 1. 34. 35. 
t 3Ttlf:^ftV^IT^^rT^nn:| Pan. VL 3. 3. 3*^ 
Vart. x *rgiff JTT^nwfeftrr^fT%S: I Pan. II. 1. 36. 

207-211 ] COMPOUNDS. 

broth for A Brahmana; i%3TTO f*T 


: ( water-gruel ) 
ottering to the 
bhutas( certain created beings ) ; ife fj?t ifffiiT^ good for a cow f 

208. Instances of the Aluk of the Dat. 

209. A noun in the Ablative oasu is. compounded* 

( a ) with words expressive of fear or rather with tho words 
VT, tfrflT, >fillT and 4V.-, as ^n^-W ^TWTW ftiar from a thief j 
- afraid of a woil, &c. 

( i ) in a law cases with the words 
and 3^^t afl ^^?T: ^Wn?f : deprived of happiness; 
?Rrfnr: ' transcending thought ' or a fool; ' 
: * fallon from heaven, as a sinner '; ?Tf^T^nE<T: ' afruid 
of waves '. 

( c ) in the case of the words Tf9T a little, 
after, and words. having tho sense of these> and 
thero ia an ,-//^ of tho Ablative) J as 



210. A noun in the Genitive may, as a general rule, be 
compounded with any other noun; *r=r: 5^: ^f^S^^ the king's 
man ( an oflicer or a servant ). 

g 211. ft ( a ) It ** n t compounded with verbal derivatives 

. II. 




. n. i. as 

I F&B. II. I. 39 


ending in ^ and are and denoting the agent of the action; 

not 3* c $rer; ^RTW ^rrr, afr^^r <rnre>: &<M but 

as the are? here does not denote the agent. 

Exception*: Bat a compound is allowed in the case of the 
words UMfr ona who employs aa sacrificing priests, ^ST^, *ft- 
^TT35, <<f*%TO a waiter at meals, Hm<fc & servant who bathes 
his master or brings bathing water for him, a^PT^, gfc^T^P 
one who destroys, 5)^, *r, when it does not mean * a holder, ' 
and others not very important; 9T5ronn*T3:> ^^H^v fnf^ft- 
^1*3?: &c. ; srfsr^cTT, ^a?T?rf, &c - but ^T^T ^T ' the thunder. 

( b ) f A. spepific Genitive ( t. e. from which a singling out is 
made ) is not compounded with any other words; as sgorf f^3T : 

( c ) J A noun in the Genitive is not compounded with ordinal 
numbers, words denoting qualities, words implying satisfaction 
present participles, 'past participles meaning ' honoured or 
approved of ' or showing the place of the act, verbal indeclinable's 
and verbal nouns ending in ^q-. e. g. ^raf W:, 5Tm^T 3J3jT: 
(fnTTO; ^npW^T^ni^; qfT^RT ^T%?f: 'satisfied with fruits' 
( ah Inst. Tat. is, of course, allowed in these cases ); 

rar m-- esteemed by the good; 
( place of sitting ) if 

I Pan. II. 2. 9 
t * f%vrhSr i Pan. II. 2. 10. 

I Pan. II. 2. 11-13. The prohibition with respect 
to a word expressive of u quality ($or) is not obligatory, remarks 
Dikshita; aa\Pan. himself uses such compounds as ?9 

&c. Hence compounds like anfiftc^^, fN$HIqj[, &c. are justi- 
fied ( 3TRrlfflf 5^R fif^ST: rT^fTO 

i ). 

211-212 ] CoMPOUiroa. 

N. B. Compounds like yM^fodt, iMUfl:, &c. ought to be 
considered as Instrumental Tatpurushas. 


(I) If the word denoting a quality ends in ^ it does combine 
with a noun in the Genitive, and the ft? ia dropped; 
whiter than all othera ; similarly 

(2)*The words f^mq", ^tfta, ^1 and g are compounded 
with nouns signifying the whole of which they are parts, and 
are optionally placed first; fifcM fSr$TT*TP fi[ffarf*Sn, fwrii[ft- 
qr^ half of the quantity cf alms; but Tf rfH f$r$TFn: ( begging 
alms a second time ) fSrg^T. 

Note. Compounds like fiSfnTTOSTT, gjfolg: (see further 
on ) &c. are not strictly Gen. Tat. as the case of the first 
word determines the name, but mere Tat.; some call these 
Norn. Tat. ( STOTJRTcJ^? ). 

( a ) I A noun in the Genitive, used as an object in a sentence, 
when the agent and object of the action denoted by the nouns 
formed by krit affixes' are both ueed, is not compounded* as 
aTTSOTT *T^t ^TtrS'TI^7T ' the milking of cows by one, not a cow- 
herd, is a wonder. ; 

212. j <j^, 3?q-5t, snrc ^W^r and ajvj n. are compounded with 
nouns in the Genitive expressive of the whole ana are placed 
first; e. g. <? ^nnzr S*FT: the forepart of the body; stTOaPT: 
3T^^q?T^: &c. ^ f^T5^T: ^^fi^TcfT; but fTTRT'<i: as ( 3^ is 
mas. here ). 

N B. In order that the above rule should hold the noun 
expressive of the whole must denote a single object; hence ?f: 

Pan.II. 2. 3. 

t ^mor ^T I Pan. II. 2. 14. 


128 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 212-215 

the first 3rnrmf< among pupils, 3(5 fMTgfran* baM of a number 
oi pippalis &c. and not ^TtTTSf: ttc. 

213. 'A worn expressive of a part is compounded with 
another signifying a period of time and la placed first; 
: mid-day j r<n:, RVSTTaf &c. 

214.* A word expressive of a period of time that has 
passed since a certain occurrence is compounded with another 
expressive of the occurrence; as jn*fr STHTW OW * 
'one since whose birth a month has elapsed'; eo 

215 f Instances of the Aluk of the Gen. The noun in the 
Genitive may retain its case ending 

( a ) when reproach ii to be implied, as 

. Also whbn %*RfU followed by fifr*nd the whole 

means a fool; otherwise 

< t ) whtn the words *f^> f&l and q^q^ are followed by gr^ r 
^fs^ and 5^ respectively} aa ^r^t^f%: skilful speech; ' i^^ft- 
^n^>: i a particular appearance of stars in the shape of a staff in 
the skyj ' q^Qcfi^: * one who robs another in his very presence 
while he is looking on, ' hence ' a goldsmith, a rogue/ 

( c ) in the following cases: Q4^iy: ' a king of Kashi, ' 
:: ' Indra, ' crr^nRm: lord cf speech, Brihaspati; 
: and SHWK^: 'sons of Ajigarta. J 

(d) and optionally when followed by g=r and censure is im- 
plied; ^TWT: 5^: or ^rtfrgsf : a bastard, a knave; but 

* nn: 1f?mfnRT I Pan. IL 2. 5. 
t- WTT 5dnFf& I P&Q VI. S. 21. 


Vartikas. < '5^1^^^' Pan. VI. ?. 

215-216 ] COMPOUNDS. 129 

( e )* When a word ending in q? is compounded with another 
and there is the relation by blood or some kind of learning, 
the aluk is necessary; and optional when it is followed by pr*r 
and qfft. The initial ^r of ^pr is optionally changed to ^ 
when preceded by FHH or ft^y and when there is aluk, and neces- 
sarily when there is no aluk in a compound* 9. g, 
fr' pupil of the hotri\ m3:*TOT, or mg: 

so ftg.-^r^r, &c. ( but j^: ^rr, ft^. f^r when 

uncompounded ); ^^H^fff: or ^^.q^: ; but 

216. 4 noun in the Locative is compounded 
( a ) fwith sftu^-, tj& f%?nr a rogue, jpfVor, tftftrT adorned, 
invested with, 3T?cTr, ant, ^, lf3^T, f^TST, ^R5T, fts<*, fN[, 
, TIT, and *?*r; as 3^^ ^fnr*?: 3?^5T^- skilled in dice- 
?fr f ^TT^fhr: dependent on God ( when compounded 
the affix ^ *. e. \^ is coinpolsory; so the compounded form is 
always with greffr )i aflffq^^ 5 dried in the 81in ; WT5?TT: 

cooked in a pot; ^fK^q*: a kitd of poetic composition; &c. 

(6)| with words meaning a < crow ' when contempt is 
implied; <ft \-?TT3iT f 5T cfl^^nS^T: said in contempt of one who 
is very greedy; BO fthara:; similarly sfir^rrai: srrq^n &o. &c. 

There are a few Loc. Tat. compounds given in the list 
having a similar sense; e. g. 

well-abiding frog t. 0. one who knows nothing of the world 

VI. 3. 23. 24. 

viu. 3. 84, 85. 

t ?wr shoi: { r%^5^TO3r^ i P^. II. 1. 40, 41. 
J uus-IjniT jft i qr^^wm^iiT i Pin. n. i. 42, 48. 
i ^^r ^RT^!^ TORW sr^ft * i Sid. 

H. 8. G. 9. 


outside the pale of his own village; so |pr- 
373T3>ftiT : ~~!TT3d*' ^- an insect in the fruit of the Vdttmbara 
tree; metaphorically it means the same~as ffimu$<fc;, 
&o. In some cases there is an aluk of the Loc.. as 

boasting coward', ^sq"!^: * braggadocio', if^nff ' a house- 
hero', 'a carpet knight', <TT^$3ld: ' clever in eating only ' t. e. 
' a good-for-nothing fellow'., <n^rfacTP 

Note: Words of this class do not enter into further combi- 
nation with other words. 

( c ) * with another, when they both imply a name ( ^for )i 
there is an aluk of the Loc. term, when the nonn ends in a 
consonant or s?; as auutiMdW* ft** ' wild sesamnm yielding 
no oil, hence anything not answering to one's expectations;' 
similarly cfl^jfofcit. ?wf%fm: ' bamboo ' (also r^KTT :, vide 
Si. IV. 61, ). These compounds are nitya ( obligatory ) as 
remarked by Bhattoji ( <i(|^H <Hq|IM|4|Uli%(^nn > cft^ ). 

( d ) with potential p. participles in *r implying an obliga- 
tion; *T8t4 (**nO-, S*Tf*nM*m)5 the alnk by 217 
( b ) below. 

( e ) | with p. p. participles when it expresses a part of the 
day or night; 33- may take the place of the Loc.; as tgqTT^ 9ft 
3tM|tJj|^: riaigifcq &c; but 3^% g^; and with the 

p. p. participles when reproaeh is implied; with an alul of the 
Loc ; as 'OTmM$c4$U<f irtcf^' * this thy action is similar to 
that of a mungoose on the hot ground. 7 
aeed to express the inconstancy of a person. 

t !$y5?n?flHwn: B^KIIK i i 

I 1.44. VI. 3 9. VIII. 8. 9. 5. 
t ^TtRTarr^fT: I nsri $ft i Pin. IJ.2. 45-47. 

217 ] TATPURUSHA. 131 

217. Additional instances of the aluk of the Loc. 

( a ) Aluk is necessary in the case of the words-(l )iff and *pj 

followed by fi^; as jrftfgr:, stationary in the sky, 

firm in battle; ( 2 ) f ^ and ^followed by **$j gi^gaE, 

(&& fi& ** qjqaift ); ( 3 ) 3T*<T and roriollowed by 

3J^:, 3T?^I?>: and ( 4 ) words expressive of parts of the body 

except g\h[ and *ftcT3r and not followed by g& 

gjffig'mr ( having the hair on the breaat: Bah. ), but inJr 

(b) * When a noun in the Loc. is compounded with a verbal 
derivative and the whole is a name, aluk takes place in most 
cases; e. g. ?fl*^W ( 5T*% a kind of grass fjflr 3^ft ) an elephant; 
tfcUMH- one who whispers into the ear, a spy; ^TT: a heavenly 
being; fo^ a lotus-, ^^T^, 5!%^R: a fish; but 
or ^<M &c. 

(e) There is optional aluk of the Loc. of a word expressive of 
time when compounded with 3^5? and words ending in the 
affixed tnr and ?R T-f- rf--9> &c. 

(d) f When the compound is not a name, aluk it necessary 
when 3f comes, after jrr^, 51^, ?ET<7 and f^fj and optional 
when it comes after wj, ^T?, ^T? and *f ; as 

or q^r: produced in the rainy season, &c. 

Exceptions J:- NTo aluk takes place in the case of verbal deri- 
vatives ending in ^ and the words ftr^-, ^, and ^r in the 
ordinary language; as Hlfu3<.5$ll<f! t an ascetic, ' 

I Pan. VI. 3. 14. 

^ \ frrrTT rl^^T^T^i P VI. 3. 15.16. 

\ & ^ TTTTm^l Pn- VI. 8. 19. 20. 

132 SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. [ 217-219 

() *When a noun in the JLX)c case ending in gj or a conso- 
cant and not denoting time is compounded with $rq-, m^f anc 
with *c* aluk ie optional. fc-^pr:, !lTR-*Rrm:, 

2. KaD or the Negative Tatpurusha. 

218. (a) The negative particle sr changed to ar before a con- 

onant and a^ before a vowel, may be compounded with any 

noun to form the Negative-Tat purushaf; as *r srr^roT: ^fliflm:, 

ine not a Brahmaoa. sr 9P7: 3R^9v Rrr[, non-existent, or not 

good, &C, 

219, The if is not changed to 3? or a^ in the following 
caaeft-qrerc ' that which does not shine/ <a cloud;' rqrg[(pre. p.) 
'* one who does not protect;' 1%^T: ' one who does not know* / 
Hl^fMP [ f ^TTJ dWf*J|J 5T ^yH||: wf|^rq|: x ] the two 
Aswins, the physicians of the gods. 5TgT%: [ * g^nfffit' ] name 
of a demon slain by Indra; q&: [ sr ^^n<^, for the mungoose 
is supposed to belong to no particular species of animals ]; ng- 
[ *T CTrer that which leaves no cavity, or does not go to heaven 
being burnt down with the dead body ]; H^i" [ 5f ^Ff OTH; ] 
sm^ [ sr ^f^Tt^ ] that which does not move from its proper 
place, hence a star; ^^: [ r sfelUdffd that which does not go far 
Off from water ]; ^r^: [ sr q 31$ 7 *$ ^fWJi ]; 5T*T when it 

| Pan. VL 3. 13. 18. 
Pan. II.2.6. * ,<ft 5^: , fTOTJffJ^V^I Pan.VL 3,73.74 

Pan. VI. 3. 75. ^nmiflum^d^ I ?**. VI. 3. 77. 

X OT ^T^rfTf%W%(f ( is not the point) fa * 

219-221 ] KABMADHA'BAYA. 

does not qualify an animal retains its q optionally as ;nfr: or 
3W ' mountain or a tree$' bnt MT: ^cJ-' ' Sudra that cannot 
move. ' 

N. B. It should be noted that some of these are Bahuvrfhi 

220. Panini defines a 'Karmadharaya' as 

01 Tatpurusha both the members of which are in the 
same case relation i. e. have the same case when dissolved. 

N. B. The difference between the Tatpurusha proper and 
Karmadharaya is this: In the case of the former the attributive 
member has one of the oblique cases when dissolved, while 
in the case of the latter it it in apposition to the other member. 
It may thus be a noun or an adjective qualifying the other member. 

221. ( a ) f A word expressive )f the standard of compa- 
rison ( CTRTiT ) may be compounded in a Karmadharaya with 
another denoting the common quality or ground of comparison; 
as ^T fr 33TTT VHA*JHT dark like a cloud. Such compounds 
are called 

( & ) J Similarly a noun denoting the berg on or thing com- 
pared ( sqifr ) may be compounded with word* indicative of 
excellence, sucn as 5tirsr, fiff , ^, 3CT3T, &o. no mention &[ 

. 2. 42. 
t iMHi"iiS *tmi*MMH: I Pan. II. 1. 56. 

1 3<rm<T ainrrRrft: *rm*ronfr5t i Pan. n. i. 56. 

All these words are included under what is called the group 
of simr. The more important of these words are sqrJT, 


J " Amara III. 1. 

134 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. [ 221-222 

the common attribute (of similarity ) being made; as 
7 TTiT jrt" S^TSTTin a man like a tiger ( *. e. as bold as a tiger )j 
g^- ?frf ^ 5- ma^^g: a moon-like face i. e. as delightful as the 
moon ; 3$ *H<tW<* g^H<4H &c. ; these are called 

1. The difference between the two is this : In the 
former the common quality of comparison is actually expressed. 
while in the latter it is left to be understood ; in fact if it be 
expressed there can be no compound ; as <j^sr: sq-fgr f ^ *g^: I 

Nott. 2. The above Karmedharayaa may be dissolved as 

&c. Dissolved 

in either way there will be no difference in the formation of the 
compounds but there will be difference both in the meaning 
and in the metaphor. In cue case prominence will be givon to 
=tF3[ or the moon and the figure will be 'upama. ( a simile ),' 
while in the other to fp<? or the face in which case the figure 
will be 'Rupaka*.' Compounds like 
, &c. are termed 

222. An adjective may be compounded with the noun it 
qualifies in most cases | as tfitf ^ *%?*& ^ Jft^RT^, a blue 
lotus &c. ; ^orWRft ^BTO" froi*nr: where the comp. is necessary; 
but snTTfrefr TTR: I Such compounds are called 

As a general rule in such compounds the qualifying wora 
is placed first; but there are several exceptions which are 
given below. 

* So when, the common attribute is applicable in its express- 
ed ( *TO ) sense to the grr^q- as in g^q^r H$\W dissolve the 
comp, as gjf TO?OT and when to the sJMHIH as in 

t ft^Wuf f%^or 5jfi3[ I Pan. II. 1. 57. 

222 ] KABUADHA'BAYA 135 

( a ) *The quali6ed word is placed first and is always of the 
mas. gender if it denote! a class or species, when compounded 
with certain adjectives; . g. f^^fR: ' a young female ele- 
pnant', 3T|%*?fte: ' small fire', ^forSifaqq^ n "butter-milk 
mixed with a little water-, fftp: '* cow ' tbat naa brought 
forth a calf for the first time', ifT%$: 'a milch-cow (jnrsnjnfaiT )'; 
ift^n ^ barren cow', *fi%f^ ( mfarffRT ift: ), 'TN'^MJufT 
'a cow whose calf is one year old/ $39ftl%qr: t an agnihotrin 
Brabmana of the Katha branch of the Yajarveda,' 
< a teacher of the Katha branch/ f 

(also mas. according to some) 3^[: ( <Rl< )-ftg*T ; an excellent 
cow'. The last mentioned five words, all of which denote 
excellence, retain their own gender invariably; as STT^rarerclf&CT 
'an eminent Brahmvna' &c.; but ^WKf iTHT%^r, &a no class is 
meant here. 

(b) J The words sfcPT; ^3f, ^fte lame, ^TOT, ^u^ blunt, dull, 
bald-headed, iffr, ^[, fag9 fif^T, fifTcy, 3, 5TT7 hard, 
stiff, ^Yvfr, ^^ and ^r, may optionally precede the words in 
apposition to them; as % ^mf^?Tr or g^rr^^mi^.* Jaimini who 
is turned tawny on account of his having practised penance in 
the sun. 7 &c. 

(e) Words expressive of the persons or things condemned 

Pan. II. 1. 65. VI. 3. 42. 

t ST3f*HRR%ar I Pan. II. 1. 66. ( H?Tr%T^TT M^rf^r 5f 
I Sid. Kau ). 
I Amara. 

t ^rrn.* ^*m^ i Pan. II. 2. 38. 

^SRITfS ^?*S: I ^nm% ^r%?(: I Pan. II. 1. 53 54. fife 
; Pan. IT 1. 64. 


or reproached are placed first; aa ifcn&tuiMtiRj** <ft bad gram- 
marian/ 'one who has forgotten his grammar and therefore can 
make no use of his knowledge;' ( <[: 

i T*tv. ); so 

wtimtmsat* who is a sceptic' or < an unbeliever'; except in the 
case of the words qr<T, a*ore and f^ ; as ma-qrrf^rf: 'a bad 
barber,' munfe$aid ' a mean, silly potter,' 

(d)* Words in apposition to 3?3R^, iffT and ^g^ are also 
placed first; . ^. ^Mi^K4>: ' an eminent king/ *mifrKt, 

5^nr:, &c. 

(4 t $RT and qfl9| are compounded only when they aak a 
question with reference to a class ( snf^ family), and are 
placed first; :p. qpcTT-9?nT-3>?: 'which Br&hmaoa. of the Katha 
branch*? ^fff-?fm-^yt^: ' which Br&hmaDa of the Kalipa 
branch'? But *?w 9: ( which son* J 

(/) J The word ^inf ( and also ^ffrft changed to ^TTT ) 
placed first when compounded w^Lth one of the words 

as ^OTTSnror * a female mendicant/ 
' a young female ascetic'; WC:-^T 'a deHcate 

(^)S TEe words ^r^, ^r$, grrff. !TnoT snr and ^r^. and the 

. II. 1. 62. 
Pan. II. 1. 63. 

H i Pan. IL 1 49. 

'KI I Pan. IL 1. oo. 

222-223 ] KABMADHA'RAYA, 187 

words on?, 9^, ^wr, WWT ' hindmost, ' ^HTT*, mU", flV44 and 
^T are always placed first in a KarmadLaraya compound. 
9t<TC when followed by 3n$ is changed to 797: as 
master or lord', 9*9 3n> ^IT^nf^M 'an old logician,' 
afareTv'o** 1 mimavua philosophers/ 
the old grammarians, ' 

4 the hinder part or side of the body,' ^RTftnT: the last 

' being in the same category or predicament': 

a sole warrior i. g. an eminent warrior', &c. The 
lorm q^CK ( found need by great writers ) also may be 

( A ) f The words *%, mr^> TORf. 3im and g^^ are com- 
pounded with another noun when they are used as terms of 
praise or excellence; *&q: ' an excellent physician' H^ 

&c. bat 3W5$i i: where 7*53 means 'uplifted, or * drawn 
out of ' 

223. J Names of quarters and numerals form a Karm. com- 
pound with anv tudanta ( a declinable word ) but only vfhenthe 
whole compound is an appellation* e. g. ^rjnfq-: < Name of a con 
tellation of stars/ 'Ursa Major-,- 

^r I How do you justify the form 

? For the Sutra o^hrr &c. being a subsequent one ought 
to have preference over the preceding Sutra ^4*fel&fe & c - and 
we, should have sfr^: We reply. The form may be justified 
by supposing that the rule operates in most cases only 
a ^ ew ) 

: i Pan. n. 1. ei 

t A^A ^rnn^ i P&n. IL i. 61. 

ft These are gods, men, Gandharvas, serpents, and Pitris, 
according to some; and Bramaoas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, 
S'udras and Nishadhas or barbarians, according to others. 
( Vide Shankarfich&rya on Brah. 8u. I. 4. ll.-B. ) 

138 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 223-224 

<Name o a town in the east;' ^frfr ?$TT : 'Northern, trees; 
: &c. The compound is forbidden in other cases. 

( a ) *But words denoting a cardinal point or numerals may 
be compounded with any other noun when a Taddhita termina- 
tion is to be affixed to the compound so formed ( or it conveys 
in addition to its sense as a Karm. a derivative meaning such 
as is usually denoted by a Tad. aff. ) or when the compound 
itself becomes the first member of another compound or when 
the compound forms a proper name; $& STT3JT T^TTcJr; vfat 
<Th5f5TT3J: ' being in the eastern hall ' from 
* Tad. aff. 51 added by 

Pan. IV. 2. 107 ) so qn + *rr$=wn$ ' lix mothers' -I- Tad. 
the son of six mothers., qsrf ^rraT fiwt *TW It 
where jS^non is a cr*<r and not used inde- 

pendently-, TTT^a^:, Tf^TOI: &c. which are names. 

224. The particle ^ forms a Karm. compound with any 
other word. %%$*: ( $f%rT: 5^: ) a bad man; ^3*: &c. 

( a ) f ^ is changed to ( 1 ) ?p^ when followed by a noun with 
an initial vowel in a Tat. by |% and the nouns w and q% and 
by f^or < denoting a species-/ ^fJeratw ^^: ' bad horse;' so 
r 'coarse food-/ but ^: < having bad camels 7 (a Bah. comp.) 
faraf: ^q-: ^r^tr: ' three inferior things/ mpj: ' a bad 
chariot,-* $5^: 'speaking ill, a bad speaker/ ^uj^ ' a kind of 
fragrant grass/ 

( 2 ) To ^r when followed by qrRftt and 3r$T and when meaning 
<a little/ and optionally when prefixed to 55^; ^FW^, TT^T: ' * 
sidelong looker a frown of displeasure/ see Bh.V. 54 

Pan. II. 1. 51. 
( ^ ^r' Vart: ) TW^frw | ^5r 

Pan. VI. 3. 101-107. 

224-225 ] KARMADHA'BAYA. 139 

Sid- Kau. ). f t^n^ ^^ <a little 

water, ' 

( 3 ) And to gjT or <$? when foil wed by ^sor; cFtrof, ^nTO and 
q^vft by ( 1 ), all meaning < lake- warm '. 

225. Two adjectives may also be compounded into what is 
callfld the H l Wl WTnf^faTW as ^^^or:, ^omRT:* 

( a ), * Two participles expressive of two consecutive actions 
of the same individual may be compounded together, the one 
expressive oi the previous action being placed first; su^r ^TPT: 
F: ^RT3T%*T: 'first bathed and then anointed''; 

similarly q'ratsfr<far ' fi"t drunk and afterwards vomited out '. 
: ( Rag. II. 1. IV. 43 ), &c. 

( b ). In the case of the two sets of words given above 
( 222..^. ) forming compounds with one another those be- 
ginning with 3^ are placed first. In the case of qr^ compounded 
with qffc it may precede or follow it. as ^j^%: or q^i^:-, the 
former, however, is preferable. In the case of the first set of 
words viz. rr^? ...... %^^ the one succeeding precedes the one 

preceding when compounded together; as $rnH3TT^, ^^3- 

norac, &c. 

( c ) f A past participle is compounded with another with 
the negative particle prefixed to it; ' $(fffnt, ' wittt ia dene 
and not done, i. e. < partially done ; . 

( d ). { The word 5^ ( m. /. ) -enters into a Kami, com p. 
with the words ^Sf^fff, <rf&cT> *i%T having wrinkles, and 
is placed first-, t. e. Qlt + ig&fo: ^gr^^iaf: ' a young 

* See Pan. II. 1. 49. ( 

I Tatv. quoted above ) 

t rrT* ^f5^T%CTR5T I PAn. II. 1. 60. 

r-' I P^n. II. 67. 

140 SANSKRIT GBAKMAB. [ 225-228 

bald-headed man 'psrr '* young bald-headed woman ' , 

a young woman looking old'; amOfl: ' young man whose 
hair is grey % &c. 

226. The word for ' little' is compounded with any other 
word except a verbal derivative, and even with a verbal deri- 
vative when it expresses a quality j as qr$np*y: * a little brown', 
* reddish. < ftc. 

227. f Words ending in the terminations HOT. srfhft V and 
and words having a similar meaning) may be compounded 
with any tubanta nc t importing a particular kind; 0. g. ifraqft- 
' any hot eatable , ' fprfo: * of a similar white colour, ' 
:, &o. ; but %*?: rr^T: as the latter word refers to a 
kind of food here. 

228. J The following are the more important of the 
pounds given by- Pan. as irregular under the cl 

: ' a cunning peacock ', so 

so ^SiTvT^ni ' high and low', < great 
and gmall', (S^Rf ^T srfim ^ ft^^H, ^Tt??T 

TTR: Mmird<^ ft^ f%?Rr? ( these are nitya- 

l that in which 

are constantly uttered the words < eat and drink ' f so 

that in which are uttered the words ' I alone; I alone ; ' hence 
hard competition. &c. ary a* 3Tf *$fy\* TOT* 

so BIlsl^Rqai ' great self-conceit or pride ' 
( Bhatti. V. 27 ); vaunting ' , ( Bv.I. 84 ) &c. Also 
put to flight, ' qw^T accident, ' &c. 

* i^^TT I Pan. II. 2. 7. 

t SHJ^ROII 3T5TT?qT I Pan. II. 1. 68. 
iM I Pan. II. 1. 72. 

g 229-231 ] Dwior COMPOUNDS. 141 

229. In some Karmadharaya compounds the last member 
oi the first word which is itself a compound word is dropped*} 
. y. STTOISTO: tmw: Srre^mv*: ' a king who likes vegetables;, 
%q^t& 3n$nn: $*3TTfT<iT: & c. These compounds, though they 
should be properly called *' Uttamapadalopi " are popularly 
designated '< Madhyamapadalopi ". Any compound requiring a 
similar explanation is classed under this group ( 
which is an 3 


230. f When the first member of a Karmadharaya com 
pound is a numeral it is called ' Dwigu '. 

231. A Dwigu compound is possible ( a ) under the circum- 
stances mentioned in 223 ( a ) i. e.- 

( 1 ) when a Taddhita affix is to be added to the compound so 
formed. <rmJTi lUrprm^q- TTHHTQT: ' the son of six mothers, Kir-, 
tikeya ; (vide Ku. IX )j q^a^m^: &c; or (2) when the com- 
pound itself becomes the first member of another compound, as 

( b ) And when the compound denotes an aggregate; in this 
case it is singular; J as ^q-yort $f *RT ^mif IT: T%S^H* the three 
worlds ( taken collectively ) ; as q> 

Vdrt on 
II. 1. 60. 

t ^JT^fr f|j: I Pan. II. 1. 52. 
^ 4. I 

142 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 232-233 

4. Pradi. 

232. Those Tatpurusha compounds whose first member is 
a preposition are termed Pradi by Sanskrit grammarians*; some 
of these prepositions combine with a following noun in the 
Norn., with a noun in the Ace. &c.- e. g. STiRf: 31TCT& WMl4: 
* M/4&iinop<g teacher ', ire: W&K* *NTC*: 'taken to a path- way' 

X vide Bhatti - II1 ' 45 ) **&** * m: ** : ' atr D g or excessive 
wind, ' &c.; afflRETOt JTT53T 3TfiTJTTcJ: 'excelling a garland' (in 
fragrance or beauty ), srftsFFcft TO *f$R art STfifW ' a chariot- 
warrior who has no rival or equal ' so atftTHT? ' exceeding 
measure, ' 3TrTO^ &c. 3?^^^: cfelfi^l 3flnEft%5J: ' attracted by 
the cnckoo; ' qfff?n?r: ar^qmTR q^t-gqir: * tired of studying. y 
T^f^TTf^: ' go ae out of KauSambi; ' so 

&c. A compound with prepositions which govern cases 
) is forbidden; g# sr^r. 

5 Gati. 

233. Compounds of the following words with verbal inde- 
clinable! are called Gati. 

( a ) t The particles srfr, ^cfr, ^rT^, ^T?, ^FfT, W^T, STTf :, 

and srl. and tiie word ^TR^T meaning an action; as 
fl^T * having accepted. mz$<q. ' having uttered 
the word Vashat; y J?r|W, ^rfr^tS??^ ' having done the act. ' 

( b ) J Onomatopoetic words not followed by jrf?T> 
but tqiigm ^>f^r ( fiteTi^o. ) 

II. 2. 18. STT^r TfTT^TV M^MHMI I 


1 * I Vartikas. 

t *^Rfti4H^r t Pan. I. 4. 61. 

t 3T39** ^FRf?HT^ I Pan. I. 4. 62. 


( c ) *The words ?rg and T*TcI showing respect and disrespect 
respectively, the prepositions 3?<? in the sense of 'adorning,' 

STv 3TT-* 3KT : > *5*l, ** : > 3*^ 31^ atld fifr; a3 3leF*r Cav- 
ing adorned', but 3^ cfTr-rr doing enough ( q^rRm^TVT: Sid. 
Kaa. ); 5^5?^ ' placing in the front 7 ; s^sjfq- ( 
3rert?T ( JT1&- f?*T Sid. Kau. ); gtfl^T, as ^T^fq- 
'he drinks milk to his heart's content'^ 3T^5feT ^having gone 
up to and spoken' ( sTftfj^ n?gT 3^1T ^ f zrV'- Sid. Kau. )-, 
T?TfhaTT, iRTfC? ( till disgust is produced ) ; 
'going towards.' 

(d) fTLe words ^, ^roft and srret; as 
'having married'; STTV^^r 'having forced to yield.' 

(e) |The particles ^irr%, 3T?3T%, ^r^m , mqr, 3TWT, 
grri^r and ^R^;, the words wrr%, g^%, ( except when there is 
the sense of juxtaposition or extreme contact ), w&, and the 
word tr^- form compounds with verbal indeclinables optionally; 

'giving strength 

to the weak' [ ^j^Hi 4gSHNiq ffTO: Sid. Kau ] ; 

^^Rr-wrr, ^TT%^fq--?rT ( having accepted ) H 
; but 

(/) These compounds are also formed with nouns derived 
from roots for their second members; e. g. 3TfHJrir: l setting 
of the sun,' 5*^1^: 'reception, showing respect/ 

234. TEe fk* formations ( see Chap. XI. ) are also classed 
as prepositional Tatpurusha compounds; as UigfefTT having 
turned white what was not so before. 

Pin. I. 4. 63-71. 
Paru I. 4. 77-7.a. 
Paa. I. 4. 73-76. ( vnprm* ^TTOOT^r I ). 

144 SANSKBIT GBAMMAR [ 235-237 


235. When the second member of a Tat. Oomp. is a root- 
noun deiived from a root which takes a particular Krit affix 
by virtue of the nresence of the first member, it is called an 
Upapada Tat. ; as ap*T CTTcfrfff ^WER: t a potter;' so *mr 
irnnftfir ^rmT-* 'one who chants averse of the Saman Veda;' 
'desirous of meat'; similarly grs^tffcft 
) 'bought for a horse', <fe^4V 'a female tortoise/ 

&c. The noun prefixed to the last member, such as $nr, is 
called an upapada* 

N. B. The latter member of such compounds must nei<- 
ther be the conjugated form of a root nor a separate verbal 
derivative . e. formed independently of the last member; . g. 
qjjlVH is not an Upapada Tat., as the word %T? can be inde- 
pendently formed; it is a Gen. Tat. 
'a cloud' or 'the female breast*' 

236. Sometimes the second member of an Upapada 
Tat. my be a Namulanta or the verbal indeclinable in 3^. as 
*M^bK S% <fa e eats having sweetened iood; 7 3^T^ 
1 having dined first;' sometimes this compound is optional, 
or 73%;? Sq^^f g% ' he eata the condiment with a 

raddish,' &c. 

237. Some upapadas such as 3%:, sft^:, ft^, E^ff:, &c.. 
also optionally form compounds with the verbal indeclinable 
in c*T ( changeable to g ); as 3^.'5W ( or ^: %&n ), ferf- 
3FJ5?T, g^cfT^T, 5fRT^c?T, T^mj^r? &c. For iurther parti- 
culars vide the Chapter on verbal derivatives. 

Pan. III. 1. 92. 

Sid. Kau. 



238. *The word mf'| at the end of a Tatpurusha compound 
changes ita final to 3T when preceded by a numeral or an inde- 
clinable, as i(- 3?f^r HJHIUIIHH fl*l*g ^T5 * a piece of wood 

va % 

meaflnring two fingers/ Q<MHf'foy*ft PUfdH &c. 

S3 X3 

239. The following words, when at the end of a Tatpu- 
rusha, drop the final vowel, together with the following 
consonant if there be any, and add ar under the circumstances 

( a ) t *tfaj when preceded by a numeral, an indeclinable, a 
word expressive of a part of the whole, such as q^, spnCy & c -, 
or by the words q$, fo*lld' and 50^. as % 
Bildq an aggregate of two nignts ( Dwi. )j 
H?: tnut has passed a night, the dead of night; 
the first part of the night, ^f wfe: wi\ 
^MrmTTsr:, ynrrrar: an auspicious night. 

The same happens when ^n% is preceded by 373^ in a 
Dwandwa; as 

I fT3T^, 3R5^ and sfifr; as ir^r: ^TTq^mST* a great king. 
3T$: tTWH^ an excellent day, ^ ^r 

a holy day, S%HIIW, ( vide 245. 5. ), 

|j &c. 

(c) Exceptions 3*9^ wnen preceded by an indeclinable, or a 

: | Pan. V. 4. 86. 

t 315: w^srcnsqia^mg- TT^. i ^n. V. 4. 87. 
Pan. V. 4. 91. 

. 4, 88. 
H. 8. 0. 10. 

146 SAHSKBIT GKAMMAB. [ 239-240 

word denoting a part of the whole, or by ^ or by a numeral 
with a Taddhita affix added to the whole compound, becomes 
3Tgf 5 a* *fl'*IW*s exceeding a day (in duration) 
forenoon, qzfa: the whole day, 

' &c v ^^ tfWRT. the change is optional; 

A r . J5. The*3[ of the substitute is changed to qr when preceded 
by ^ belonging to the first member ending in 37; as 444]^:; bnt 
TOT* 3**: <m^: < as fin ends in 3ff ). 

( d ) f cT$T^ when preceded by JJTH or ^, and sgp^ by s?f^ or 
an inanimate object with which it is compounded- 0. g. 

: ' village carpenter *. e. one not very skilful-,' 

: ( Ha^r- ) ^ ^T^ 1 cT^T ^ ^te^T: ' an independent 
carpenter'; arfite: [ ^n?: ] 'fleeter than a dog' 5 a^f^T ( worse 
than a dog's life ) *far; 3TTCT: ^F f* 3ff^TW: ' dog like *. e. 
bad or unlucky throw of dice- 7 but 4|H*qr ' a monkey like 
a dog'. 

()t*fW wnen preceded by ^^rc, ^if or ^ or by a word 
denoting an inanimate object with which it is compounded; 
3TWT^l*l the upper part of the thigh', ^ni^^Vj^ 'the thigh of 
adeeV^r^r^,F5ygfff^?ErfTO M>g54>^^^ 'a thigh like a 

(/) A numeral when compounded in a Tat. ftmnft f|r$r<T: 
( *^r ) more than thirty; 

: a sword more than thirty fingers in length 
240. The following words have an gj added to them when 
at the end of a Tatpurnsha compound: 

(a) *fY except when a Tad. afi. is added and then dropped; e. g. 

I Pan. Vin. 4. 7. 
\ irmTWt ^ KW \ 3^: ^r: i dMHMKMir% I Pan. V. 4. 

t ^i ^51 1 1451 1 ^^i ti^*tf I P*n. V. 4. 98. 
MUfiKfldfc I Pan. V. 4. 92.. 


: an excellent bull, TOTT*-( a collection of five cows ) 
but ffai: exchanged or bartered for two cows. 

( * ) * ST^ meaning 'chief or eminent'. ar^RT 3T 
'the chief of horses t. e. an excellent horse/ 

( e ) f The words 3&%( 3TOT^, 3FT^ and frf^ when tney de- 
note a class or form names. OTTTO^ ( Tq^m 3R- ) ' a cart-load,' 
UgHfr: ' a kitchen '; ar^rTF^R: ' a kind ->f stone like the moon- 
stone ' [ in this case the final gr^ is dropped ]; ^T9T7^[ i black 
iron', nu^^Hf^H ' a lake inl1 of f r g 8 '; 
that name.' 

( d ) I $ at the end of a Dwigu. except when the Tad. affix 
is dropped ), as ^pRTt sftvirmnra: ft'fWWrar: ( when the aff. i- 
not dropped ), ftni^H. t a collection of two boats', BO QniMH. 
&c; but Tagrfvr: ^ft: ^hr: 'Hapft:, a lso when it is preceded by 
3T$; ae ^nr-* 3T^T anidHH the muter is irregular ( <j\<$\^ Sid. 
Kau. ). 

( ) ^"TTT ( & measure of corn ) under similar circumstances 
takes the a? optionally, the final f being dropped before it: 

(/) + 3T^%, preceded by f^ or ft in a D wigu, optionally 
takes 3?, except when the Tad. aff. is dropped, before which 
the final f is dropped- s^rsr^-f^ ' two handfnls'; but 

241. ff The ^ of a^5j is optionally dropped when preced- 

. V 4. 93. 

t *Ml*Hm: ^T^Tf sHlQ^jlMl: I Pan. V. 4. 94. 
ftifh I 3Tvrm Pan. V. 4. 99. 100 
I Pan. V. 4. 101. 
: I Pan V. 4, 102. 
t wu ^HIS^I^MIMI^ I ^H5ifi^i*i^in\t^in, I Pin. V. 4 
104. 105. 

148 SANSDHT GBAMMAB. [ 241-24* 

ed by $ and jrfg- f 5T5TT-$r: a bad Brihmana, wrwsnr-*- The 
^ is dropped necessarily when the compound implies the coun- 
try in which the Brahmana dwells; e. g. 3<l%dfll a BrahmaDa. 
dwelling in Surftshtra. 

i42. *The word sr^g; is changed to wfj when it forms the 
first member of a Karmadharaya or a Bahuvrihi compound, or 
when the termination fSffffta' follows^ as flgi^cf: the great god, 
: a great arm ( Tat. ) or one having a great arm ( Bah. ).. 
:; but Jifff: 4fal H^*\ ( Gen. Tat. ). 

Exception: When it is followed by ^TB", 3?* and f^f^re the 
change takes place necessarily; Uffft KgrlJl ^7 

243. | 3^^ becomes WJT when followed by c^m^ and *fr 
And the compound so formed conveys the sense of ' an oblation ' 
and ' yoked to ' respectively; 3TCT3?7T3r-' ' prepared or offered in 
eight pans ' ( S*m*r: >, 3Tmt ( 5T9?*) *a carriage with eight 
bullocks yoked to it'. 

| 244. } All the rules given above for the change of the 
finals of the Tat. compounds do not hold good in tfce case of 
the Neg. Tat: ; *. g. * ^sir 3TCTHT one n <>t 

( a ) But in the case of the word <rf5fc[ the final 33 is op- 
tionally dropped and sr added; 3n?4 or arq^rr: ' absence of a 
road '. qf3rq( when so modified in a Tat. is neu.- (but 3|<ra: 53T). 

* sn^TfcT: ^^Mlf^^qisHlrtiq^f: I Pan. VI. 3. 46. and the, 
Vartikas on it. 

t 3TC?r: ^TT% ^ftr? I irit ^ 5% I Vdrtikas. 
t SfoTWS^K* I TOT T^T^T I Pan. V. 4. 71. 72. 

3 mnfr sft** i P^. IT. 4. 3. 

-245 ] 




245. *As a general rale a Tatpurusha compound follows 
the gender of the final noun. 
Exceptions f: 

(a) Oompoandi with srTH" and 3TTTO f r t De * r ^ r3t member 
and the Pradi compounds follow the gender of the words they 
qualify, KlHoftftfe: ^:, STm^TT^T ^ff, IW^STlfel' 5^ : &c - 

(b) A Tatpurusha ending in n^> 3Tff aQ d stf is masculine 7 
except when ror is preceded by a numeral and 3*5 by s<nr 
and gf^T; . ^. ^nsr:, Hunff:, 'ffHTf-, tf^fi^i^, 4IUKHH , 

; lio that endiog in TO ( substituted for 

, vide 280 ) preceded by a numeral or an indeclinable; 
as sjqroif <T?W ft<W*, f^T: VW- firTV5C,abador a wrong 
way; bat mjfgrr:, 3^q^n: as they do not end in q^f; ( see 285 ) 
(c) J A collective Dwigu is neu.\ but that ending in air is 
generally feminine, and that ending in 3TT is optionally so in 
which coae it takes the termination f ; tnffitf a collection of 
five cows- 

.The ^ of final 

-> M o-^i ml 

is dropped and the Dwigu is optionally 
, ( fr. q^^-l- tf^T^ a carpener ). 

: I Pin. II. 4. 26 
I Vart 

: 5% I P n - 

I Sid. Kau. y 
. 4. 17. 

Vartikas on ibid. 


(d) * A Tatpurusha ending in ^qn 1 and 3TOW is of the neu- 
ter gender, when the idea of sn^rpT 'being the first' of what is 
known or commenced ( introduced ) is meant to be expressed; 
w the work ( grammar ) first taught 

or composed by Panini. |r<{lM&*4 stop the drona ( a measure of 
corn ) first brought into use in the reign of King Nanda. 

(e) A Tatpurusha ending in $\m is neuter when the objects 
casting the shade are many 

(/) f A Tatpurusha having for its first member a synonym 
of fTsra[ ( and not o*F* itself ) or the words 
and ^nrc for Its latter member is neuter- as 
a king's council; but tTSTSnTT; W*nn* , R^lM^^q; 5 alao that 
ending in ^nrr when it means 'a multitude'; as 
assembly of women 7 ; but wfow in the sense of w 

x A Tatpurusha ending in *RT, ^?r, OTIT, ?jn5JT and 
s optionally neuter; gUflm^rU-^**, ^STSTT-^ malt liquor 
beer, ^qx^niT-^7 the shadow of a wall; T^TT5JT-c^C > ^HT- 
^TT 3T^ ( the 14th day of the dark half of a month, so called 
because certain dogs observe a fast on this night, according to 
the Sabarabhashya ). 

JV. B. These rules hold good in the case of Tat. alone; so 
^r%?ft *HTT ( Bah, )- a^T ( Neg. Tat. ), ^jr^n ( Karm. ). 

Pin. II. 4. 21. 

- I Amara. 

OTT *1$ I Pan. II. 4. 22. 

T5TT6*4d*q^l I Pan. II. 4. 23. qqiq^^Mjff Vart. 
I Pn. II. 4. 24. 
i Sid. Kau. 

Pan. II. 4. 25. 

246-247] BAHUVBIHI. 151 


246. * A Babnvrihi compound consists of two or more 
nouns in apposition to each' other the attributive member be- 
ing placed first and denotes or refers to something else than 
what is expressed by its members. It generally attributes that 
which is expressed by its second member, determined or modi- 
fied by what is denoted by its first member, to something 
denoted by neither of the two; e. g, trfTOffp ' one whose arm ig 
great; ' qicTTOT: ' one whose garment is yellow. ' When dis- 
solved it must have the pronoun qu in any one of the oblique 
cases: as jr^ ^Tf : HW *T H*l4lg: I TO-' ]; <mT 3T**t *JW *T 
*TMH-K: [ %R: |. A Bahuvrihi compound partakes of thejiaiure 
of an adjective and assumes the gender of the substantive 
it Qualifies. 

Note In English such compounds are by no means rare ; 
cf. high-souled, good-natured, narrow-minded &c. 

N. B. The difference between a Karm. and Bab. comp. is 
this: In the former., one of the member alone is in apposition 
to the substantive it qualifies, while in the latter the whole 
compound is an adjective. In the former the sense is complete in 
the comp. itself; in the latter it is not so; 6. g. vm^rg* &:, here 
one of the members viz. W\\\: is in apposition to TO: and 
therefore the comp. is a Karm. tpfrCTT?: as a Karm. simply 
means ipffc'BRl)' ^r^: t a deep sound/ and the sense is complete; is equivalent to jpftr: TT^ fW ' some one whose 
sound is deep '; here the sense is not complete unless it is known 
whose sound is meant. 

247. Bahuvrihi compounds are divided into two classes, 


wfc*i'*i"H^i^i I ** Q . II. 2. 24. 
I Tb. 

f Strictly speaking this is not a division of the 'Bah. but -an 
exception to the general rule. We have given it as a separate 
division to avoid confusion. 

152 SANSKRIT GBUOCAB. [ 247-2*0 

( a ) That is a Samanadhikarana Bah. in which both the mem- 
bers are in apposition to each other t. . have the same case 
relation when dissolved. There are six kinds of this according 
as the q^ is in any one of the six oblique oases. . g. srrqf 1 

248. A Vy adhlkaraoa Bah. is that whose members are not in 
apposition to each other t. e. are in different cases when dissolved. 
A Vyadhikarana Bah. is not allowed in any case except in the 
Genitive and the Locative:* as ^^ qrufY 
^I'-sl^lPd: t J 8O 

not allowed. 

249 Oit. The Bah. compounds are also further divided 
into two kinds Htn^HMsfrf: and 

That in which the sense of the attributive member is also pre- 
sent is called TadguTldsamvijnana. TTcTT^sR fK^^ is an 
instance of the first; here such a'jft is meant as has the yellow 
silk garment actually on. f%sr$ vfnf 3n*T? is of the other; 

Pan. II. 2. 35. In a Bah. the noun 
in the Loc. aud an adjectival word are placed first; 3frT tr^ 

: I Sid.Kau. 

t This is allowed by the Vart. < 

In a Bah. comp. the word following a noun in the 
Loc. or an upamanapada ( a } noun denoting a standard of com- 
parison ) is dropped; so this ought to be properly analysed as 

But later grammarians, such as Vamana, Bhattoji &o. , have 
rejected this V&rt. altogether as of no practical value. 

249-252 ] BAHUVIUHI. 16* 

here what is meant is hcrusman only and not his variegau 

250. *Tne negative particle 3T or 3^ and prepositions, 
may, sometimes, form Bah. compounds with substantives ; the 
verbal derivatives used to express their sense may be optionally 
retained j 31f<f3T.i!rr?f* JJ^r* MfM ^?T ^^J^T 
ST^rif : a tree with its leaves dropped ; 
ruthless; 3*5rTf ^-*-^<l TFT ^T Tf^^T with the neck uplifted , 

dead &c. Also 3fl 

( where 3ii7T is an indeclinable meaning 'having* ). 

251. f The particle ^ may be compounded with a nonn 
ia the Instrumental case in a Bahuvrihi when there is equal 
participation in eome action ; in this case ^nT optionally be- 
comes tf i as S3TJT WS ^^f- or ^g-:. 

(a) fr^ remains unchanged when the compound involes a 
blessing but is necessarily changed to *r when followed by iff 
a cow, qrfl- a oalf, or f^y a plough, even when a blessing is pro- 
nounced ; 

252. J A compound of an indeclinable or a numeral or of 
or ^f^^ with a numeral is a Bahuvrihi. In the 


Vartikas on Pan. II. 2. 24. 
t ?R *%fa **$[ I Pan. II. 2. 28. ftTO&ICT I 

Pan. VI. 3. 82-83. 3*TfT*c-^&faf% ^^^ \ Vart. The restriction 
5^1^% is not universal as there are instances in which there 
is no equal participation; e. g. 133;*%, ^jftttt, *T<TSTO &c.; hence 
the Vrittikara remarks-' Sfffqvqfc g^q^TTTf ffff 
Dikshita also says 

| Pan. II. 2. 25. 

151 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE, [ 252-254 

formation of such compounds the final vowel except that oi 
3^ and iror, or the final consonant with the preceding vowel 
of tne latter numeral and the sirar of fifafflr* are dropped and 
3T added ; 35TRT *TWT % *n% ^ 3q^TT : 'abont ten 7 *'. e. nine or 
eleven; gff gr ^ff 5TT fi[3T: 'two or three'; fsrr sflTO 3 
1%: W^rTT 55T ft?5TT: 'ten repeated twice . e. twenty j so 
&c. ; fifcra: a*T*5TT: STrS^riifarT: 'nearly twenty', f^Rf 
ST^f^^ir-* 'not far from thirty', ^T^r^^^in^TT: 'more than 
forty': but ^qir^w:, 3<nTUTT: -t ^gT preceded by ^q- or T% does 
not drop any letter but simply has an 37 added to it ; 

253. jNames of directions may form a Bahuvrihi com- 
pound and signify the point of direction between them ; 

words so compounded are not the names of quarters, no com- 
pound is possible; as qpansg- ^f^f^Trcnrrft (5^ ^ e point bet- 
ween the East and the North, and not r^TOT^fr as these are 
not the names of the Eastern and Northern quarters. 

254. The following words drop their final vowel or the 
final consonant with the preceding vowel and take 3? when at 
the end of a Bah. compound: 

() 3rfT n <l ^F*T 'both meaning parts of the body'; 
3T33rea[ ^T%tjfr *TW *T 3^3n$r: <one whose eyes are like lotuses'; 
gfnr 37WfT q^T ^ ^rfow 'one having long thighs', 

* ipftfV ^^^ ^Rf^fong; i \%fi'?rm%m i Pan. v. 4. 75- 

VI. 4. 142. 33<nv?Tt ^gfT6!%^r^ I Varfc. under Pan. V. 4. 77. 
(see art. 284 ). 

t 3t? t?> f$3ft: I Sid. Kau. ( for the form is the same in 
both casea. ) 

I Pan. II. 2. 26. 

I Pan. V. 4. 113. 

254 BAHUVBIHI. 155 

but ffifafiq 3T$^ ' a cart with long poles 7 ; *Tg?TOr ^nyqrJ: < a 
bamboo stick with big eyelike holes'; ( where 37 is added by 
282 ( c ). and hence the feminine ends in 3^', see N. B. For 
fffim see also ( ) below. 

N. B. The fern, of Bah. compounds ending in 3T$T is formed 
by adding 3CT when it qualifies an inanimate object. 

(b) * 3^'fey, when the compound is an attribute of 

but Mo-^l^-i^: ^fcT: the hand having five fingers. 

(c) f The words Jj^ preceded by fg or r%, c5tH^ preceded 
by 3T?(TT &n ^ ^f?v &&< ^ %^J used in apposition to the came of a 
constellation of atars- ^ ^^i-ftTn' T^^ *T fl^rf: two-headed 

bat^r^\fr;3T-fr^hT;; srif^for:, ^r^raT^iTFt err: ^n^^ 

*nights of which the Mriga constellation is the leader' i.e. 'whose 
position in the heavens marks their advance;' BO gcq-^arr: &c. 

(d) J Feminine words ending in a termination showing f a 
complement of/ and the word MUmPf; e. g. ^^rmr N>^*fr ^T^TT 
^T^forf rff: ^qTofNo^iTr TT=nr: ; * nights whose complement is an 
auspicious fifth night.' ^fr STRTofT q-^q- 3^ft sfhnTf<JT: 'one whose 
authority is a woman.' 

( e ) ?fe an ^ fTl^F^ optionally become %& and ^f^r when 
preceded by ar, ^j or ^ ; ^^r:-r: having no plough; 

I Pan. V. 4. 114. 

3^?T*%ViTT ^ ofm: I Pan. V. 4 115, 117. 
: I Vart. 

: i Pan. V. 4i 116. 

I P^n. V. 4. 121. 

I Sid. Kau. 

156 SANSKRIT GEAIOCAB. [ 254-255 

: 'one who has no thighs/ $:fr?*T: fw 'one having deformed 
thighs'; OT?pr:-f%*r:; &c. 51% is another reading for *rfl*l in 
the sutra; BO 

(/) *ST3TT and $TOT under similar circumstances drop their m 
and take are; as 3tf$TORT *T3TT *W srcft wnrr: having no 
progeny, er SHTT H*f *T 3*^: having bad progeny, 
f good intellect; similarly 

255. (a) t vnJ when preceded by a single member in a 
BahuvriM becomes t-nS^; c^^qiui vror n^jr ^r ^IU| \-Tffr ; similarly 
f ( see MaU Mad. Act. I Intro. ) but <T^T: ^: vnf i^q- 
may also be correct if mutq be regarded 

as one word compounded in a Karmadharaya. 

are to be similarly explained. 

becomes \F^^ as 

one whose bow is strung '; so snip^r ( 
) ' one whose bow is made of horn 7 ; t. e. the god Vishnu. 
This change is optional when the whole compound is a name; 

(c) Similarly 5TWC * a tooth ', * food/ &c. becomes ;?r W3( when 
preceded by ^, sffcf , ^T or ^jr : as ??ft^r: 5Tr: 3T*q- ^srnrr one 
having beautiful teeth; similarly f ftfTSTSXTT .; $oi >T^T ^W, 
^orm^ ^<IT q-^fS Wt 3orfwrr, ^[imwfT one whose food is the 
holy soma juice; but qfdd'H<-*n''- 

(d) The word fif n. a wound, preceded by ^wfr becomes 
when the wound is inflicted by a hunter ;5J7%ot^Hqr^ ^i%d|jrf ^IT: 
a stag wounded on the right side by a hunter. See Bhatti VI. 44. 

Pan. V. 4. 

Pan. V. 4. 124. ^g^sy \ 3, 

.4. 132, 133, 125, 126. 

5 256 ] 



256. At the end of a Bah. compound 

( a ) *5TT3 * 8 changed to ^ necessarily when preceded by JT 
and % optionally when preceded by 3^5 snnt *IT&ft *TOr 
r < one having the knees wide apart 'i.e.* bandylegged; ' 
< one having well-turned or beautiful knees; ' 
long-shanked. * 

( b > t sfnrr becomes 

whose wife is young- ' 
earth, f. . a king, ' &c. 

( c ) t T*VT becomes 


/t/. ' one 


whose wife 18 the 


when preceded by 3^ 
Wn08e 8meW ia sp'ad above, 

< having a repulsive smell, ' fprf?^:. This change of 
possible only when the smell referred to is inseparably connected 
with ( looks like a part and parcel of ) the object denoted by 
the other member; as fprf^ 7T *li%& ^ ( which receives its 
odour from the lotuses &c. growing in it; ) QirfTtraf^t; but 
$Tt*HI TyviT 3TW QT^VT 3(rrqf5r^: ' a perfumer dealing in sweet 
smells. ' TTf^r is also changed to irf^T when it means ' a parti- 

cle of . 9 < a little of, ' or wnen the compound involves compaiieon; 

3nnfftim I Pan. V. 4. 129. 130. 
ir P&n. V. 4. 134. ^T 3qrff% I PH. VI. 1. 66. 

at the end of a Bah. substitutes R for its final 3TT- The 
preceding ^or ^ is dropped before a consonant except *. 
^r; i Pan.V. 4. 

Vart. There is a difference of opinion among critics as to the 
meaning of the Vai.., qHf4j &c. Some hold that the smell 
must be the natural property of a thing to necessitate the final 
f . t'f. Jayamangala on Bhatti. ^imf^<HMKVR: rr?\r: &c. II. 

10, and Mallinatha on Bag. IV. 45. But the view of such emi- 
nent grammarians as Kaiyata, Bhattoji, Kagesha, &c. is as 
given above. 

S WMlMlnnHJ ^TTTRl^^ I Pan. V. 4. 136-137. 

158 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 256-257 

so ^firfSqr dinner in 

which there is a scanty supply of ghee, &c.; q^rfq- 
' that which has the smell of a lotus. ' 

( d ) * 5TTm*?T becomes m when it is preceded by a prepo- 
sition or -when the compound is used as a distinguishing name 
and it is preceded by any word except f^j; ^ar KfRrOT HW *T 
3^r*p ' one having a prominent nose, ' qnr^: i one having a good 
nose, ' fff* JTim^T *W f ORf: f ' OQ e whose nose is like a tree,-' 
* large-nosed; ' but f^gififfry:. ^T becomes ^ optionally when 
preceded by ^ or ^T; as ^JT*n. or ^TOTF: ' having a noee like 
a horsed hoof t. . flat; ' mw.-W. 'sharp-nosed.' mfa*n 
when preceded by fgr becomes ?r or ^q-j as f5rTcTT ^IKi*T q^T ?T 
or f^q-: k ' one having a deformed nose. ' 

257. The following words lose their final vowel when at 
the end of a Bahuvnhi: 

( *.) J The word <rr? when it is preceded by a numeral or fj 
or when the compound involves comparison and it is not preced- 
ed by * word of the f wrrf^ group ( sf?flR(, 3HT, 
3TT5J,^P, ?m, TT^T and some others ). 
a biped; ^rr^ fair-footed; ( &miW f5T qn^ ?TW, ) &c. but 
: &c - 

( 6 ) qr? becomes q^ and the ccmp. takes f in the /<!772. in 
the case of the words $mii<ft? and others ( t. e. 

, &c.; ) but 

V. 4. 
118. to. %q| ^T*5J: 1 ^T%ar Vartikas. 

i T^rirri P an * Vlll. 4. 3. 28. 

I *[^\ q- | Pan. V. 4. 138. 140. 

Pan. V. 4.189. 

267-258 ] BAHUVRIHI. 159 

( ) * 3pcT necessarily when it is preceded by a numeral or & 
indicating age, or when the whple compound forms a feminine 
name-, and optionally when it is preceded by 
word ending in 3*q, 3^5, %$*, ^T, or ^T$; IT 
'a child so small as to have two teeth only.' 

( 9. youthful ) fern but 

'* ( having beautiful toeth ) 5^:, a^cft, 4>rf^1 ( both 
proper names, ) &e. but ^m^fr having even rows of teeth - 
^rr^r (black) 3p?[T TTO W 5TT*^;?a:, am^^-^cT: having 
black or thick-set teeth- ^Ra^Hj^-yfl-, having teeth like the 
points of buds; ^3i^;-nT: &c. 

( d ) I $>$<? { when the compound denotes a particular stage 
of growth;' sremt J^T^ ^6T *T: ^sHIrt*^.^ ' a bull that has not 
got his hump as yet' i. e. * who is very young*; also when it 
is preceded by fir and the compound designates the mountain 
oi that name; as f%^^ * name of a mountain with three 
peaks'; but fir***^: ' having three humps'. 

() OT^" <tfa e palate' ( g,rf rTTg Kas. ) necessarily when 
preceded by 3^ and f% and optionally when preceded by <njf ; as 

258. ff ^q- is changed to ^ when preceded by ^ or 
meaning a friend ? , or an *enemy ; respectively; ?frR f f^T 
^T 51^ * a friend', ^^ i an enemy ' but ^f fq" 4 one who has 
got a good heart ' t. e. ' one who is able to appreciate merits', 
a man of wicked intentions.' 

- V. 4. HI. 143-145. 

t See Foot-note p. 102. 

. I f^rq^ I Pan. V. 4. 146, 147. 
Pan. V. 4. 148, 149. 

tt Sft^ ftenftawts Pan. V. 4. 150. 

160 SANSKBIT GRAMMAB. f 259-26A 

259. * Two nouns alike in from in the Loc. and meaning 
'something that can be seized/ or in the Instrumental, mean- 
ing ' weapons or things need as weapons/ may he compounded 
in a Bah. when the sense is { the fight thus began' and the idea 
of an exchange of action is to be implied. In eucn compounds 
the final vowel of the first member is lengthened *nd that of 
the second is changed to f. The compounds so formed are of 
the natnre of Avyayibbavas and are indeclinable. The final 3* 
takes Guna substitute before the final % - f . g. %^ %$$ W- 
<%^ *rt ST*f %5TT%T% ' a battle in which the warriors fight 
seizing each other's hair'; ^fem ^?&S* JTfr^ 3:5 srara 1 ynsi- 
grffc; similarly grST%> ^fTTfTOT, '^T3?H?fc 55rgf, &c.;, 
bat if the instruments used by both the parties be not the same, 
no compound is possible; $$r<Hf& will, therefore, be wrong. 

Obs t ( a ) The following words aleo change their final to f- 
fitful 1 ; similarly nj^n% 

260. I The following Bahuvribis are laid down as irre- 
gular. 5TT*TtT sn<TTW ^rr?l* 'one having an auspicious 
morning or a day having an aupicious dawn 7 ; see Bhatti. II. 
49. ^TtR *^r: ST^T gar: ' having an auspicious morrow;' 
' 'one- who has passed a happy day', 
'having a round belly;' 

'four-cornered, quadrangular-' tr^qj ( of a female black deer > 


the feet like those of a bull'. 

Pan. VI. 3. 137. V. 4, 
^ I Sid. Kau. 

I PAn. V. 4. 

261.264 ] BAHuvBhn. 161 

4j 261. *Th words 

tl8ed ** the 8in g rilar , a* a 

added to them, whe.n\they form the latter member of a Bah. 
comp,; iq$ (expanded, Veil-developed) 
* one fond of ghe* % &o. 

" having one man only ', &c.; when 3^ and the words following 
it are need in the dual and the plural they take ^ optionally. 
or ^i &c. 

(a) an! takes the final q necessarily when preceded by 
and optionally in any other ease; 3^?rfe: 'useless'; but 3Tqr 
^meaningless' ^^:. 

262. f A. fern. Bah. ending in intakes this ^ necessarily; 
T 'a city having mUny ascetics'; ^ 

'an assembly having many eloquent speakers in it'; but 
or He[l^t HI*: ( vide 263 below ), as it is mat. 

263. I And as a general rule, when the final word of a Bah. 
comp. does not undergo any additions or alterations mentioned 
in the foregoing rules, it optionally takes the affix f?. *nrnT51W-- 
JT5TWT: <of mighty glory'; bvt 3lT^!5T> SJTW^, 3*lPt|: &o. 

264. But if the last word of a Bah. compound be a fem^ 
noun ending in f or 37 not capable of being changed into f^or 
^qjbefore the vowel case termination, ox if it ends in q^, ^ is 
necessarily affixed; f*gr. ^? 

&c.; but ^ifr: iflr is an 

exception; q^fffc:, y^?l: &c. 

. V. 4. 151. 

Sid. Kau. x ^^f^5|: I Vartika. 
f **: m*W I Pan. V. 4. 152. 
t ^qri^TTTT I Pan. V. 4. 164. 
H. B. G. 11 

102 SANSKRIT GB&KMAB [ 266-267 

265. The final err i* optionally shortened before q?*j as 

266. f No * is affixed 

(a) when the whole compound is used as a name or when it 
ends in |qr^, as f%s%^, q^q frq^r: 'whose deities are the 
Viswadevas'. *$*: ^iqfcn q^q jgamm. A Bah. ending in 
. ( *. f*nft J ) does not shorten its final vowel; *. . 
' one having many excellent 

But 3rfS^qrt%: as a Tatpurusha. 
(5) to the word ^far preceded by a term 01 praise; sr^r^ft SfRIT 

but ^T ^: one whoe brother is a fool. 

(e) to the words ^n% and H^fjr both referring to the body of 
in animal; ^pw%: ^rq: <the body having many arteries'} 
iftiffcr *tho many. veined neok' ; but ^fnft^: ^?fWT: ' 
with many ornamental lines'; qgd^fi*l ( many-stringed ) 

(d) to the final of the compound 
weaver's shuttle' qr^r ) q?: 'a new, unbleached garment/ 

() to compounds formed according to rales 251, 252, and 
i53j as ^j?:, ^TRTpr-i ^CH<HJI?> *o. 

I 267. In the formation of a qnHlffrfciUHgrifti'S, H the first 

aember be a /em. noun derived from the mas. the affix air or 
< , the 77za. is restored if followed by another /*. noun 

*r f% 

o but 

Pan. VII. 4 15. 

Pin. V. 4. 155-57, 159-60. 

Rnrr- 3^*ifiU^n5ithi^8cSr ^iHinTRfe^ i^? 
VI. B. 34. 

268-269 ] 



Exception: ( a ) This change in the first member does not 
take place, when it is followed by an ordinal ( fern. ) or any of 
the words, fihu, H^l^l, *H4 (lift, ^HTT, *rf%, *jfifWT, 

' one to whom a virtuous woman is dear. * 
bnt g 

(6) If the first member be a proper name, an. ordinal number, 
name of a limb of the body of an animal ending Jy name of a 
class, or a word having a penultimate g in a few cases, it does 
not undergo tuis change* spFTT ( a proper name ) *rnr? g^q- 

&c.; bnt 3i%grr v 
end in 

as the first word does not 



268. An Avyaytbhava comp. consists of two members the 
'first of which is, in most cases, an indeclinable ( a preposition 
or an adverb ) and the second a noun, the whole being treated 
like the Nom. sing, of new. nouns, the comp. so formed is 
indeclinable; e. g t arfvfcft 'in Hori'j ^^fffift 'in a mountain/ &c. 

269. In fo ming the AvyajibhS. va compounds the following 
rales should be observed: 

( a ) The final long vowel is shortened, and the ending qr or 
^ is changed to f and aft to s; tfr<Tnrfo *m <TKftffir *T *ft<rr: | 
dfan^ft arfWtaH;, 3Tgwnr, after Vishnu, &&s near a cow, &c. 

( b ) fThe final 3 of mat. and fen.- nouns in 3^ is dropped; and 
optionally that of neuter nouns ending in SF^; 

Sid. Kau. 

t 3fiTr I 

I Fan. V. 4 108, 109. 

164 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 269-270 

( c ) *3| is optionally substituted for the final of 

nd ftft; ^Tf 5t-f$V 5nrilwI*iitijrS r 
tojhe full-moon day of Margas'lrsha'; 

t It i also optionally added to all nouns ending in any 
of the fijfsi four letters of a class; 

( * ) 3T is attached to the final of tie following nouns when 
compounded in^an Avyaya.J; 


, * towards the Vip&Sa-,' f^^itH\i% S^l^R between two 
of the compass. gr^SR^^ towards old age, 3re*TTnr 
on t^ $0*1, &c/, and to 317% when preceded by srj; ^ changed 
to <rff, ^R and 3*3, the f of 3T% bein 8 dropped; 
ITSr^r^ before one's eyes; 3T$UT ^ TO^r^ out of sight; 
and ^^Tfrf^afterwards, forthwith. 

$ 270. The indeclinablea forming Avyaylbhiva compounds 
have various senses ; . g. (1 ) the meaning of case; as 
* i n the protector of the cowherd-' so 
&c. ; (2) ^fjfrar or vicinity; as 
Kriehna; so ^q^q &c.j ( 3 ) ^^f< or 

'prosperity' as Hfffnrt H^f%: 9K^y '" a country wherein 

the Madras are in a prosperous condition, 1 ( 4 ) 

(ft+^tfifc: ) or 'bad condition,' as q^TRT 55% 

* when * the Yavanas are in a bad condition;' ( 4 f 

or absence; as nf$f|OTrnnrr* M*Sl^"H ' where flies are 

P4n. V. 4. 110,112. 

tfPTMPan.V.4. 111. 

\ trafhnfr ^rcaifftMr: i Pan. V. 4. 107. 

P4n.n. 1. 6. 

270-271 ] 



utterly absent ' t. e. ' perfect loneliness ', or ' quiet'; so 
&c. ( 6 ) 3T?iPT or ' the close or the transgression of ' as 
3Yf*rq-: atf^fi*rat , ' after tne wintry season, ' so 3?fifaf|^H( , 3TTO- 

* transgressing the proper limits ', &c; ( 7 ) 
or < uafitness of time ;' as f^yr ^snfft T flWlTl ffa arift- 
past sleeping time 5' as armfrsra; 3rTOl?r 5^; ( 8 ) 
or * manifestation ' as giros?*? ttW fm^fr which 
the name Hari is manifested ( loudly uttered ); ( 9 ) qpOT^ or 
< after 7 ; as f^'TOTt: q5T^ 3T3^T; ( 10 ) qtrq-^T* or ' fitness ' as 

in a corresponding mannerj so 


agreeably or comfortably to, favourably; &c. (11 ) 
' repetition' as sr^ar^ STKT STrq^'in every case / 
JTf^r^rf , ' every day / so srfcnrfff^, &c. ( 12 ) awfaflrT or the 
' non-violation of '. as 5Ti%iTTfftawr q-^T^Tf% ' not going 
beyond ' . e. f according to ooe's power ' so 5rmf%Rrt &o ( 13 ) 
or similarity '; as ^;: w&$ *S R ' like Hari. ' ( 14 ) 
$ or 'succession in order, priority ', as 3>3f*I ^l^4^3ct 
* according to seniority ', so 3tpriTC ' according to 
the proper order, ''&c. ( 15 ) ^taTO or ' eimultaneouaness ', as' 
along with the wheel '. ( 16 ) ^rirr% or 

* power, influence ;' aa ^r^rnrf ^^1%: fT^Tan^ ' with the 
Kshatriyas in a satisfactory condition, ' or ' very influential ' 
or ' powerful. ' ( 17 ) BT^q* or < entirety, fulness "; aa gronrfq- 
SR^fT^^T ^irtgif^ * in a manner not leaving out even grass ' 
; and ( 18 ) z&a or < end '; as 

' including the work on fire ( which is studied last of all ) } , 
BO ^TUJ^, &c. 

271. ( a ) J 3TC3. showing a definite measure may be com- 

* 10-13. are the senses of 

rs^nf^ ?nmfr: i Sid. Kau. 

t TfirTi^nT^ Pan. II. 1. 7. 

is not compounded" when it 

indicates similarity, 
J ^W^WvnTBr I Pan. II. 1. 8. 

166 SANSKRIT GBAIOCAB. f 271-274 

pounded with any word; e. g. iTTTOr: *$W- HURT* 

' bowing down to Achyuta as many 

times as there are Slokas ;' so 

272. * jrfic meaning very little ' is compounded with a 
noon and ia placed last; 5TTO** ?*$T: STTOriir ' very little 
vegetable '. But f f$r jrft ft$T?l& fif^ where snt meana 
towards 7 . 

273. f The words 3^, and ^ToH^T And a numeral, are- 
compounded with <rft and placed first to express ' loss in a 
game '5 ar^mr firqrffff l^r ai$rrfi, ' so as to be a loser by an 
unlucky throw of dice ' ^TcJT^PrR: * an unlucky throw or 
movement of one of the pieces at a game played with Sal&kas r - r 
qf^rft ' loss of one throw of dice', &c. 

274. (a ) J The prepositions spr, ^ and ^f|: and words 
derived from the root 3^ ( srr^, STfU^; , s^ , ?flwr^ , fflrf^ , 
&e. ). are optionally compounded with a noun in the Ablative; 
or aurfooft: < away from Vishnu ' - fTKf^ or TT?Rafr:i 
or ^fl^fng;; sn^l^ or MH^HId.' to the east of the 
forest ' &o. 

X * ) S *U showing limit, inclusive and exclusive, is optionally 
compounded with a noun in the Ablative; and so are 3*3, 3{rjf, 
and srfff all meaning ' towards ' with a noun in the Accusative; 
or YT3%: < until final liberation > tf*nT'> 3TT^R3: or 3H^l- 
: np to the child. ff^n%: ; aqwrigr or 3=rf?|TTrH towards the- 
or grfg- srfSi 3^g^T^ or 

Pan. IL 1. 9. 

I Pan. II. I. 10. ^rw*f 

: i Sid. Kau. 

t ftmT I *TrfT*f*TW M^HJI I P4B, JJ.l. 11-12. 

: | Pan. II. 1. 13-16. 

! 274-279 


( c ) 3rf meaning 'towa^*' or 'alongside of/ 'lengthwise/ 
is also similarly compounded; ^<HH ( TTOr *T*frr 
*tbe thunderbolt passed ) towards the forest'; JTfUTT 3*3 
' Varanasi is alongside the Ganges ' ( ^ 
i*i; S, XL. ) 

275. *The words qrr and ncv optionally form Avya. com- 
pounds with any nominal base, and are placed first, the final 3? 
being changed to q- when thus compounded ; e. g. 

from the middle of the Gangetic stream ; optionally of course, 
the Gen. Tat.; also *|frim<|^, *T7*IWTg> 1 this case the Ab. 

termination is irregularly retained. If the final noun has the 
sense of the Loc. the final vowel may be changed to 3ft^; as 

Bhatti. V. 4. 

276. ( a ) f A numeral may optionally be compounded 
with a noun, showing relation by blood or by some kind of. 
learning, to form an Avya. comp.; |f qftfqft f%gr3, cgT*<unq 
*> 9- T%iT^r ^H*^ui4 8ans. Grammar of which the 

three sages, Panini, Katy4yana and Patanjali, are the author* 
in succession. ' 

(b) I and with names of rivers, this comp. also shows an 
aggregate; TOPfoir, fi^^H^. 

277. If Any noun may be compounded with the name of a 
river, into an Avya. comp. to form a name; >irHTT4<l^, & place 
where the Ganges is very boisterous.' so &ti$&ifiwi, &c. 

278. The indeclinables *nr*n, fWTT, 3TRT3, 3rf*RT:, 
do not combine with any noun ; ^rjrqrT 5TTlt> 

279. The following Avya. compounds are anomalous f : 

I Pan. II. 1. 18. 
. U. 1. 19 

t * 
Sid. Kau. 

J ^fffHV I Pan. II. 1. 20 

tt acrr^r$ ^ ^nrr^ i Pan. II. l. 21. 

T faqMdiK ^ I Pan. II. 1. 17. 


168 SANSKRIT GBAJOCAB. [ 279-280 

fi*5f T& ?ET fifa JUWW 'the time when cows 

stand for being milked*' see Bhatti. IV. 14. So *g <fcne time 
when cows conceive or balls bear the plough; mmfUf' *TT*n 
' the evening time, ' the time when the 

cows come home'; ^PT^, ' the time when the barley is on the 
thrashing ground ' similarly ^%53TT-, 3?TTC7 X 'when barley is 
reaped/ c3HlH<HU;. *i<m^, &c. ^m^T 'when the ground is 
even ' ^Rq^TRl 'when the foot-soldiers are in right lines, ; 

at the end of the year- 

in an evil year; HU4UHI<> SHff^, sr^R; '^nen the 
chariots move forth/ 9^*1^ 'when the deer comes/ f^^if^, 
sr^WT^., ^fsitw and 3psnff . 

N. B. According to all followers of Pan. compounds of 
this group are precluded from being 'urti or compounded though 
poets do not seem to respect the prohibition except in so far as 
to place such words at the end of these comps.; cj, 
Bag. I. 76 ; also IV. 25, VII. 24, &c. 


280. * The words =g^ t 5^, g^g, ^f; when is does not 
4 the yoke of a carriage', and qt^, fat the end of any compound 
take the soffix 9; 3T>H:-4t 'half a Rik ' i%^5< } 'the town of 
Vishnu / f%H5yj^ *r*: 'a lake with pure water ;' ^i^a^il 'the 
yoke of a kingdom', t. 0. 'the heavy responsibilities of governing 
it' &c. *r<rofr %^T; 'a country with pleasant roads', &c. 

( a ) But in the case of 3^ preceded by 3^ or ^ the 3| is 
added only when the compound denotes a student of the Rig 
Veda ; si^xr: one who does not study the Big Veda/ ^g^r: 'one 
that has studied the Rig Vada ;' but sp^ ^TR, 'the S&ma Veda 
that contains no riks.' ^g^ ttH 'a hymn consisting of many riks/ 

Pan. V. 4. 14. 

t Substituted for <n%* I J gfotf $&n^ , Sid. Kau. 
S ^^^^s^iif ^?l^^ ^ Sid. Kau. 

280-282 ] COMPOUNDS. 169 

(b) 3^ w hen it refers to 3T$T ' a car ' does not take this 3Ti 
: the yoke of a carriage; 

281. *The 3f of the word 3T is changed to f when 
preceded by f$, aflf*^?;, or a preposition; and to 5T when preceded 
by 313 and tne compoand is the name of a country ; as 
3TT<ft *foT53[ *fa T<H* ' peninsula., 3T?crf?fT 3?lfr 3fr 
'an island.' snftirac 'in oppsition to the force of waters*/ 
Wflqq ; aiqrr: t ( 3*gRtt: stroll ) ' name of a place or country .' 
The change of 3T to f is optional if the preposition end in 3T; 
t TRJT^C sf^i^iim'H ; HtMJk-MtiH^ ' a pond or a tank, 

ti passage for water/ 

282. ff The following words take the suffix 3? before which 
the final vowel, with the following consonant, if any, is dropped. 

(a) m*&i and ^ftrsy when preceded by irffr, 3*3 or 3^; srifr- 

*rtf, *rnr 3=nT3T: a^^rm: friendly, am frnr arsrar^ a bad 

hymn; Jjfff^rsnr 'in inverse order, inversely'; 31^1 HH 'ia 
natural order, successively, directly/ 

preceded by ^sor, ^^[, q|0^ or a numeral, 
:; similarly ^fnfr ^f&: *TW ^ 

: ] 'having 

two floors ' 

(e) The words sr^ and irtqufl preceded by a numeral; 

when used in a metaphorical sense, and not meaning 

* ra?rereifafrOT fe i awffita ' p n - VI. 3. 97-98. 


I Vartika. 
tt 3T^ ii*^i'44irftiiiy'' I Pan. v . 4. 75. 

rt ^r i Vartikas. 

Pan. V. 4. 76. sf^rirfr^f: j Pan. V. 4. 85. 

170 SANSKRIT GBAUHAB. [ 282-283 

the eye'; as qqmgfi* WW: #'. resembliog the *ye of a bull 
* a round window.' 

() *ns*3* when Preceded by a preposition; ;prtaifffi * 
carriage that has reached a road, inggt ( distant ) ^^rr journey 

(/) * also STTpT i compounds like 

288. f 3T is added to the finals of the following 

() sHrec preceded by 5T5R or sfcTOj STWVW^ ' the define 
Majesty of Bratnhan or the glory of A Biahmana'; 'pre-eminence 
or sanctity arising from sacred knowledge'. gR^4*JH 'the 
8plmdour or magnificence of an elephant '. 

preceded by 3T*, ^T^ and sr^r; .- g. 
slight darkness ,' ^m ?W: ^cmfrw * great or continuous* 
darkness ; 3^ cTR: 3R^cnmw ' pitchy darkness.' 

preceded by 3flg, 3T^ or < 
'secret, solitary'; 3T?m<t ff : 3WC5^ ' a litfcl e secret,' or 'desolate*- 
a hot secluded place.' 

in the Loc. and preceded by srr% ^% li 
against the breast.' 

(e) ift preceded by 313, when length i? implie; 3(3*17 
a vehicle measuring as much as a bull in lengt 

I Sid. Kau.j this is obtained by 

separating the portion 37^ from the Sutra '3^ sr^p^ro/ But 
this is no sanction for forming new compounds ending in fTO 
It is only a device used by grammarians to explain such words 


i Pan. V. 4. 78. 79; 81-83. 

284-286 ] COMPOUNDS. 171 

284. * 3T is always added in the case of the following 
tweatyfive compounds which are: <flft*JUHTM HfrjiR 3flf*I 
3^3?: destitute of four; so ft^yr: nd #^&i: all three Bah, 
compounds . then eleven Dw. compounds for which .see 192 
( b ) the last two; and 196 (e); ^tsfq- s^TK^^r *KliJ<4 Avya. 
( fprsr: as a Bah. ) ; f*T%?T sfrff m: WfT^, ' sure, never failing 
bliss ;' 35W gprrg: 55*TT5* ' the P eriod of numan life ', both 
Tat. ; *ifRTg*r: *wnrm: ^n^TO ' the period of two lives-' simi- 
larly, *UI*iIH, both Dwigu* ; 5rq^jTO Dw.; Sffim 

a young bull'; nffa: ' a grown up bull.' f^f^: 'an old 
bull'; all Karms.; ^y^: *nfi<ra( T^^ST^ ' near the dog % Avya. 
'fft' ^T *ftw> ' a d 8 * n a cowpen that barks at others '; hence 
figuratively * a person who idly stays at home and slanders 
others '. Tat. 

285. f The finals of compounds -having for their first 
member 3 or stfft in the sense of ' praise ' and r% in the sense 
of ' censure', remain unchanged &<MI ' a good king ' 
* a pre-eminent king ': 3iT%ifr ' an excellent bull' 
but qTJRHT:; irT^fdcKT^: 3H^R:; fT%?fr TT3TT fitlW ' a bad 
king ', f^5fWT * a bad Iriena '; but f%TT3f :, fiNw: in other 
cases. This prohibition does not apply to Bah. compounds 

286. J The word q-f^ is changed to <r^ when followed by 
m9, T and ^Tf?T; and to. ^5 necessarily when followed 
by if R, ^n5^, and fm, and optionally when followed by 

: i Pan. v. 4. 77. 

t JT ??Rra: i Pan. v. 4. 69. wmwrofcr i v* r t. r%w: 

V. 4. 70. 

t *Ji3t4 M<5iNr<4iia*iiHQn^ ' Pan. VI 3. 52. 
Pan. VI. 3. 54, 56 

172 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. [ 286-288 

. a? <rr5T*qT!T3Tcftfi* T^Rn, uniwHftft 

J|-odcftfd 7^<T: all meaning one walking on foot, a pedes- 
trian; a foot-soldier ', &c.; q'frq'fcT- ' beaten down by the feet 7 ; 
'.MfeJUl'' coldness of the feet ; qr^ sftj ^frsmw <T?OTJT 'one 
accustomed to tax his legs, a footman ' ; q^r ffaf- M'^frf* a beaten- 
track, away, a road ; q^fft: or frr^T:, qfSire: or trnrfro.'; 
trs^*^: or qT5$r5: <TfkS: or qr?R*3: ' quarter of a Niehka ' 
( a gold coin ). 

287. * i^r becomes 5^ necessarily when followed 
( formed with the affix 3^ ), and g^g- and the Tad. affixes q- 
( q^ ) and ^{ ( STO^), and optionally when followed by ^ffc and 
^HT and the^ Tad. ? ( *n* )j ^[4- TWcftl^ f &?: ' beart- 
ache ', ( ^fir g g^S^- Sid. Kau. ), $s5Tfn * disquietude, ' 
'hiccough'; 3Trflr f^f f^ <agraeable to the heart '; 
5r?,^n^:or5trafftj: < the pang of the heart; > f3[qfm 

288. (a) ^f^f becomes ^f neoessarily (1) when it forms 
proper name, also when it is final ; or (2) when followed by 
the words qif , orm, n&f, and ft; aqftq: ' a particular clond filled 
with water ; ^^:, ^ftr?: tha sea of milk; <y*<m5 : &c -; ^^ 
f^Tftr, g^WT^r: standing in water ; 3^13^:, ^?n%: ' a vessel for 
holding water ^ry: ^3^ or ftrSid. Kau.; 

(6) and optionally when followed by a word beginning with 
a simple consonant and denoting ' a vessel to be filled up with 
water', and by JT?^, ^r^T, ^^T, fts$ *T3r, ^TC, flT, ft^T * a 
yoke with a pan at each end for carrying loads ' ( ef>r< Mar&- 
thi ) and ^^ ; ^^T: or ^f *^:; but ^^^^Tsft ( as 
begins with a conjunct consonant ), a^qsfa.'j vj^H?VT: or 

i barley-water ; gr^f^; or XJ^H: rice boiled with water, 

^tM '^ u iti I ^T 'X43iii I Pan. VI. 3. 50. 51. 


I Pan. VI. 3. 57-60. 

$ 288-291 ] COMPOUNDS. 173 

water-meal; ^sffa^: or 3?qtftar:, 'a yoke for carrying water;' 
* or 3H4**liy ' plunging or bathing in water ' &o. 

289. ( a ) * When the first member of a compound ends in 
f or 37 not capable of changing into f ^ or s^and not belonging 
to a/ow. termination or an indeclinable, the f or 37 is option- 
ally shortened; 2JTUoft3*r : or mufft^: the son of a leader of 
a village; &c.; but jft^RUTv sft^Tf :, ^IW> SJifnTnn &c. 

( b ) But the word ^followed by ^r and ^% is an exception* 

'. Bid. Kau. ) an actor; $5jf??: the knit eyebrow; accord- 
ing to some, ^ optionally becomes 5f when followed by gfc or 
: as ^r^f: and W^I9T: ( see ft. note ). 

290. Oba. f Tlie f em > affi * 3TT or f at the end of a word 
forming the first member of a compound is shortened in moat 
cases when the whole is a name or in the Veda 

&c.; but 

^rqf^, &c. The 3TT or f is optionally shortened when followed 

by fj 

291. Obs. } The words ^2^T, ?^NT and HT^T shorten their 
final when followed by i%r, <JcJ and ^rt?^ respectively- fc^|%- 
of bricks; q$$Rnnn yfr4j|^K ^ n point of a reed/ 
** RTSJWft having or wearing garlanda; 
(/.MAX Mad. IX.2.)&c, 

I Pan. VI. 3. 61. 

IrF^^ Vartihas. 
ffff 5^I?5iTr5cT^ I Sid. Kau. 

t ^?TWt: *i3m5?TOV*cro I ^ ^r I Pan. VI. 3. 63. 64. 

I Pan. VI. 3. 65. 

174 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 292-294 

. 292. Obs. * A nasal is inserted in the case of the follow- 
Ing words: -*r?q-, 3m? and 3T*3 followed by gjtT; ^5 by irw, 
fa? by foT; aRTKTTO fc y ?*n *T and grf^T by f^T, raSr by ftr 
or fttefjfa; and ^Of and TS& by ?Rnr, as nzrfKi, ' making true, 
earnest money, ' &c; cf. Kir. XI. 50. sf *T^TT : ' a phy c ian, ' 
:, 'efficacious,' ' admittance J ( anpgqirir: Tat. B. ); 
( nfirsfift V& Tat. B. ); ^fr^^nr: * pervading or filling 
the world, ' aHVgrgrf&fO:: ' not to be approached, to be shunned 
from afar, ' ( |w gf^Sar f^rf: Sid. Kau. ); wi^ft^:, c one 
who fries or roasts in a frying-pan/ ^ftlTH^*, 'one who kindles 
fire, ' fffmf^wt ' e monstrous fish that swallows down Timi 
( a large fish said to be 100 Yojanas in length ); ' mr&<%^m5J: t 
* a very large fish that swallows even a Timingila; ' 
heating; naqum conferring prosperity. 

293. ^rBr followed by a krit affix inserts a nasal optionally; 
: or *n%cRr:, ' a night-rover, ' * a demon; ' ^|Qnd: or 

* &C. 

294. J ^rf forming the first member of a compound, is 
changed to F 

( a ) when the whole compound is a name; 0. g. ^m^iyn? 
but q^mi a comrade in battle ( Upapada eomp. ). 

( b ) when it means 'including a certain literary work/ or 'in 
.addition to-/ as ^rg^S ( Avya. comp. ) *qrf?rorcfnT * he studies 
the ecience of astronomy, including that of finding out the auspi- 
cious times; ' TOtton ^nft ' a khari with a drona in addition to it. ' 

Pan. VI. 3. 70. grefrvnr 3-* 5*1* I 


t Vide Rag. XIII. 10. and Mallinatha on it. ' aifff 

t tnt*i fn 33ii<4i<< i ir^Tr*tn7vr^> ^ i fihffif td^m^ i Pan. 

VL 3. 78-80. 

5 294-295 ] 



( e ) and when the object denoted by the latter member is 
not visibly seen, but is to be inferred: as wi*H*Tl4>l ( Bah- 
comp. ) f3r$rr ' * night in which presence of demoness is 
to be inferred' 

, jrrfir, 

295. OTR becomes tf 

( a ) when followed by the words 

a kind of mourning which lasts from the rising 
of the sun or a particular collection of stars to its setting. 

i iRi sqlinfir srrfii^' ^^ wr 

^r 'BvyMJ i<t Kf<**m I Tat. Bod. )j 
: belonging to the same country, ^rrrBr:, ^Rlf*f: 'con- 

nected by the same navel, sprung from the same ancestor,' &c. 

( b ) when followed by the word ffgreTTTC t <a student of the 
Veda who lelongs to the same 'aAa or branch as another/ 

(e)when followed by ffh? with the Tad. affix q- added to 
it; as ^THRrFm ST*fr ^fdVd}: ' a disciple of the same preceptor; ' 
and optionally when followed by 33^ under the same circum- 
stances; *mro^> $rftrcT: fft^^: or ^qi^q: born of the same 

womb,' < a brother by whole blood/ 

( d ) when f ollowed by ^ , g^r nd ^r ; ^r^ , 
(e) I and in the case of compounds like 

mWn m*\ 

Pan. VI. 3. 85-89. 


t ^WMW ^ *^i W H?4 ^^5^*5 I Pto- VI. 3. 84. The proper 
meaning of this sutra is that the word fHRTR is changed to *r 

in the Yeda when followed by any other word than 

176 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ $ 296.297 

296. ^ IB changed to r when the following words are 

( ) 3nrfr and 


( I ) *far and 

( e ) s*ftf?r^ or sirg^ and ^IT; sqtnriflT:, 3TTgf ff: a sacri- 
fice performed for obtaining long life. 

( d ) and in the case of the words fFTTRT *nd others; 

297. f 3T7^ in any other case than the Inst. and the Gen. 
is changed to 3iwr^, when followed by arrf^, 31T5TT, 

blessing'; a^rf 3Tr?n ^^T^t^T 'another desire'; 

* devotion or attachment to another ' 3TrU<^lf?^fcT- ' resorting 
to another'. 3q^j^^;; * eager for another^; 


c. bnt 

as compounds like frq-^r &c. y cannot be properly explained by 
any of the sutras following this, grammarians like Vamana 
think that the portion ^rrr^^r ought to be separated from this 
sutra and considered as a separate sutra by itself; Bhattoji 
Dikshita conform to this opinion of Vamana, but following 
Haradatta suggests that the ^r in compounds like tm$r may 
alao be taken to be a substitute for ^ meaning like or similar 
to/ the compounds being considered as Baimvrihis; 


Sid. Kau. 

Pan. VIII. 3. 80-81, 83. 98. 

i if9 f%TTIT 1 Pan. VI. 3. 99. 100. 

297-299 ] COMPOUNDS. 177 

wnen followed by qsTTO? and the Tad. affix q- in 
which cases the restriction is removed; ^*q*q <M< 

an< * optionally when followed by 

^&; or ^^n^J: a different meaning &c. 

208. * A certain number of compounds and other words of 
irregular formation are classed under the head of gqft^T- Any 
word whose formation cannot bo properly explained is inclnded 
into this group. These are to be taken as found in the language. 
The principal of these are: -^q^: ^r^ 7%^T^ 'wind, sir'. 577^ 
T f* : t (either from ^ or ^ ); f^?fhff f^: 
j. 7 to' kill ). 144 *j | & 3TTrWT 11^1^1 the soul that is 
concealed from the external senses, qr^OTT 3\W> ^cTT^^r: 
clones ' ingR^T ^fT: ( bag ) gftwif.* * a cloud'; ^rTJT- ( dead 
bodies ) ^?t 3TW ^ff^TR or ^r^Rf 5TU5T ( Kas. ); 
^VJi<4 W^. 55TffTnT ^c&i<tc4H> <a wooden mortar 7 ; 

'the seat of ascetics or holy 
sages discussing pbi iosophical subjects 7 ; irq% amr, IT?!! faJft WT> 
jr^: ' a peacock. 7 

( ) T <TTT becomes ^TT optionally when compounded with tho 
names of directions; as^^xrrf^^or^r^nrrfnT^ 
-(4) O5*.~ ^^ becomes ^ in the following 
^HT: 'diftlcali to bo given or hurt'; ^rffcf ^rwm ^arr^f: ' not 
easy to be destroyed:' ^:^T TV?T^ <p?*r: ^difficult to be injnred 
or impelled: 7 ^:^r tTn^fttf^ f 53T: &t:. 

299. The vowel o| the first member is lengthened in the 
following casesf: 

Pa . VI. 3. 109. 

II Sid. Kan. 
t f^^WTrfrTW 5TTT^T^r ^T I Vartika. 
^t ^i9iii^iHW^rritsnts^iq **$ ^ i Vartika. 

I Pan. VI. 8. 116: il8-l*fr. 122. 123. 

H. S- 0. 12. 

178 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 299-500 

(a) When the nouns derived from the roots sig, ^g^ 3^ 
sqt, ^, ^5-, and cR[ with the aff. %<( o ) follow prepositions 
termed Gati or nouns which they govern; sJMMg , ?frl<S an in- 
habited country, a realm, snathe rainy season, jpflrff^ piercing 
the vitals; so ^TTRa; a hnnter (cf. Bhatti II. 7). rfi^, spffo^, 
K7fpT^overpowerrng an assailant <ulrtd,- Bat qf<$UH3C as jf] is 
not followed by Kuip m 

(b) When followed by the aff. ir^y, and the whole is a name; 
^MJqgfl: a husbandman. 

( c ) Words containing more than two vowels when -followed 
by 1T3 ( W} except in the case of arf^rf , &i%* 9 $$&*, tf* 
and ^tt.^r^ and the whole is a name; 3ffrcT3Tcfr and 
which are names; but 3Tl3fCrcfr; tfi-ftlflfti ^<ga^aV which is not a 
name. Also in the case of $rc,-75T, *, lft, ^f^/ 3?^ S^ and 

(<2) When a verbal derivative with the aff. 37 ( ^sr^ ) follows 
.a preposition, in most cases, when the comp. does not signify a 
human being. qT^TCT.-q'fnT^:) but faq|<^: one of a mountain- 
tribe. Similarly qfSf-?fr-^i STf^-cfr-^TT: &c. 

(0) When CET*T follows a preposition ending in f ; fhCT9T : > 
^T?r:5 but snjTSr: 

(/) When 3f^ is the first, and rc the second member of a 
compound, and the whole is a name; sreR^ gold, 3T?T<r^: a 
apiderj but grff5=r:, ft^R^t: an epithet of Savitri. 

(g) When ure ^ s ^ 3 latter member and the whole is the name 
of a rishi; f^lBl^:, but ft^ffnft *m^: I 

800. **^is inserted in the case of the following compounds: 


VI. 1. 144, 147, 148-152, 154, 156, 157. 

t Vart. srw^r f%t%l%T|*fr: I Vart. 

3 300-302 ] COMPOUNDS. 179 

(a) 3T<IT followed by q^ when continuity of an action is 
implied; <fl<Tf*W ^TTOT T^grf^T I STTrmfixd^ *Hanmqsr:} but 

and in the 

case of 3^+^ when wonder is meant j 3TFOT 

: when it means ro* ( ff?5T 
I Bid. Kau. ) otherwise a^grr.; 3IT^R: when it 

means ^n^C ' P r t of a carriage'; ftfar. ( or ftfiFr: ) '& bird 7 . 
r: ( ST5TO: H^lltfl WT Sid. Kau. ), but jrfffiw: ^gi srfir- 
r: 'one who boldly faces the whip, a disobedient servant ' 
& i^: ( a bamboo ', but R^^: 'a shark ', w^i?^ * an ascetic' 
but JTsrf^t * the sea '; S?TT^^T: when it means ' a particular kind 
of tree/ otherwise cfcK<M i 

(c) in the case of the words of the qr<WIK rou P; su ^ 
a? qi<tc|><:, ft^:> f%T%?^T, &c. when they are names. 

(d) and when the words ^ and sr^ are follow d by g^ 
and <rfo and the meaning is 'a thief ', and 'a deity 7 respective- 
ly, and ^ and gr being dropped before g; ; <&m:. f^fTT^:. Also 

: &c. 

301. *When the words s^r, f^j^, f%a^ ? m ^ and 
are followed by ^r in a compound they lengthen their 
ending vowel, and the ?r of q^f is changed to ur ( also after 


802. Ols} The * of ?R is changed to or necessarily 
when preceded by sr, and optionally when comrtounded with 
names of herbs or plants containing two or tljree vowels 

but - 

Pan. vm. 4. 4. 


I Pan. VIII. 4. 5-6. 

180 fifANSKBTT GBAMMAB. [ 302-306 

^T^T*^. ( as the word contains more than three vowels ); ex 
ceptions:*-^ R* 1 4H J^> 

303. *The r of ^r^T is changed to or when preceded by 
a word denoting an object that can be borne; T^i^TO; bat 

*irtl : Sid. .Kan. ). 

304. t The r of qr*T is changed to or necessarily when the 
compound implies a country and optionally when it signifies 
merely the act of drinking ; as gTrnqFT: ( m^TT )} 

( a ) ;r is also optionally changed to or in the case of the 
following compounds: ftft-nnft- 3 ^, T*lfT- IJ i^-H^r, 

, &c 

Chapter VIH. 


305. Feminine bases are derived from the masculine by 
the addition of the affixes air ( 37^, ^L, ^m,)> i ( 

306. Before the affix 

(a) noons ending in consonants assume that form which they 
take before the termination of Inst. sing.; 

, &c. There are some exceptions, ^^ 

I Pan. VIII. 4. 8. 

*TM<HUnTr: I Pan. VJII. 4, 9-10 P 

306-307 ] FEMININE BASKS. 181 

( b ) the preceding 3f or f is dropped; as 
tff. &c. 

( c ) if a Pratipadika* end in q-, part of a Taddhita^aflix, that 
*T is dropped in^ + =*TT*ff. ' the daughter of Garga.' &c. 

(d) the final q- of the words ^$, frf^r the constellation of 
stars called 3*1, 3nr^q- and ir^q- f ia dropped; as ^rft WcHT, &c. 

( 9 ) in the case of the participles of the present and the 
future ;j is inserted, as in the Norn, dual of the neu. 
( vide 311. a. b. ). for instances, see 236. 

307. A PratipadHa ending in 37 and the words included 
in the Ajadi group j form their feminine in 3JT ; as 

, f^rfldT? all meaning 'a young girl'; ( of these the first five 
form an exception to 313, and the second to 308, o'); srr ia 
also added to q^ when compounded with CTfj *T*3T, BTT^nT, (TOT 
and fqo^*; to 5^7 when compounded with ^ , words ending in 
r^[ , to <&irg, srRrf , 2HH and tr^; to ^g- not preceded by JT?g[ , when 
class ia implied, and to ^ preceded by 3?. 4 
ijTc5T, &c all 'kinds of creeper'; ^-qT^-S 
'kinds of creeper' 23^1 ' a woman of the ^jjf class;' 

( a ) ^[ But if the Pratipadika end in gr ( the member of the 

I Pan VI, 4. 150. For the meaning of the term 
Pratipadika vide 52. 

3^*137: I Pan VI. 4. 149. 

J The words included in the Ajadi group are. 
< a ram ', 3fs^, ^r^ a sparrow', ^^, ^r^, ^cfT, flT, qr^ * a 
young child,' jr^-; f%5ym, gy* 'a heron,' ^f2tn^ , ^ft^ '* deity/ 

and *rr^3. 

Pan IV. 1. 4. 4. qrn^i 1 f^HToriqtrtvq;. qfT^ 

-" i JT^HT: 


I Pan. VII. 3. 44. 

^UMH t <7r^<ft%7 I Vartikas. 


termination ) the preceding & is changed to f 5 
<fcc. the words m*re>> 5TT3T, and those ending in the Tad affix 
& with ^ suffixed to it, changed their 3T to 5 similarly; 
^P ^priff calls out to 
woman of this place. 

Exceptions: *The gr is not changed to 5- -when the ^ is 
added to the pronouns ir^ and ?j^, or when it is a part of the 
Tad. affix ?q^T, or when there is a compound, or when there it 
a word included in the Kshipaka group j ( %T^*rar ); sa q^r ? 
5ETOT, aypardlsMy ' a tableland ? , ^<T?^JiT ' the land at the foot of 
a mountain*/ 

( 5 ) 4 a* is optionally changed to ^ in the following cases. 

( 1 ) rHTejrr ' a star 7 , rTTf?cFT ' able to protect ,; ^ul*T ' a cloak, 
a garment, 7 g-for^rr ( in other cases ), g^-?TffT ^T^TTT XTT^r^ 
^rfr^t 5 srfifosT; 3?H^T ' ^ind ol Shraddhs/ 31%^T ( in other 
cases ), 

( 2 ) ^(?n>T-^rT^r, a woman recently delivered; gQcfcl or 5?r^r ? 
^-SK*1 or ^^n%r, a goddess. 

( 3 ) when the 3F follows upon the fern, termination 3TT short- 
ened to 3j and is preceded by q- or ^; as 


I Pin. VII. 3. 45. rew f^JT: I 


t The following words are included in the 

* an archer.' ^f^ t ^r^j 'a spy, ? ^gfT, m& 'a kind of bird, hail,' 
' a kind of plant/ ^5^, 3T?^FT, ^^T^n 1 , and 

t crr^^r ^frfm^ i *nf*FT ?TRH% I 

%f?r ^RSSIR , VartiKa. 

Pan. VTI 3. 46. ?TTf^nra^ fon*\ Vdrtika. 

307-308 ] FEMININE BASES. 183 

(e) This change of & to f is necessary when the ^ follows 
the q- or q; of a root SRT^fTT, ^qri%-^T, &c. 

308, (a) A* pratipadika ending in gj^ except 

and 5f|-?FT; ST ^T, preceded by $?:, STSTrT: 3T^ and ^f; and 
^R- preceded by ^far. ^TTT an( i words expressive of place; the 
words jr^ 1 , ^fT, %q-, Trr?", TT, *&?, and rf^, nominal bases ending 
in qir, nominal and verbal derivatives formed by the affix 3f 
causing Vriddbi or Guoa, snch as ^q-Tf:, 3^?^:, ^pHEfT:, TTT- 
5Tf:, ^nS^T'S fTTf ^T'j &c. and words ending in the Tad. affixes 
5*1^, <psr, ITT^ and ^qj ( with some exceptions ) and in the krit 
affix r^j form their fsminina in | r when they are not used adjec- 
tively; e. g. WTaFfr conducing to pleasures; rr^^fT &c. ; qfrft, 
firrft, &c.5 3TWCr, &c.; OTT^fr, f ^rfl, a woman of the Kuru 
country; ?W^Cr, &c.; jrfr, ^r, ^T, &c. ; ^nrft?ft, tswfr, &c.; 
^1-, a^Wlr, &c ; ^iT^rft, ^^T^Tfr, &c.; 
measuring or reaching as far as the knee; &c. 
& c .; ITS^fr, fTIF^fr, ??^fr, evanescent, an unchaste woman &c.; 

&c. but 

JAbo words ending in the' Tad. affixes 
( causing Vriddhi ) and the words <TSOT and cT^?r 
/ for a mar- ^UTbl^V, fT^jfT, cT^fr, &c. also words ending 
in the krit. affix sra causing a nasal to be inserted before it- 

(e) Words indicative of the stages of life except the last 
tako the fern. ; $ smV,. t%^Tm, 51^0, ^>J?T, f%^traV ( both 
meaning a ' a young woman ' ) but ^57, ^qf7f r & c - as these 
imply old age; gj^qr is an exception. 

'T: ( Pan. IV. 1. 15. 

f Vide the Kashika on Pan, III. 2. 21. 

t *t^H3ricfe^^^ u ^^r;ng^r^^iR3g[ i Vdrt. qsr^- Pan. 

IV. 1. 16, 

^m snr^r i Pan. IV. i 20. ^TO-CUH $ft *n^*\ Virt. 

184 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 308-310 

(d) Oh*The words %^y, mire, wfa* TO, 3TOT, 
airfer, SR^TcJ *ad ^nnr form their fern, in when they are 
u*ed as names ( or in the Veda ) %3cJT, ITTflrCT, HRT*r, wfe<fr 
&c 5 but%^yr <n&RT, & when they are not names. 

() The words Sfrfe, 5^f^, TW> and TW, those derived 
by adding the Krit affixes 3U3F, and -r ( added to certain roote ) 
and the words included in the tfnrr^GT t form their fern, in 5. 
5Tf?r, TSrcft &c. ^f r^T ono who divides or cats; gdlcfei robbing 

or stealing, \rrfr, &c.} ^rfr, fls^r, qm, fftoft, rar5T, ftaro^r 

&c.; t?^ has t?TT nd g?f(t. 

g 309. * Some pratipadikas ending in the Tad. affix qr insert 
ore f ; irrTqfanfr ( tlw grand-daughter of *tfr), 55lf^T- 

310. The following eleven pratipadikas ferm their feminine 
in f under the circumstances mentioned g ^HIHM^ when it qua- 
lifies ^f% or 'maintenance', ^cr^ when it means <a vessel' or -a 
man of ft mixed class', vfror 'a full sack', ro& 'natural site 7 , MHT 
'boiled/ ^rir 'a huge elephant', and qT5J ( & particular colour, 
Ri^r when it does not refer to a garment ( or rather refers to an 
animal ) or means 'indigo*, |^r when it means 'something 

* Vide Pan. V. 1. 30. 

t ftjtaf$!W I ps>Ik IV - l - 41 - The following are the more 
important of the words included in the ifrflY^ groupj ifo, 

: I Pan. IV. I.' 18. 


IV. 1. 42. 

T I V4rt ^fTOTcaT^T^ I Pan. VI. 1. 43. 

310-312 FEMININE BASES. 185 

made of iron. q>m ' desirous of enjoyment/ and 3ft? ' a knot 
of hair; as mnqff [^f^L * >HMM$T snm '; ^tr# 3fW* f a 
vessel] 3?<riT?7T, ( one that burns ;. arrofr ^n^TO ^ 
ajrgr '. . l an empty sack ;' wsfr ^^T5I ^, WOT 3F*n 
ground artificially prepared ; *ngfr SHOTT ( rice-gruel ) %q^ 

'if it be a proper m,me;' ^r^fr ^l>^l^ [ 

or sfter (when a 

name ), ^sft wirfir^rf yap^ but ^TT k a wooden peg '; CTgCT ' 
woman desirous of enjoyment/ ^rg<$r * one anxious to meet her 
lover, 7 ^n *a braid of hair/ bat ^RJ variegated; ^f|ur 
has STTtifT-oir. 

^311. * The feminine of nouna denoting 'a male' in formed 
by adding when the wife of that male is meant ; ifftpr ^fr 
ifWt; ^Xiflr ( sometimes sysrnTr also ) ' wife of a Sudra '. 

(a) but not of nouns ending in qi^F; as ifnr%^f * the wife 
of a cowherd ' ( but ifr<rr& has irtqrar )i ^^qTfJ^r ' the wife of 
a horse-groom '. 

(5) ^ has $;qf ' the divine wile of Surya ;' uut gjr . c. 
who was a mortal. 

312. f The words f ?gr, ^or, ^W, ^Hf, ^?, H^, and 3TT^I^. 
and aRi^cnr both implying ( vastneSS ; ?rq meaning * Lad or 
spoiled barley ', q^;r when the yOTtin/w denotes the alphabet of 
the Yavanas, tttfgS and 3TP9T7 form their Jem in f but insert 
STT^f before this f e. ^. ^^|ufl ' the wife of Indra / ^^uUtft ' the 
wife of Varuna ', &c.j i$^f4r ' a vast sheet of ice/ at^fRrfrft ' an 
immense expanse of forests/ ^V ^jf ^^pfT, ?Tf5TRt fenPT- 
hot q^fr * the wife of a Yavana or Yavana woman / 
t ( alia pot | HT ) ' til0 w ^ e ^ an Acbarya or a holy 

. 48. 


TV. 1. 49, nhTHmj$m$r5 I ^^Tfl% I ^Hlfe^l^l VArtikae. 
I V&rtika. 

186 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR f 312-31? 

teacher', but 3fr^T*JT 'a woman who teaches ; a spititual 
preceptress '. 

(a) * The words m^and xjqi^pT insert this grr^ option- 
ally; maarsfr. srrgofr; swjiuRr, s<m**rn?r5 'the wife of a 

preceptor/ but 3"<nt3rnfr or 3"<Tr#7FTT ' a female preceptor % l a 
woman who herself performs the work of an gTrrWT '} in the 
case of snJ and sTrita", 3TTT is optionally inserted before the f, 
when no wife is meant* aprf snriofr, l a mistress or a woman 
of the Vaisya or trader class ', grfiroT, 8?fil?nafir ' a woman of 
the Kshatriya or warrior class ', grqff ' the wife of a Vaishya '; 
^ri?nft ' the wife of a Kshatriya,' 

313. f Nouns ending in 3^ and not having ^ for their 
penultimate except %p f n^q" a wild ox, &&I, l^g^f and JT?^ 
take whon ' class ' is implied e. g. ^$\ * A Sudra female > 
( also the wife of a ^rgr, see 311. above ); similarly srrgrnfr, 
jr^g[?T, &c.. fftofr, ^iff, 3frqiRf ' a woman cf the STrTir^ class 
of Brahmapas/ ^ff < a woman of the ^3- class of Br&hmapas % 
&c., 5?n ; jr^fr, E^R'fr, *T3<?T, and w?^fr (vide 306. d. ) ; but 
^^rlT * a woman of that name '; gr^T as it is one of the words 
included in the A jadi group ; ( see 307. and foot-note ) ; 
< a woman of the Sudra class ( see 307 above ).' 

(a) Words ending in <rre?, ^ur, <rcf, ^T ; qrgr, ^y and 
form their fern, in f when kind is implied ; gfr^Hm^V, 

^ff , ^llciMuff, ^K^^'T^ <?l*Tl4i), ^A^cfr an( l uikQ^ all names 
of particular herbs. 

(b) Also words ending in and denoting mankind ^r$ft ' a 
woman of the cfr% family,' sft^frft (7|^RVra?4), but f?ri%TT.*. 

'JT 5 

IV. 1. 63. 


*T3'*nTT?T: I Pan. IV. 1. 64. 65. 


314. * Pralipadikas expressive of colour, having <r for their 
penultimate and ending in an Anudatta vowel, except 3TT%rf 
black ami q-fstfr grey, and the word ftsrjf form their feminine in 
i or arr-, qTtt or rr<?r 'variegated' from rjr^; frr?rTT flffrfn IM^Iifr- 
rrST^r; but 3tt%tTT, Trawl, %IT ( as the <T hero is Udatta ). 

(a) f But if the Pratipadita has no ff for its penultimate, it 
simply takes f ; g^rfr variegated, STRlpf; but ^sorr *fi<r5r 
( as the last vowels are not Anudatta ). 

315. The ^Feminine of ^ asd fr ia ^rff and that of^words 
included in the SharTlgaravadi ( ^TT^T^ TT^noT ) group j is formed 
by adding ; a<? ^TTWW, frcTflT, 3TTf3wfr, 3RT5n%^T, If^T, 3^T, &c - 

316. The femininB of words expressive of relationship is 
irregular . sg-^T-^^ , fq^-irnj , &c. 

317. f The Jemtmne of q^ is q;?^T meaning ' the sharer 
with her husband in the fruit of the sacrifices performed by 
him; but if it end a compound it may optionally remain 
unchanged except w>^n preceded by TOTR. *$, air, WTiT, ^ 
, *T5\ and 5=^ &c. before which this cnange is necessary; 
or ^Hf^Tl , the mistress of the house ; or ^qfS or f^q-^ff} 
ff or fq^qf^T &c. but mTR: MfdJwi: ^TT F^?^T a co-wife, 

. B. ft I* there be no compound this change does not take 

I Pan. IV. 1. 39. 
lira*ff'T I Vartikas. 
t 3inmT ^R I Pan. IV. 1. 40. 
J This group consists of the following words 

and some otnerg not very important. 
Pan. IV. 1. 33. 

T?^'a: i Sid. Kau, 

1t ft-TT^r T^^T f^rif ^q??nf I Pin. IV. 1. 34. 35. 

188 SANSKEIT GRAMMAR. [ 317-321 

place; as, irnrer <rni: 'the mistress of a village 7 , and not 
similarlv ir^f qf^: &c. 

318. * The words 3j?fl^ and qr^ra^ form their feminine 
in f but have a ^ prefixed to the f , 3T??Rr^t * a woman big with 
a child 7 . MkHrrfr ' a woman whoso husband is living'. 'But if 
the word qffl- means 'a lord or master of f only is added; as 
( tbe earth having a king ). 

319. Adjectives ending in short or long, nave no other 
form for the feminine; as 

320. t Adjectives ending in g- not preceded by a conjunct 
consonant, except ^, take f optionally, e. y. ^-^:-3TT, TH;> 
^t. 9^:-^V; but ^^: 'a girl who chooses her husband' ( trfW^TT 
cfcS4|| Sid. Kau. ); qro'f: and not <n<*|T as t* 16 3" w preceded 1 by 
a conjunct consonant ; an^ : as it is a noun. 

321. J A prdtipadika ending in 3- not preceded by q* and 
denoting mankind forms its feminine in 37: e. g. ^^: ' a woman 
of the Kttru country'; but ar^nf: *the wife of an Adhvaryu'; 
also when it does not denote animal-kind ; as 
except in the cass of ^?^ and 5 

(a) Obs. $ A prdtipadika ending in zn^ and used as a 
proper name, and the word q^ij;: also form their feminine in 37; 
as ?T^3Tg: 'a woman of that name' but^rTO: * a woman 
having well-rounded arms' ; 

* 3!dJcMfd^dl^ I Pan. IV. 1. 32 

f tnTr ^UN^HI^ P4n. IV. 1. 44. W.*(<n*ftMMl5rf I Vartika. 
: A an. IV. 1. Oo. 
Sid. Kau. 

3lmiui>jnci>wK>j> s ii^i*iisHti^ ? TTTH I P4n. V ajtika. 

$ ^5^cn?^nrwci I^n. IV. 1. 67. qfrar i Pa- IV. 1. 68. 
I P&n. IV. 1.71. 

321-325 ] FEMININE BASES. 189 

(b) f?r and <fcHU^: if used as proper Dames take f ; ^^: ' a 
woman of that name/ <feHU3<%:: but $UUf4 : ; ^y: in other cases. 

g 322. *If a compound has for its last member 3^ and for 
its first, words signifying a standard of comparison, or one of 
the words BT?<T, 5T<ff, 5WT, ^TOT, m?<T and q%, it forms its 
feminine in 37; ***TtF: Tfr f* 3rf5 iTWn plantain-thighed; 
^^rr^r. having thighs ( beautifully tapering ) like the fore-arm 
or the trunk of an elephant; frffc^f^: having well-turned thighs; 

i^fE; owr* HT 5^1^?; [ ft?R fr^ *rfg<iY 
'j [ fi^ f& H^V 3Tf? IWTS ^IT ] ^^1^.* ' a 

woman whose thighs are capable of enduring great fatigue or 
pain'- or 'one having excellent thighs. 1 

823. I The/era, of TT$fr, Vishnu or Shiva, an&, ^ftref 
or rcnc 'a usurer 7 is formed in before which the final vowel 
of these is changed to $; ^m^Mufr, Himfir, ^f%?fpfr or fftr^nfr. 

324. I The feminine of JTJ is optionally formed by adding 
f before which the final 7 is changed to aft or q 1 ; RJTpfr 
H1l<Tl Or IT^; I 

325. 1 A pratipodika ending in short ^ or ^ forms its 
feminine by the addition of .f- *i$-jntf ( ^ 

r, M R (3 i ^- 

'.AT. ^?. Words like f^, H^!^, m^J, $ff^, W^ &e. being 
themselves fa mi nitu do not take this termination. 

IV. 1. 69. 

t %fir ttH.o^H I Vartika. 

P4n. IV. 1. 37. 

^T I Pan. IV. 1. 38 
Sid. -Kau. 

Pan. IV. 1. 5, 

190 SANSKRIT GBAMMAR. [ 325-328 

( )*5^ forms its feminine by the addition of ft before which 
the final 3j is dropped; 

326. f If pratipadt ka ead in ^it changes its j to ^ before 
f ; sra^t-STiFfr t&e strong one; <ffa^- <ftaO, ^nN-sHrfr the night, 

Exception. } Bat if a base end in ^ applied to roots end- 
ing in a soft consonant-, or if a compound has such a base for 
its latter member, the /m. is formed by adding atf only, before 
which the preceding 3^ is dropped, e. g. 3<3H^+ 3Tr-3reT3TT a 
Brahmana woman ( ^T^njfr ) or a female thief; 

327. A Bahuvrihi ending in 3TI forms its fern, in 3R\ 
optionally, as ^+q-|^=^qr^^;^, Tf + Tr^-^rT, &- but if the 
word ending in aj^ be such as dropa its 3? before the 3ft of the 
Inst. sing, it takes J also optionally; e.g. 

( a ) x If a Bah. ends in R[ , the ^ is optionally changed to ^; 
as Tf>Jr^-r^*OTT or ^g\aft^yT a town in wbinh there are many 

328. I) If a Bah. end in 37^ ifc takes the 8trffix ? in the 
before which ^ is substituted for the final 3T^ ; qt^f 
^r^qr: ^ Wnff having a large udder: %U^ifcTr ( 8e Rag. 
1. 84 .); also when it is preceded bv a immoral or an indefinable- 

I t W*IW t P&n. VI. 1. 77, 7. 

1%: I 3T* ^^Tofrftfr6-nff^nfl[ P^n. IV 1. 12. 28. 
f 5T f 1ST ^^oquc i Vartika. 
T I Vart. on Pan. IV. i. 7 
l Pan V. 4. 131. * 

Pan. IV. 
t Vartika. 

328-330] FEMININE BASES. 191 

:as ?1jtfh airglfr having an udder exceedingly large-, but 

(a) Similarly a Bah. ending in ^m^, and gmf denoting 
age, and bavin'g a numeral for its first member takes f in the 
; f^TSf, ftsrotfr ' a girl two years old; , T%5TTcfr, &c; but 
5tt5T & building built two years since. 

N. B. the ?f of gftpr is changed to or after fir and ^rj only 

when it takes *uft ^ but 

; ? - 

329. * When a compound haa for its second member a 
word denoting a limb of the body of an animal and having no 
conjunct consonant preceding its final vowel, the fern, is formed 
by the addition of 3TT or j ; arfS^TT-^fT; ' a women having abun- 
dant hair, ' ^STT-^ft, ^Sgw^T; but ^n^^\ having beautiful 
ankles; ^flfr or ^^RT C 3Tf ^T sn^T ^T} ; ^E^TT ^TT^T ' an edi- 
fice with a beautiful front '. 

( a ) | If the word, denoting the limb, nowever, be one of 
the worda 5^, TO ^ T^T, r%^T, *&, ^RT, ^*, S^T, ** &c - 
or have more than two syllables, the y"d/. is formed in 3ft alone-, 
( ^MRTgr- RT^T Sid. Kau. ), q^T'ERT, having large 

( I ) I Also when the first member is one of *f, q^, or 
, the fern, is formed in 3tf neceaaarily; 

330. ff Of Bah. compounds having for their last member 

Pan. IV 1. 54. 
t * *n?Hi^g^: I Pan. IV. 1. 66. 
t WfgrfaHM\l*fc I Pan. IV. 1. 57. 
tt SfTRr^CtS^^F^T^of^r^ I Pan. IV. 1. 55. 

^ws^ra, i s^rre i cF^^Rrorm ^vift f**?n \ 


192 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. [ 330-333 

one of the words 

and 5553- the/aw, is fomed either in aw or 
; fT5Tt*TT-fr ' a woman having ft slender waist; ' 

with a lip as red as the bimba fruit, ' f^ 3r|* iTfqr: *TT ?fhi- 
one having long leg, ' hence ' a she-camel} ' 
SHT *m: m ) fair-bodied; g^^jl-^sff; &c. 

( a ) bat if 5^ be preceded by ^f, ^far and fl^r, or if 
and q^f be used in a Bah. involving comparison, the fern, is 
formed in f only; g?*TS^ffT, * one having a variegated plumage 9 
i. B. ' pea-hen '; Ztg&f&f ^TfcJT ' a hall having its sides like the 
wings of an owl '; yg^^Jr ^rr ' an army with its rear arrayed 
in the shape of the tail of an owl', 

331. * A Bah. ending in ^ and *pf and used as proper 
names forms fern, in grj j ^uu<4l', 5TIT5^T} bnt riUfuItT! a girl 
having a ruddy face. 

332. f Names of the limbs of the body, preceded by words 
denoting a cardinal point in a compound, form their fern, in { 

333 A Bah. J ending in <rr^ ( substituted for <rr^ ) option- 
ally forms its fen. in f before which it is changed, to <Ff; 

and in 3TF when 

frr^ means ' a foot of a Vedic verse '5 igrr^r 1t?>, q^^r &c. 

(a) But if qj^ be preceded by one of the words 
^nr, t*T, *! ^T g^T, &c. the fern, is neceidarily formed in f. 
<rr^ changhjg into <r^ as before; ^>MMJl ' a woman whose feet 
are as big as a pitcher. . 

T > Pan. IV. 1. 58. 

. i. 6 - 

Pan. IV.l. 8, 9. 

338-336 ] FEMININE BASKS. 193 

( b ) In other oases the fern, of pr&tipa dika* ending in qr$ it 
formed by adding *r, *fi*l<n?T, nrn^T, &c. 

334. * A Dwigu ending in a* forms its fern, in ; as 
f%9ftin but if the ending word be one of those included in the 
Ajadi group ( eee foot-note ou p. 108 ) OB fern m is formed in aw* 
f^tffgr, stmiCT ( consisting of three battalions ) %-JJT, &c. 

335. (a) A Dwign ending in CTTC t (a particular 
measure ) and qualifying a word denoting * a field ' has itafem. 
formed by the addition of 3ft, but when a Taddhita affix has 
been first added to it and then dropped ; as 5 gjnrir umu'i q^qr: 
TOT fi[^TU^-f-JnarT=fi[^ni^T $rwr%: 'a piece of land 30 
hands in extent'; but fitCTU^t f^: 'a rope, 30 hands in 
length ' ; also when the ending word is one that does not 
denote a measure, except the words f%$r < a tola ', 3rn%cT ' tnd 
load of a cart, ' and ^^TF ( a weight equal to 3^. tolas ); 

(*) t When the word 3^ expressive of measurement ends 
a Dwigu and the Taddhita affix is added and dropped as before, 
its/rtn. is formed both in an and J; ^ g^f TOTtf MWf: f?5^- 
'CT-'fV n^TT * a ditch two purushas ( 13 feet ) in depth ' 

336. Participles (those of the Pres. and Fut. ) of Parasm. 
roots take f in tbe/e^., ^ being inserted before ^ as in the Konu 
or Ace. dual of the New. ( see 116 ) and so do adjectives ending 
in a consonant ; 

i gf^Himftwifiifl^m^ytflr ST iiftprsft.i Pan. 

1. 21. 22. 

t ^CTTOnTTrsft I Pan. IV. 1. 23. 

t s^framt^^nf^ira: i Pan. IV. 1. 24. 

H. 8. G. 13 

104 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB [ 337-339 

Chapter IX. 


S37. The terminations used to form derivative oases, in 
Sanskrit are distinguished into two classes; (1) 'Krit ( ^) or 
Primary Affixes and (2) Taddhita ( af%ff ) or Secondary affixes. 
Krit are those affixes that are added to verbs, and the Nominal 
Bases formed by their means are called PKIMABY NOMINAL 
BASES ; while TADDHITA affixes are those that are added to 
substantives, primary or derived from roots, and the bases 
formed with them are called SECONDARY NOMINAL BASES 
( vide 179 ). 

338. In this chapter we will treat of the more general 
secondary nominal bases formed by means of the Taddhita 
affixes, reserving for a future chapter the formation of the 
primary nominal bases derived by means of the Krit affixes 
from - 

339. The Tad!hita affixes are added in various sense*. 
They occasion various changes in the words to which they are 
added. The following general observations should be paid 
attention to. 

(a) As a general rule the first vowel of a word takes its 
Vriddhi substitute before the terminations 37, *r, f^, f*r } qir, 
r &c. as 

(6) Before terminations beginning with a vowel or q* (1) the 
final ST, airr, f , and J are rejected (2) 7 and 37 take their Gupa 
Bobstitnta; (3) sft and 3\j obey the ordinary rules of sand hi ; 
3n*^nT 'belonging to Aavapati,' &c. m. n. ; ig4- 
descendant of Manu 7 ; ift+?r = iic7 < belonging 
to a cow', BO 3137 fr. ;ff &c. 

5 339-340 ] T^DDHITA AFFIXES. 195 

(e) In the case of derivatives form compound words some- 
times the initial vowel of the second word takes its Vriddhi 
substitute, and sometimes the Vriddhi is double; 4^qif$<*> 'be- 
longing to the last year'; similarly jjMMI<rW &c. ^Tlglj fr. 
55^, ^fr*u T *T from $vr*T, &c. When these terminations are 
added to a Dwa. comp. both the words of which are the names 
of deities, Vriddhi is substituted for the initial vowel of both; 
s?ffiJHI*>(t 3PK * a sacrifice offered to Agni and the Marat 
deities/ &c. 

(d) If the initial vowel of a word be preceded by the ^ and ^ 
of a preposition the 7 or ^is first changed to f$r or 3^ before 
Vriddhi substitute can take place- as 3TTOro + 3T=fqraTOTO+Br 

**''*+3T=ST*+3T=aTW; similarly qtoiM$ from 

* r - 

(0) Before consonantal Tad. affixes, a final ^ is generally re- 
jected; the final ^ with the preceding vowel is sometimes dropped 
before vowel terminations and before such as begin with tr> gqp^- 
ajf, &c. 3TrflT^-3TTfT-3TTrlfitr. There are various 

exceptions to this latter part of the rule; e.g. TM^ fr. fM^ &c. 
N. B. Other changes the student will easily note from the 
instances given. 

340. The following is a list of such of the Taddbita affix- 
s as are commonly to be met with. 



is added in the bense of: ( 1 ) ( the son of; as 
fcnre: 'the son of CTpagu'. so 
3W3f ^& TlWt 'the daughter of the mountain/ 


&c. (2) * the descendant of' 5 as 
: * a descendant of Utsa', 

<a female descendant of Utsa', ( vide 311, 313 ); ( 3) 
< dyed with-/ SHOT ?rfc lift* *** ' a garment dyed 
with turmeric'; (4) 4 made of/ 

'made of the fir tree;' (5) 'belonging to,' &c 
%*: ' belonging to a god-/ ^rfenTT f$. ?TT%t 
3>"frlT f^ aftor ^T t& woolen garment/ &R: ^belonging 
to the iultry season'} $&: 'nocturnal;' fri*r3T: *yearly' 
&c.; when added to ^trer the final ?f is dropped, 
'autumnal,' (vide Sis. VI. 65; Kir. XVII. 12 ). 
means ' agreeable in the autumnal season/ (6) lord of; 
ffire: ^he lord of the earth'; gsirarrai 
r- 'the king of the Panchalas'; qr^^r^J* 'the 

king of the Ikshvaku race', (7) ( a collection of; 

* 'a fiock of cranes' similar^- 

f rom W^^ ' peacock,' CTTfcT f rom ^q^r ' a pi- 
geon', ftsnini fr?ft ^r^c; *rwfHt ^fr mfw^ &c 
( 8 ) < knowing or studying'; sq-f^fin 3Tfr^ *t% Wf 
jqicMUi: 'one who studies grammar, grammarian', &c. 
(9) and to form abstract nouns; 5%: >rr^: **sf 'silence', 

ihr5f 'youth-/ 5ff-?^hfnf ' ffiendship'; 

' greatness, width/ &c. 

forms derivatives with various significations: >(!) 3% 
W. 3?V^^: produced from or relating to a camel/ 
TOT: il*!T3: 'produced in the hot season/ ( 2 ) 
^ ^WT^^ ' made ty a potter/ ST^ron fff 

by Brahman-/ ( 3 ) SfwnnF: 'a forester/ ' a wild 

the declension of such words vide 74. ct. t b. 


man ', (4) ^qTT Jtff TOTO* .' a place fit for kings to 
live in '; m^^T^ * a conntry fit for men to live in ' 
$*$ 3TT?f: ^h^p: ( also spfc*:* ) 'an inhabitant of 
Kara'; 3*T?vr^ 3fm: sfhraTW (also ifiiRW*) 
inhabiting Yugandhara >; (6) <rRr sn^r ^?TO < grown 
on away'; (7) <r?qr* ai^cfift Krfav < a traveller '$ 
<8)^f^ W <J5n1s*: 'happening in the forenoon '; 
similarly a)<RTf|^: Happening in the afternoon', 
(9) is added to denote ' enmity ' ^T^l 

' the antipathy between the crow and the owl'; 
similarly ^rff^TftCT, &c. ; (10) when added to words 
ending in the Tad. affixes signifying < the child or the 
descendant', and to the words g^Rf, <T> TT" f a ram', 
TTH^, ft^Fq-, THf^gr, ^r^r, JT5q- and anr, it haa-the 
sense of 'a collection of; awgtf 
<a number of the descendants of Upagu'; 

< a herd of cattle ' w& { a collection of kings % 
^T*r?q< ' an assemblage of kshatriyas '; grr^ET^ 
'a number of calves'; mg^T^, 3T^F &c.j (11) it is also 
added to IRK, ^, %^T, and m*rm in the sense of 

< one who has studied them '; FR^: ( a student who 
goes through a regular course of study, or one who 
lias studied the krama arrangement of a sacred text \ 
<fVRTH9 ' a student of the mtmamsa philosophy % &e. 

is added to the words ft^ and RT^[ in the sense of l the 
father of '; 1^5: r^lT ffam*: 'a paternal grandfather 1 ; 
: ' a maternal grandfather '. (1) 3*7 is added to 
in the sense of < the brother of "; 

* fi^T'U $*3lrcrwrrH I Pan. IV. 2. 30. 

t Vide supra. 306. a. these are generally ftm. Th^e and 
ome exceptions, as %mmq < the enmit> between the godi and 
ihe demons ' &c. 


' a maternal uncle '; (2) and sq- is added to ^ and 
in the sense of * the brother and the son of ' respec- 
tively ; %: *THT fq<J*T ' paternal uncle '; ^15: ssp 
Vf$ar: < a nephew. 7 

snire and Sfraft, are added to patronymics formed by means 
of Tad. affixes in the sense of * the child of/ ^T^TPTW-for- 
' the son of D&kshi '5 irrnnw-fnT: ' ^0 eon * *U**T> a 
descendant of Garga ; . 3rraf is also added to the word 
' name of a town ' in the sense of 'produced in' 
: , and optionally to jfrt[. aVlTO*: or 

son of Drona. 

has the meaning of ' a son or a descendant of '; ^Tr^r: ' the 
son of Daksha '; ?rqifrr%: ' ^e son of Vyasa,' &c. ( In 
the case of the words ar^r, 3^? 'name of a low caste/ 
ft^, ^U^M and OT, the final ^ is changed to 
before this f . ) 

b various senses :--(l) ^I 

: * * the son of Revati; ( 2 ) ' happening or 
given once a month, monthly, lasting for a month 7 , &c. 

T; similarly 

&o. ( 3 ) gathering together \ iftei:; ( 4 ) 
' asking ; ' ^^TrT ^aTcftm fft'RmNp: * one who asks an- 
other whether he had an auspicious ablution '; so g^- 
^i. ' one who asks another 

whether he had comfortable sleep ' ( see Rag. VI. 61 
X. 14,); ^ta$f*iq>: &c ; ( 5 ) using an instrument '-, 
3TT%: 5TgCm^ W%^: ' one who strikes with a sword ? ' 
a swordsman ' . vns^-' ' an archer ; ' ( 6) ' mixed with, ? 

* In this sense it is added to a few words only. 


< mixed with curds ', mflfti fr. 
i?fh% ' black pepper '; (7) UR ^ftft *rfJra?; plow, 
religious ', similarly annffre?:. (8) SgqR CTiftft *"%- 
a boatman '; ;frira: &c. ( 9 ) 
: 'one who rides an elephant'; 
one who drives in a carriage ' (10) 

: 'one who eats with curda '; (11) < living upon ' 
^fftm %?ff^5 ' one who lives upon wages 'j 
so |$te:, B?h^T%g:: &c. (12) 'carrying upon'j 

fr^rm aJVf^iw: ( 13 ) arfffr^ y%: 3f 

' a believer in God and sacred writings '; ^rRcT^' &c. 
( 14 ) it is added to OT$TT. fr^TT, 5T^ an( i ^W i n ^ 
sense of < dyed with ', m$W C* cJr%* * dyed with 
lac '. fr^f^^F:* Srreri^s: ' chequered or spotted % OT- 
fJr^:;-( 15 ) %^, RHT, fT%, ^r^nTR 1 and words ending 
in 3=r except tfe^^ai &c.; in the sense of * one who 
studies them ? ; ^^TTO^ $ft^ : < a student of the Veda 7 ; 
: * one who studies Nyaya or logic'; ^MH>01^ 

' one who studies a commentary ' &c.; 9( 
( an atheist, a student of the materialistic 
philosophy 7 , qius^ftcfc:; but ^T5r^r:-, ( 16) to 51%^, 
V J"5, %?R and ^g-g- in the sense of a collection of 7 f 
f mcT9 ' & herd of elephants ', v^^ ' a herd of cows ', 
%^TT?rp < a collection of fields/ qrof%& ' a collection 
of armours 7 ;-(17) to 3TWT?R^, 3rra%?r, 3TI^8]rT 
. &c. in the sense of e relating to &c.; 7 

' relating to the Supreme 

spirit ', ' spiritual '; 3rrf^f%^ 4 relating to or coming 
from the governing deity '. aiwrvfim^: ( proceeding 
from the elements ', ^fsTrft^ ' temporal ', qTTc?1r%^' 
&c.-(18) to 5fj*r, T^q", 5frqri5fnT, and ?& in the sense 
of * living upon ( in these cases no Vriddhi substi- 
tute takes place ); ?F^rr sftafhir an^: ' one who 
lives upon selling things, a trader 7 , 


' one who lives upon wages'.-( 19 ) to words denoting 
musical instruments in the sense of 'playing upon 7 ; &c. 
m?fte: ' one whose profession 

is to play on a tabor '; so %for^: fr. Vina; similarly 

%oifro:, rf *: or jugftqj:, mrR*-., &.-( 20 ) t 

tr$ and the remaining words* of that group in the 
sense of ' walking with the assistance of ;' qffe: 
**re for <r$: Sid. Kan. ] 
: &c. <TOT ^?i% gf^^: ' a traveller'; 
this is also added to words denoting inanimate things. 
' wood carried on by the force of water'; 

{ 21 ) to words* included in the nmf% f group in the 
sense of ' hears or carries by means of ' 
:, and to the word 

22) to ^t^ *** 
the sense of * lending on interest ' ^ftr^F: *a usurer;, 
: ' one who lends another ten rupees in 

order to get back eleven t. 0. ' a usurer '; and ( 23 ) to 
STwJ; 3TO?or ^^ 3Tr^Pfe ' magnetic, attractive'. 

f^ ( 1 ) Added to $ or words ending in 3^ and to grnj it has 
the sense of <done and eaten by' respectively; ^d^qf ^; 
5% 'm^r * one who has eaten at a Jraddha '; 

( 2 ) it is added to a few words, such as 
&c. in the sense of * a collection of ' with >OT. term. 
f added to it; *K*RT TOff : flf^ & mnltitndo of 
thrashing floors or wicked men ', f^THRl ( number 

These are ar*, 3T"f^, ^QT, gncy, JrRr, and trr*. 



of families'. <??%*> ' & host of female goblins or imps/ 

snfofir, &c. 

( f *TT^ ) forms abstract nouns when added to the words 

^ 5^ l **^ and worda expressive of colour; before 
this term, these undergo the same changes as before 
the f^n^ of the comparative and are always mas.- as 

' greatness', 9T^T ' softness ' ffRRT, ' thinness ' 

'dexterity/ sharpness,' &c.; 

^iy ( \f ) this is added to ( 1 ) %& in the sense of born of the 
race of; ^rfini:;-( 2 ) Tf^ in the sense of * relating to'; 
TJfCT:; ( 3 ) njrg in the sense of * an oblation offered 
to '; sfeferjr: *fir: r ( 4 ) 3TIT; arfS^: ' foremost. ' 

f ( t^ )~* is added to 3r% and qfe in the sense of ' striking 
with'; 5T?p*iT STfTrfn'R 5ffifc:; * a spearman ' ( also 
: ); *TC&: i one who strikes with a stick'. 

1 ) added to $& and words ending in ^y it 
means ' born of ', ^ STTrf : $cJ1R: or ^hf : ' of a good 
family,' 3fT3!r$cfR ^OTT: ' sprung from a noble and 
rich family '; it is added to( 2 ) the words qtf "d 
3CT? separately or taken together in any order in the 
sense of 'going'; as <nt tmftft ^iftor: 'going over to the 
other bank'; ( when used at the end of a comp. it means, 
versed or adept in; vide Bhatti 11.46 ). srarfrlf: 'coming 
over to this side (of a river, &c. );' qrTTTTfta: ( one who 


goes to both sides or one who crosses the sea '-. 
<rrftT: * crossing a river/ &c.-( 3 ) the word m* in the 
sense of -'rustic' as qrsftoT:j-(4)the w ords 3Tf?IT^, TT'^fT 
and words ending in *n*r in the sense of 'beneficial to-/ 
3Trf*r% I%?r: STTcRjfR; retasRW, tfl<pflifjor: ' fit to be 
enjoyed by a mother'; fq-^ iffifroT: &c ( 5 ) *(r changed 
to ;. as ^CR:;-(6) *T^R[ in the sense of < joultaeying' 
tT^ aiwsftsr: * a traveller V( 7 ) Suffer and 
in the senses of 'eating and fas tended on' respec- 
tively.. trerefFP ' eating every kind of food'; *3Tjq^ 
^3T 3*3<T3T*r ( 3^rra<j) 'a shoe or boot of the length of 
the foot;-( 8 ) f^y and JTT* In the sense of ' a field of 7 ; as 
^ l a sesamum field', witoT? &c.; and to ^H44 and 
substituted for 5j:-Mft^; 'Enrft: ^ ^^iwjrf 
f ' formed by walking together seven stepa or 
speaking seven words 5 -, frfift^fetir TW^FT lUTCfH t 
' fresh butter or ghee 7 (vide Bag. 1. 46.Bhatti. V.I2). 

f ^ ( ^"-^T ) (1) is added in the sense of ' of or belonging to '; 

'belonging to the school of Panini'; it is added to 
( 2 ) f^ftj and iQ<^^^ and TJT^ in the senses of 'the son 
of and delating to/ respectivelyj^^rTq-: 'a sister's son' 
<Nj*TOnT; r^r ' fraternar ; -( 3 ) 3^ in the sense of 
( relating to or a number of ' ^T^PT (alsoarrc ) ' re ^ a ~ 
ting to horses, a number of horses ';-(!) when added to 
the words * ,3T^ r T n and % is 

* Pin. V. 2. 23. and Sid. Kau. 

' Amara. 


inserted; ^r^pT ' one's own, ' TMdTm * of the people ; 

13T3n*T, !<3^ahT> ' of a bamboo, ' l^ffa. 
* produced in or relating to the rainy season, ? 
f r. 

, ) is chiefly added ( I ) to words ending 
in fern, affix in the sense of * the child or offspring of 'j 
%jra*T: ' the son of Vinatfc i. e. Garuda 7 ; nfrr^ir: * the 
sou oi a sister ; ; when ,-idded to f^^T meaning ' a poor 
woman ', ^ is inserted optionally-, ?Jr?fd<4-' or ^r^- 
fS^rir;; when ^rar means ' a harlot ' or ' an adulteress J 
qf ; is optionally substituted for qij; 3n3?*T. or ^f5J- 
*^: ' the son of an adulteress ' it is optionally changed 
to cr^ when added to words denoting ' ;i female having 
some kind of defect ', cproi^:-^: ' 9on ot a one-eyed 
woman, ' ^I^RI:-T: * son ol a female slave '; ( 2 ) to 
words of two syllables ending in 5 but not formed 
by the affix f ( f 5r^ ), to JTT^ and words included in 
the ^irrRf group*; 3?r=rqr: * snT1 c ^ Atri ', ITro^'*T : 
* son of Manduka ', ^TTOT: * son of Subhra ( Name of 
a sage ), w^r: &c.; ( 3 ) and to VTT3*73. and i^fj^^, 
the 6nal ^" being dropped before it; JTTcJ'N^-, ft'f- 
:, (4) added to ^r?fr and ^Ry it has various senses; 
'son of Agni 7 , t relating to fire 7 , ' having 
Agni for the presiding deity ', &c.; it is affixed to-( 5 ) 
and other words in the sense of ' produced from. 
'; 5TOT: f TOT V? srr ^1>^ ri verborn ' ; * rock-salt : ; 
fr. R^r * produced from the earth \ mwmvm: &c.- 
& ) 3TTf and ^fTl% i n *ho sense of ' a field of 7 ir^'T, 
^; ( 7 )^', g-%, ifnT, and words included in 



the gssnf^ group*, with different significations and 
with a ^ added to it, g^TO: ' a dog ', pertaining 
to a noble family ' ; gfr^TO: a sword ', ffrrc: * a neck 
ornament >, $f?fc7TT: 3HT: WT ?T^ 3fm: *ftro:> 
iTTOT^:, ' village-born, rustic '-, -n*TTW:> &c. (8)^r 
in the sense of ' made of '; qliqri' a silken garment ';- 
( 9 ) 5^ in different senses; tfr^q-: ' man-slaughter ', 

* human work % " derived from or incidental to man, 
composed or propounded by man '; and ( 10 ) toqfSr^, 
anlrra, TOR* and f^qfar in the sense of ' useful in, good 
for '5 q^^ fTT^ <rrafrf ' what is useful on the way ', . 0. 

* provisions for a journey ' aTmRr 

*. attentive to guests, hospitable Tfff 

hospitable ': iff nft-'-, f^Rt: TO WT^t ( 

' wealth, property '; vide Kir. XIV. 8. 

( ^ ) is affixed ( 1 ) to words expressive of countries in the 
sense of * born or produced in '; H73T: * born or pro- 
duced in the Madra country '} (2) to ^T?r in the sense 
of ' dyed with ? ; q>?i^: 4 dyed yellow '; (3) in the sense 
of < belonging to '; IT?^:, ?^?^:, &c. (4 ) bought for 
^R?: < bought for five rupees '; ( 5 ) in the sense of 

* acting ' ^fhr^: *one who is cold' i. e. 'slow in action/ 

* a dilatory or lazy man ' 3mr3r. ' an active man ? ; 
( 6. 7. 8. ) to express pity or diminution, or depreciation- 
Sarqp: < poor son ', ^^T^: unhappy Devadatta '; f wt 
^Rft ^^?^:, * a small or stunted tree '; a^TO: a bad 
horse, a hack; ^5^: < a wicked Sudra,' ( 9 ) and some- 
times with no signification; 3{fq<g: >. . 3^'- 

' a jewel ', ^T5W?' ' a young boy '; &c 

( d^ ) is affixed (1) to words denoting names of beasts, in 
the sense of < a collection of '; 3nrc ' a flock of sheep ' 


&c. ( 2 ) and in various senses to the prepositions ^f, q> 
f%, f3fr and g^ ; *r$fc < narrow, impassable, crowded ' &c. ;: 
'manifest , 5 ft^RT 'huge, fierce, large', &c.; 
* near, close to ' &c.; ^?q^ ' large, excessive, 
powerful ' &c. 

a number of chariots 9 

are added to express 
equality with, little inferiority to'; 
*5?^<T:-3W ^ni: 'almost learned'; w 
nearly equal to Kumara in vigour '; 

nearly dead ', &c.. these are also added to verbs; 
' cooks tolerably well '. 

f are added in the sense of ( reputed or re 
r '. as f%?nrr li%Tr:-f%?n^or: re 
known for one's knowledge ' 
unowned for his skill in the use 

I markable for '. as f%?nrr li%Tr:-f%?n^or: re- 
*" u ( ^OIPT ) ! markable or known for one's knowledge '. 

-' nnd fr is 


|_ of weapons ' ( vide Bhatti II. 32. ) 

( 3*2, ^^w )-" addea to adverbs of time in the senses of relat- 
ing or belonging to, ' ^r W. tfl4f!1v SWRRv 
d*l'> f%TH5T' Vfld5T:, to 
: old-, to the word 3? changed to 5j; 

( ?^T ^-expresses diminution; iffofrrUT * a small sack, ' 
a young calf ', &c. 

is similarly added to |%?, tr^ * last year ', <rnfl ' the year 
before the last ', 5T and 

( ?RJ >-f orms abstract nouns 5fr?rr, 3^ r , *mm, ftcc.; added to 
irm, *CT, 5i?5, 9fTVi and ir^r it has the sense of ' a 
collection of;' aTJHTT, STftoT, ^Sjm, &c. 
* manifold '. 


?tr-( ?qr^ ) i 9 added in the sense of living in, belonging to, ' &c. 
to the words ^T%UTT, <T%aT<i;, 5**, 3WT, Sf , 3T, W^, ^, 
and indeclinablea ending in <r^; ^n%niFrer: & south- 
erner, qr%gTf^:, <ftrfW, an inhabitant of the east; 
'? one who accompanies a king, a minister, 
J^J : KTST : &c. ; also to the preposition 
eternal '. 

( WT^ ) is added to ;?<* and 3Tf"; >d!MfM<t>i land at the foot 
of a mountain, arf^T^r ' a. table-land. ' 

5T ie affixed to ift only; ir^f ^rgnft msrT/. ' a herd of kine '. 
^ forms abstract nouns; ifM** 

Q d JTT5T* ( ??r% I^^[, r^, ) " added in the sense 
of ' measuring as much as 

* water reaching as far as the knee ', &c. 

and 5f |( .T^, ^st,) are added to ^ft and 5^ respectively in 
different senses: ^UT < womanly, feminine, suited to 
women, ( n ) womenhopd ' &c.; $j ^ < manly, heroic, fit 
for a man, ( . ) manhood, virility '. 

is added as a depreciatory termination. nr^F^T^Tt *- a bad 
doctor, a quack V ^mcMU'Mi^r; &c.; added to %$r it 
has the sense of ' a collection, of ', as %5PTT$T: ( 3RT and 
5^cT are also added to %^r in the same sense ) 

( in^) S is added hi the sense of ( 1 ) made of \ q$: f%^rf : 

- made of earth, ' <Mgmi ' made of wood ' &o. 
and ( 2 ) in that of profusion or excess .' 

: I Pao. V. 2. 37. 

t nft&mHii H^HoiY^y^nac i p a n - VI. i. 87. 

: Pan. IV. 3. 143. 


a sacrifice consisting for the most 

part of clarified butter/ si^mr: &c. It is not added 
to words denoting ' an article of food or a covering'; 

IT ( *Tf> . *T< . q5T , uq- ) is added to noons with different mean- 
ings: ( 1 ) irtf mjfr *ran/ * a herd of cattle/ *TcTRT 

' a dense mass of smoke/ <nrr, 5TOT, &c. ( 2 ) 
*ng: aw a ' courtier'; ( 3 ) frcftetf : ' disciples of 
the same preceptor/ ^l^fr:, ^TWIft^T : * & brother of 
whole blood ' (4) forms abstract nouns TT?*T, %HRRf 
^iRlrft^* ^rreq- : 3fffff5pT, &c.; it is added ( 5 ) to 
the words <M< and ^ in the sense of < born of the 
race of.' Tr?RT ' & man of the Kshatriya class/ ERf- 
: ( in this case ^ is inserted ) 'a man ;'-( 6 ) 
in ^e sense of 'the son of/ 'Vfl^:, (7) t 
-- f of noble descent/ ( 8 ) to ^T, SR^, fqf , and 
in the sense of 'having any of these for one's presiding 
or tutelary deity/ &c. 375; *^n 3TW *m*$ a^T ' a 
missile having V&yu for its presiding deity/ %d**T 
1 worshipping the Seasons ( as divinities )/ fxrsq-. 'sacred 
to the manes, offered to the manes'; g^g: ' sacred to 
the Dawn/-(9) to ^n^ and words included under the 
group in the sense of 'deserving or meriting'; 
-: Reserving punishment/ ^(f 'fit to be killed,; 
^deserving worship/ &c. In the derivatives 
given hereafter q should be considered as added 
in the sense attached to each word- ^q 'theft ' from 
. 'boxn of the breast ' ( also eiK^: fr. 

208 SANSKBIT GRAMMAB. [340-341 

'wholesome to the teeth' (lathi* 
tense it is added to words denoting the limbs of the 
body ; as ^ogq- < good for the neck, ' &c. ) ; 3^-gptf 'fit 
for a dog' fr. vpj; ;nvtf fit for being the central part of 
a wheel' fr. ;rrf*r ' the nave of a wheel; 7 rf*q- flt for the 
nose' from Jm%3fT; f WT ' drawing a chariot, a horse, 
gnj ' harnessed to the yoke, a ball ? ; sir^r * of equal 
age, a friend '; ^q- ' what is weighed in a balance and 
found equal ', hence * equal,' f r. g*$r; *m*Q ( 
^cf )just ; qq- (<n*f *ng) ' wholesome;' %$ ( 
) 'agreeable to the heart ; , ijyq-: ( 

obtaining wealth, vrf ( TO'rvtfcT cJ^HT ^T ) ' 
sistent with dharma \ or * obtained justly '; sptf 'talk 
of the people/ ef^r 'capable of beiog controlled, obedi- 
ent ', &c. ffsq- ( {frfferr: ) ' wooden or of a tree ,; 
Pan. IV. 4. 49. ) ' price '; &c 

5?T: ) 'glorious, leading to glory'; ( ^rsqr ?rr*T fT? )' fit 
to be crossed over in a boat'; ^f : ( t q^frfar ' a horse 
or bullock yoked to the pole of a carriage'; fictf ( 1% 
Tgcf ) ' proper or fit for a cow, got from a oow'j &c. 

f ( 1) is added to $f, ?mr and ^r^-, as a diminutive term v 
IWT f^-^C w. n. ' a small hut/ ^nf T T: a smal 
S'ami tree', guTK* 'the trunk of a young elephant'. 

5TO? and ^rTO-are affixed to TV in the sense of 'largeness/ fisfcz 
*great, large'; fi^TT^ 'extensive/ 'spacious/ &c. 

341. The flr*$ffr affixes or amxes expressive of possession 
have the following additional senses: ^TT^ or ' greatness,eini 
nonce,' |%?^T or ' depreciation/ ST^T or ' praise,', 
' constant connection, ai^fri?*r or ' excess over, ' 
in connection with, ' and 3ij%fTCQYT ox 'to express the meaning 


of ' Poes$Son >* The instances in order 


gf ( 3^ ) is affixed to words included in the 

: ( arsfrftr a^r m% ) ' suffering from piles-/ 
3*WT*rfffif 3* : 'having matted hair', s^r: 'having 
a prominent breast. ' 

*"d ^TT<7 a*e attached to 37^ in the sense of < speaking 
mocli or speaking badly '} ^rgiS': or <<MI^; a prattler, 

a garrulous or talkative person. ' 

on who possesses a ' heart ' *. 9. 'a kind-hearted 
an ;' this is added to ^n?T) ^rwr and q- in the sense 

of * not capable of enduring ; ' ^fnf * ?fT5% ^irffT^: ' un- 
able to endure cold '; similarly giairrw:, gwt^: ( ^Wt 
5ff^T5T: ?T ^ ^^ I ^ $:ff ?m m^: S. K. ). 
f is atTixed to rTRCT and other words J in tbe sense of ' that 

: ii ( Sid. Kau. ) 

t 3T^TR[, 3fT^[ < g^' ^3^' 'f^' ^^> ^T, 3^ , , 

and words expressive of the deformed limbs of the body 
sad of colour. 

t fT^reT ^SfTrt mr^Tf^vg ZX^ I Pan. V. 2. 36. The follow- 
& are som of the words of the m^ff^ group: 

?r , SI^TT, R^TR. f|pr, 

n. s. G. 14. 


is obtaineu or possessed by 'j 
W. ' the sky studded with stars '; 
3l*fr <frr%<T: 3$r; similarly 
and f^> ( ^f^, g:^ ) are added to words ending in 3f, and to 
the words of the ?rgm% group*; 
or ^fu^^ ' one who has a staff. ' 

&c. ; sftffc mil^, irniN , mm 

when added to ^TrT and ^r^fHTT* ^ is prefixed to it, 
*fn%^, 'suffering from gout, rheumatic ; 3^frf ^fn^T , 
*one suffering from diarrhcra ' ; it is added to ^^rt and 
other words when the place is meant ; trc^Rtrfr ' the 
place where lotuses grow ' ; hence * a tank or a lake 
similarly ffgf^ft, mWt & c -: i fc * 8 alio added to ci 
and words ending in 3TOH arffc* one haying some object 
in view; vrr^qrf^^ &c.; and to grri-qftrq; ' an ascetic.' 

is affixed to <f&, ?% and JT5T; qrf&sf: * bearing fruit, fraitfuP, 
^rfiar: ' a peacock -/ Hf^R 1 ' dusky '. 

added to 3?^, ^r. fqr^^, ^^ ? gri? and 3^n optioiaalJy 

, it?,, 


* BTfTfHTRt I Pan. V. 2. 21.i. Tne words belonging to this 
group are: sfh%, JTHTT, ^TTOT T5T^F, HTOT* ?m*JT, %^f, 

w FFT, ^R^ , ^fnr , ^j5^ ^r, ^r^rr, ^^ri, ^nrfr, ^r, nnr, 

and words ending in 

$ 34 1 -342 ] TADDHITA AFFIXES. 211 

to f^r, 3T^ , TO, spff, 3T and <TJF necessarily 
to f%?F?TT, snfcn and ^ optionally; gff?* ' having a 
protuberant belly, corpulent '; s-^fr^ rNrnhaTc3 ( have 
the same sense); srf^rgr c intelligent * ; f^fi^y : slimy, 
slippery '; ^f%^ * having a broad chest '; 
4 muddy ' fifcRfe ' sandy ', $|i7rf, %R5J, &c. 
having projecting teefb, hence also rugged ' &c. 

is added to r^ and ^TrT in the sense oi * not. enduring "> as 
5r^y: ( not able to. face the army of the enemy ', ' one 
who cannot withstand the strength of another '; ?\r$S 
' one that cannot bear the wind r . When added to 
^Tft it has also the sense of * a collection '. 
1 a hurricane '. 

This is added to the word 3*ra in a good sense, as 
r 3TIc7 i^ added in a had sense; ^TTTrcr*! 
an orator/ 

" is added to 9"<> ^ and **^'> 95^ 'a place 
abounding in lotuses '; R?^ ' abounding in the nadn 
grass * f VrT^TcT l abounding in canes '. 

) i rf thu general term, expressing possession ;* it is 
added in the sense of ' it has that or that is in it \ e.g. 
Tr^r^qTRJT?^T ^cfrf?f TmT^ ' possessing cows', &c. 
It is specially added to tlio words 
and f= 

| 342. (a.) The R of thu termination w^- is changed to 
when affixed to words ending 'in TJ or sj. short or long, or har 
in^ oither for their penultimate f - f%^^ from 

i Paii. v. 2. 94. 
: i Pan. vill. 2. y. 

212 SAKBKBIT GBAMMAK [ 342-343 

^r: ' a country having ft good or just king'; ( ef. "Ray. VI. 22)= 
as n^TWR %*r. c a countiy governed by a 

tht sea'; 3^93 as ^g^R[ ( TO* Jar) 
a jar ' ) containing water. 

Exceptions : 3R it not changed to sr in the case of the words 

", srffr? ^sf*r, ^w, f^tr? ^fir; iriSH* wf^r> 

and $r\ as 

0) t T^ a ^ 3 becomes ^^ when added to words ending in 
any of the first four letters of a class; Q^H, m%?*T V to, 
'possessing lightning' t. e. *a cloud % &c. The g;of f^q^& 
is not changed to ^ as it is not at the end of a q^[. 

(e) and when the whole expresses a tf^r ( a name ); 

343. When added id words denoting qualities Ifcf i s 
dropped ;J e.g. ^)r CTr^mfftfir ^f: ^: a white (je.Pess 
possessed of the white colour ) garment, so $cor: &c. 

^ ( qq- ) is added to ^q- in the sense of 'a stamped > Coin of 
or beautiful'; f^wr < possessing snow, snowy', 
' possessing merits '. 

is added to 3^? , 5^, 3it ; a d & gj*i%: woolen ', 
< possessing bliss, fortunate', 3^5: * proud 7 ; 
' happy '. 


* <M4HHfrfTSfr I p & n - TIII ^- !4. <M^MH|t( I Sid. 
Pan. VIIL 2. 10. 11. 


( $*& fff*I3 : ); TFiff < possessing paleness,' 
*. e. < pale '; ir^T * sweet,' &c. 

( 5^( ) 3T*ra" : ' having muscular shoulders' i. . 'strong', 
MrHfl * compassionate.' friHgi * foamy '5 it is also added 
to words ending in an and denoting a limb of the body 
of an animal ; ^4idt ( having a crest '. 

-: < having beautiful and luxuriant hair/ also 

, feonv in this sen? e ), ?rf8rT: ' a kind of ierpent', 

: ' one of the nine treasures of Kubera'; 

r 'an elephant', T%^T^f: 'a peacock', 
a husbandman,' STf^fhrSf: ' a sacrifi- 
cial priest ' < a distiller of spirit"'; qfiqgd: ' a king '; 
and fljtqa: ' powerful '. 

is added to iTPTf, 3t*T, ^; and words ending in ^; 
ftsj 'a magician;' <S?c., ^rrra^ < talented,' 
1 possessing a garland/ ff^R^< ' lustrous/ &c. ; also to 
arnnr the final ar being lengthened ; 3<mlf<i< 'diseased'. 

5T ^t^r: ' hairy/ ' a monkey '; *tR$r:; ^ftw: ' tawny . 

N. .^ These affixes are prohibited after Karmadharaya 

. V. 2. 




( 3?^[ ) i* inserted before the final vowel of indeclinables- 
without any change of meaning ; 

is added to nouns indicating a direction ' in the sense of 
i not far from '; ^for qm ' to the east of the village 
not far from it '; 3i<r>ur UTIT> & c - 

TO( ( <n% ) has the sense of the Ablative ; 3nf%rT: ' from the 
beginning, 7 ROTf:, **W, *ofa : & c -; sometimes this is 
added in the sense of the Gen.; as 

1 the gods declared themselves on the side of Arjiina } \ 
( m%w )-iri%: ' on all eides '; z*iva: < on both sides '. 

/ without ', ^fRT ' in various ways ', &c. 

affixed in the sense of 'equally with' or 'like to' whea 
the equality or likeness refers to an action ; 

and not 

:; similarly $rfirq^g(; or (2) < as in the case of that 

. ); -(3) 

little by Uttle 'j ^^f: &c. 

is added to nouns or indeclinables to express that a person 
or thing, not being like what is denoted by the base to 
which it is added, becomes or is made like it. 

: I war a*^ i a^rf* I Pan. V. 1. 115-117 
1%: I Pan. V. 4. 50. 


Before this the ending 37 or an i? changed to f , 
but not that of indeclinable?-, f or g- is lengthened and 
3t changed to fr ; final ^ and the ending consonant of 
aTOfl; , *R^ , ^g^[ , %<f*r , f f ^ , and ^^ , are dropped 
and then the preceding rules are applied to the penul- 
timate vowel. After this the termination is dropped 
and the verbal or other forms of fr, i and 3^ are 
added to the base regarded as a preposition; 

) ffsoitenra; * srgrr ^srsrr a^grr srgrr 

h similarly TiRQrT^ ; ^f?I^?TRf : ' the d*y is 

changed into the night 7 ; f^^r^rTT TTT%- * the night has 
become like the day '; 

is affixed like f%^ to ( 1 ) 5:^ when toe meaning is 
4 troubling one who ought not to be troubled \ 
5:*n^nffl ^mR^r^i ( 2 ) ^ and f^q- in the sense of 
pleasing one who ought to be pleased ', &c ; QOT- 


Kau. ); ( 3 ) 3^. ^j^l^frfff m*H* *. * ' roasts it '; 
( 4 ) ^rwy: qarrsftrcr ^iui ^fu?^ t. e. settles its 
price ' ( 5 ) and to onomatopoeic words not followed 
by fffr and containing more than one vowel, the words 
being reduplicated; q^,~- qgqgf^Offf, * utters the 

is optionally affixed like f%sr but when the change meant 
is complete*; ( ^?^ 5^ 3jf|p qnjim ) 

I Pan. VII 4. 32. anrfor ^r^ ^ I Sid. Kau ; 
i Virt. ^ ^ i Pan. VII. 4. 26. 
i Pan. V. 4 51. 

216 -SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [343-344 

completely changed to fire '; ( also ^jTumfa )$ 

( completely reduces to ashes >; in the case 

of this affix the forms of q with ^ are also added; 

also conveys the sense of ' making 
over or delivering something to another ' &c.; fnr- 

and rr are similarly 

added when scmethiog ia to be given to another; 

N. B.* The derivatives formed by means of the affix frr^ do 
not share the properties of prepositions; the verbal indecl., 
therefore, from ^fjj^ld^flTff is 3Tl?T^n^^r and not n<q. 


3T5W ^?T; ' the same day '; ^iRn^^ft q^^ ' last year '; 
<RTft * the year before the last '; 3rfw?OT?fr> 

* this year ' wTutftf* qf^rft the other day \ 

4 to^ay ^ff^raiA 1%: * yesterdaj ' ^^Rn^fffi an^y: 4 the 

4 other or following day '; ?<iq>f^; ^^W-^-^: ' both the days'*. 

Chapter X. 


344. No definite rules can be laid down for the determina- 
tion of the gender of words in Sanskrit. It can best be studied 

Pan. V 4. 52. 

344-346 ] GENDER. 217 

from the dictionary or from usage. The following hints, however, 
may be useful to the student in the majority of oases. 


345. Verbal derivatives formed by the affixes 9? and ;f, 
and f addfld to the roots ^r and vrr; e. g. m^: t n*n, W, Tf : 
any beverage or drinfc, poison, ifr**: range, scope, 
: mental pain or anguish. frfir: a treasure, &c. 

Exceptions: *rnar/d. and *rcr, f|p, and wr all 
346. Words ending in 3- and those having $ , 
> ^>^)^ or ^, for their penultimate; as sjij:, 

: * a bunch of flowers ' &c. ^ry:, qr^ror:, ^?t*i: ' a swelling, 

Exceptions: Words ending in 

(a) 7-q|, 1*3$ ( except when it ends a compound, in which 
case it is both mas. and /em. ) 5^-g ' the last day of a 
lunar month on which the moon is invisible,' ^T$ ' name 
of a river/ 33, *&* ft^ t3^ ' ft kind of creeper/ which 
are all /.; ^rg, sng, ^^ 4 wealth/ 3^55, 5^5 ' lac/ 
5T3 tin or lead', ar^, ^r^, IT^ ' honey/ ^rr^ ' relish', 
and ircg sour cream ', which are all neuter. 

' the chin', ^n^;, sm%^:^, 3i^^ * a garment/ 
a fire brand/ 

(c) ? and or f%Tl, g^2T. 5cSf.^, WRr ' place where four 
roads meet- 

( d) f and ^ ?PT^, f^, ffF*J property left at death, ' g^r ' a 
hymn of the Samaveda/ ' a kind of sacrifice/ ^nr, 
the hairy skin of a black antelope 7 , gffp* snow', 

218 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 346-348 

a flight of 


( ) <f, *T, IT TTT ' sin ' ^7, T%c*T> 5^r, ^rwr ' tender grass ', 
3*^fr<T 'an island', ^pR 'saffron', ^pR gold, iron, ffT^R 
'a leprous spot 7 , ^R 'a battle 9 , f SR, JT^R (generally mas.), 
3fqirR knowledge of the soul. 

(/) *r and T f^q 1 , f i??*?, ^rrfPT ' an upper garment ', jff, 

lf%=r, %^T> 3^T> ^RTT, *^f ' dry ginger ', 
a cage ', 3T3"f , 3Tf$IT ' courtyard/ %^, ^?^^, $J^T> 
, ^5^ ' a cave', ^JTT * a hut ' (m. also), ^^JTT 'a crab', 
' name of a country/ 3f*3T, firf^TT, <T^T a loom, 
the ritoal &c.j ^r?ir, T?, ^T^T, TR'T/ ^^j*!, f^=r, {j5T, %?y 
TTT^r a family, ^^f^j^ a fiuger-armour, ^r^r, ^fr^r, q^r, 

q?r, qr^ 5r?K' 

(^) tf and *f ^3?n? 'a frying pan/ artsmrc ' a frying pan/ 
RT^, 3(t^, %f?R^ 'sin, guilt/ q^Rq*: 'sin, stain/ ( some- 
times *. ), fifa, ^f, chaff ' ^TTf^r which ( 5.^. ) are 
all neuter. 

347. The words ^, %rq R^?, TCft> ^T^3 
> q^T> 3!TfRT^ n3T ( also HM. ), 
r, ^TT, and their synonyms, and words expressive 
of the measures of corn &c., such as ^g^, &c. 

Exceptions ^f/<jj., f^ar/ei., ^m /<., RTfTOT/m. 'a kind 
of weight,, firre?<T "0u- } f^-^ MSM; ajg^ ew ; and ST^ neu. 

348. The words ^r: < a wife', 3T^TcTT: ' uninjured rice/ 
F: * fried rice/ 3*5^1 * life ( the vital airs in the body )' and 
r: * a house,' which are always used in the plural. 

349-352 ] GENDER. 219 

349. The words ^reraur ' sinus, a kind of nicer', 3^1^ the- 
corner of the eye, *T?iq^, **<*, ir^[ <a wing/^fav^, Jift, n%, 
ST^T, 5>T&, >OT5T, *r%> lftf& tff , 9>R, 5M, W*T, T3T, fJ5T ' a 
kind of grass ( of which the girdle of a Brahmana ought to be 
made ), s*f , j*cT, ^pff * a spear' ars^, ara 'a collection.' 
fcT, f <T, QjT, ^?T *the mango tree 7 , ggJr, T^T 'a ounnch/ 
^TJ^- 'name of a demon/ qi^ui* a heretic, f^T^tr? a lock of hair, 
a peacock's tail, q-^r, ^^r, sCTirjn" ' a ^* n( ^ * sacrificial offering/ 
^T?> ^?) ^7 name f Vishnu, a kind of flower ( also neu. in 
this sense, uometimea ), f%9f > f ^f? ^T^, a^T, qflrtd ^f^R[ ' a 
churning handle/ ^^f^RT name of Indra, ^f^r, Mcf^r, <JT ' & 
multitude, the betel-nut tree/ q^, qjqr, ^qr, ?FST5 'la'ge frying 
pan 1 &c., TO, ITTOT, T^, g?^, ir^ar, TO^T, ^1T ^ 3^ the 
bntt-end of an arrow to which the feathers are attached, 
and 9f^f%- 


350. Verbal derivatives formed by the terminations 

, f^T, fS, f and 37; as 3^1%:, >|y&:, TfJlft:, m9:, 'cJ^T:, ^:, &c. 

Exceptions: ^%, snS" and ^for, all mas. 

351. (a) All the numerals from 20-91), monosyllabic words 
in i and such as are formed by the aflix m, ft^TfJf} ft.*; *gm &c. 

(6) The synonyms of i^Rf, ?ErRg[, cRTT and sfofr and these 
words themselves. 

Exceptions: 5ftfffl( . and ?ir^^ n. both meaning a 4 river'. 

352. The words ?TT, ^ 'a sacrificial ladle/ 
'aVodic metre/ ^R^, qrf^, %^ ' a drop/ 

, 5flf%, ^!% ' a tubular vessel of the body, a hollow 

-220 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. f 352-355 

lotus stalk/ ffeffe < a kind of bird, ' %ffc, sf*, frft, *Prfo ' the 
orifice of the ear, a kind of cake/ nf*Ti ^ft ' a cottage/ *RT, 
j^fj, sfe 'a moment/ *%, qrf%, Sfft^ff, ST^-fT, *ri*-ift * a 
mine ( of jewels &c. )' ^nft-sfr 'a kind of cucumber/ 
'the edge of a sword/ 

'knowledge, consciousness', g^, ^rfR>j, 3TTT^T^[, ^ 
'water gruel/ f, ^r^ buttocks/ 

and ^137 'a limit or boundary/ 

353. 3jr , S?R^ when it means 'a flower/ 

d gyc^f^ which are always used in the plural.* 


354. Words ending in the Krit affixes SR and ft and the 
Taddhita affixes r, ?, ^, af^, and f^; mw, 3^, ft^ SS?t, 
>mr^, W ( ^TSTW ^TT^: ), ^T^f, *eft* ( vifrsfa: ) the monkey 
species' srrf^Trtf, 4t^ ( 3$** ^T^: ), Itfnrt ' a period of two 
years-/ ^m$3& &c. 

355. Words ending in f^ and^f; in 9TI, and 3^;, and 
having two vowels in them; in ^ and such as have 9 for their 
penultimate; ^f^ * liquid ghee/ stfrffct, vrg^, **#*> ^N ' an 
armour/ *T$r^, JT^, ggp, ^gj, &c., 3^, ^y, W5J, &o. 


(a) qrffafem. 'the roof of a carriage or house' and $&&/*. 
'a boundary/ 

(*) $*> arfft* (> ffer^ ), gnsr 'pupil', gsr, ir?3r ; fsr name 

K/. however Sid. Kau. 

355-359 ] GENDEB. 221 

of a demon ' and & all mat.- qrsrr, HOT, WT ' & smith's 
bellows ', <f5T, *^T, ' a leather strap ', 

(e) and ^ g^y, <rTO, $53 ' a granary or store house for 
corn ', ?r^y ' the middle gem of a necklace ', 3>*TO, \*& ' a 
Brahmana who attends on an idol ', and 3TO, which are all mas. 

356. Words denoting fruits, and all numerals from 313 up- 
wards, except $r|p mas., <g$r which is also /dm. and 

357. The words g^f, TOST, 
bow 7 , &c., ^rr, ^T^, f5J, ^T, W5 35T, W^fT, 5^ ' copper ', 
, for, and their synonyms. 

Exception: tfft, ' a plough ', 3W 'wealth', 3U^T 'cooked 
'ice ', 3^15^ ' a battle ', OTHT ' a battle ', all mag., and 
' war ' and 3T?cnr ' a forest ', both fern. 

358. f%q^, 3Hl^, ^^ ' a drop of water ' ( generally used 
in the plural ), 31^, zr^g; ' the liver ; , g^^g[ ' batter-milk ', 

T??T, 3T^?r, firmTT, ftw, r%^, ftw, ?rar, TSW 'silver', f ^r, 

' the grey ness of hair brought on by old age, ' 

sin ', ^nr, vn?T, WRT, ^T silver, a stamped coin, ^cq- ' a 
baser metal, ' guq-, f^uq*, * a place, ' 0? ' an offering offered to 
the gods ' ( opposed to the following ), ^otr * an oblation offered 
to deceased ancestors ' ( opposed to the preceding ) ( CTetr, ^fq- t 
3mrif ( w^r, f^r^T mechanical art, rffcq- * a loop cr sling made of 
strings ', jrwr < a wall ', *&, f*? , g$,, %T^r, 55, 5:^, ^^r a 
fish hook, fq^. ^^, $TT ' saffron, ' ^nf, * water ', and if^r ' an 
organ of sense -\ 


S59. IK, ITfor, m%; 5%, TOfo ' a trumpet sounder, ' 
the pelvis, ' ^rr?RT^; Hl% * ink, a kind of black powder, ' 

222 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 350-360 

' a measure of one hand in length/ 

when at tne end of a com P- ) flfo, *nf*r, 

, 3m%, Hffbr, ffS 'a leather strap/ 
and 3TT&. 


300. *fT, >i?T, g^T ' a kind of grass ( also g^r )>, 
' play, joke, tremor, ' trj re<r, 5^ ' a wooden or earthen dolP, 
< roasted meat, , aftr^fT l blood ', sr^, 3^J, 
?^ grsT ' the namo of Gokala, ' ^^r, ^^, ^^ ' a peacock's fea- 
ther, the beard, ' &c., ?p^^, ^ t anJ ' a kind of eye disease % 
af^, T*T> S^?> ^^^T, aftw, aTT^vr, 3T?fT, 3pJ^, WT? 'the scum of 
boiled rice, ' ^(T^-, ^TcT, ^?T<3T, ^TT'Sr, 3n^f5T, 
ffe^T,W,^,jrt* a peacock's feather/ ^, 
' gold ' 3^*f 3f, %^, ^fr^, 1?^ * name of an aquatic bird ' ^, 
OT^> ^frg HT5, ^fll'5 ^rf> ' the flour of barley first fried und 
then ground 7 ( used in the pi. ), ^nw^ ' the root of the water 
lily ', ^r?^, 3?tfhF, ^TT^T, Rt^E: c spirituous liquor, ' also 'the act 
of drinking liquor ( vide. Sis. XV. 80 ), jfr^:, ^n^T 'a drink- 
ing cup', I^f^, 5^?F, cT^T^, R^, 5T^^ 55r4^ lustre, vigour' 
T^, ' a bow, the bow of Siva, ' Hl^cE, f$V9^ 'incense ; , &c., 

a lump of boiled rice*, cf?, 3TC, ^ff, ^ P<Tr, 
fe ' a rage, ' *? ' a kind of plant ', 
' a particular coin, 7 ^or, 

<T; cfl 5 ^ ( w - ) i a holy place ' t a descent into water, 
the stairs of a landing place. &c. ( m. ) a respectable 
person ' ( generally used as an affix, as iVTTcfRlf^y & c - ), WT t the 
nose or nostrils of a horec i&j, q;sr, wr^r, qt^, 3TfH^?T, SfRyfT, 
SicR, ^TR, ^TO^, <r^T, Wr^, %^, 3TTf?T^ ' the tie-post or the 
tie- chain of an elephant/ ?TRT^T ^- a friend ; n. a letter having 
the same organ of utterance, if^r, ^^^, ^^TT^T, f^fTF^ a 
canopy, f%KCT, 5j5r, a winnowing basket, ^fl<r,* the eighth 

5 360-362 J INDECLINAHLES. 223 

mahurta of the day, ( mostly mas. ), 'a musical instrument 7 ; 
$anr, 'a corpse/ %fo, f%?r<T, 3T<T a small boat or the moon; i&q> 
a bed, &**? 'yawning,' fi^, KHm, ^lf%TT the pomegranate 
tree; . its fruit, ^3*1, STOW, Tff, $?m, ?fR, SCfR ( *. ) 
<Varuna/ TfrRq\ ^^q- astringent flavou* or taste, jr^yq-, ar^q-, 
3T?qTr, fouaq, =g^i, TO, ^> *TK> TO a vessel for holding 
liquor, a mass of water; <rfT, $frr, mRC *an iron club, a javelin/ 
w^fR a kind of vessel' ( Afar, grn ), R^TT, ^fk 'a kind of 
fragrant grass' ( Mar. qjoB'T ), mflTT * . darkness, blindness 
iron-ruat-, fBrRlT, ^5^r, ^ X T, ^fw, * dr 7 cowdung/ 
^, ^TTET c sacrificial vessel of a particular shape ', 
r%qf^T exudation of trees, srem, ^nf^T 'anything made of 
cotton 1 , grm, RW, q7RT, 5PH ; a drinking cup/ ijfa-, ^JIJT M . a 
wooden vessel or cup, arrg^ srfor, ?FT^', cj^pa" 
' the bow of Arjuna, ' ^ft^ m. ' a largo serpent, ' 

. the sarasa bird, name of Brahma; ? 
* a demon n. flesh ', ^orr?y, Wf^, ^fnT?y r a horse's neck, ' 
forage ', \%%\& a cat, the eye-ball, T %ST a piece of 
waste or uncultivated land, ^y, T^ 3?qfJ . a kind of plant, 
5T?T, 3T5<T, srqjir, q? the blade of a sword, a knife, qnr, <ri%^, ^3", 
and &% m. a mushroom; m. a parasol, an umbrella. 


t 361 ^ar-OTT ' the post or pillar of a house ', 3?f%^, light, 
and ^t-$TT cce hundred thousand ( according to some n. alao ). 

Chapter XL 

362. That in an dnyaya whose form remaining the same in 

224 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. [ 362-365 

all the genders, numbers and cases, undergoes no change.* 
The Aiyayas may be divided into simple and compound ones, 
The latter are treated of in the chapter on compounds ( Avyayi- 
bhivas and a few Bahuvrfbis and Tatpurusha ). 

S 363. The indeclinables comprise ( I ) Prepositions ( II ) 
Adyerbs, ( III ) Particles, ( IV ) Conjunctions, and ( V ) Inter. 

364. Besides these there are in Sanskrit a few nouns- 
haying one inflection only which are treated as indeclinable 
( nipatat ), e. g. 3TO< another ( reason ), ar^i* setting, rf^ 
that exists, sfn^ the well-known sacred syllable om t ^^ satis- 
faction, food, ^rt^ coaxing, TO^ a bow, ?m?rT non-existence 155 
tha earth, *j^ the sky, grf? the dark fortnight, ^r^ happiness, 
SjY? or Sn% ^ e bright fortnight, *faq^ a y ear > ^^TfT food offered 
to gods, *w food offered to the manes, ^ heaven, ^1% 
happiness &c. 


365. A preposition, styled *Upasarga or Gati/ in Sanskrit is 
an indeclinable word, having an independent meaning and prefixed 
to verbs and also to their derivatives. These prepositions modify, 
intensify and sometimes totally alter the senses of rootsf: 

i Pin. 1. 1. 37. 

Cf. also Sid. A'au. 

Some think that prepositions have no meaning of their own, 
but they simply bring to light when prefixed to rocts their 
hidden senses. ( of. Sis. X. 15 ). 

365-866 ] INDECLINABLES. 225 

9* STf ' to strike/' 3ffif ' to eat, to perform as a sacrifice,' jfc 
1 to contract/ f3|T ' to S P OI V Wg" ' to avoid, &c/ Sometimes 
they are prefixed witnout any alteration in the sense. 

366. The following are the prepositions ( upasarg** } com- 
monly prefixed to roots: 

' beyond, over'; arraSF*: 'overstepping ' or going beyond. 

rfiMff ' a gift, &c/ 

T < over, above, &c ;' au^HT: 'goiug up, acquisitio 
' high office or power/ 3tf^q: censure/ &c. 
313 ' * ter > behind, along, &c. 7 3T^chHUJ * following/ 

' imitation/ 3?5i^: ' favour/ &c. 

9|ir ' awav from, away/ ^^^R ' the act of taking away/ 
4 to plunder, seize ' &c , 3^*1^: < harm, wrong' &c. 

3rft ( sometimes ft ) 'near to/ ' over/ ' takiDg to/ &c. ; 
* to be resolved into or reduced to, * , srfiqT'f or 
' a coverine, ' ^cq-jj: < destruction/ &c. 

This prep, is more commonly uaed as an independent advexb 
having a cumulative force in classical Sanskrit. 

< towards, near to/ &c ; 3|f&ir^ ' to go towards/ 

1 noble descent or family/ siftm*: self-respect/ 3) 
' to defeat/ &o. 

3HT ( sometimes q- : see 3jft and ft. note ) 'away, down/ &c. 
airq- or OTTf ' to plunge into/ a^RlR: 4 descent/ 
' reproached/ 3TCYTC to disrespect,' &c. 

* Cf. ^RQt*T arfq-ir^j^^ntfr, &c. Sharira Bhishya. According 
to the grammarian Bhaguri the prepositions atfr and 9^- may 
optionally lose their 3T-*t Hiyii<e5lqH^lcqj^^nf^t'l (Sid.Kau.) 
H. 8. O. 15. 


3^ < U p to, towards, all round, a little/ &c.; au^ai^ ' to coyer 
all round/ srrenr- 'form or shape ( within due bounds ), 
' that which ahines all round' t. 0. ' the ether '; 
' to shake a little/ &o. 

^ ^-<upon/&c.; saft 'to go up/ 3^: 'industry/ 
4 pouring out, hence a gift, a general rule/ &o. 

3Tf *near to, towards, by the side of/ &c.; CT7T ' to go near 
to/ sqffflr/. 'an obligation/ ^ft/. 'death/ 
'praise, worship,' T<rirrffT/. 'comparison/ &c. 

^ ?;-< bad, hard to be done/ &c.; ^f^Ti'* * bad conduct/ 
* hard to be done/ 5:9$ 'difficult to be borne/ &c. 

, Into, great, opposed >/ &c. ; fts < to insult/ f3%ir <a 
house/ i%^r ' a heap, a great collection/ fttfff *drunk 
*&/ f^$T 4 ft command/ &c. 

of, away from, without/ &c.; fo:% 'to issue out/ 
fiiJH: < a passage out/ f^fo ' out of i. a, free from 
blame/ fa: ^ ' without doubt,' &. 

, back, opposed to/ &c.j qn^ ' to reject, to denpise,' 
mT^rr 'to act bravely/ TOTO 'gone away/ TO5^[ 'turn 
back,' mi^q- 'what is opposed to victory; defeat/ &c. 

( all round, about/ &. ; qf^TT *to place all round t. e. to put 
on or wear/ gf?PT : : * wall &c. that surrounds/ qRoffir: 
'ripening, maturity/ MRnuiHT ' counting all round, t. e. 
a complete enumeration/ &c. 

< towards, back, in return, in opposition to,' &c.; 

( to go towards/ MiflMmm 'a speech in return, an ans- 
wer/ Trfft-tft-CT?: ' an act in opposition to *. . 
a remedy' &c. 

366-369 ] IKDECUNABLES. 227 

* apart; separate from, reverse to, ' &o. ; ft^R^ ' to move 
apart/ f^ggj 'to be separated,' foft opp. of ?RT ' to 
sell/ 'to buy' &c. ; sometimes this has an intensive force. 

'together with, excellent, full/ &c. tfip*, ' to be united/ 
^F^TC: ' perfection / ^^fjr refinement / ^fR: 
1 destruction, contraction, ' &c. 

C well 5 thoroughly/ &e. ( in this sense it is opposed to ^ ); 
^3><T 'done well/ 3$TT%<T 'thoroughly trained, well 
governed/ &c. It is also used in the sense of ' very, 
excessively; ^^ 'very great/ 

367. Two or more of these prepositions may also be 
combined and prefixed; e. g. arfSrf^fo^ * * enter into 
resolution/ qgmniji 'to come in close contact with/ &c. 

368. When used in a compound the vetb may be omitted 
after the prepositions srfir, arfsf, 3T3, 3TO, 3W, anfir, g^r, qjft and 

c. Vide 232. 

369. There are several other words, also styled Gati by 
Sanskrit grammarians, used prepositionally. These are prefixed 
to certain roots only. We give the more important of them below. 

( a ) g?x^* ' towards ' is prefixed to tr^ and to roots implying 
motion; 3tx$4inj-*r?q- * going near/ 3F5^$R$ ^flying towards/ 
'having spoken to.' 

( b ) ( 1 ) 3T^r% ' giving itrength to the weak/ 3?^ in the 
sense of decorating/ 3rft> ^fflr> 37T^ all implying ' assent, 
acceptance or promise/ ^3. an ^ similar imitative sounds, 
and ^ in the sense of 'dishonouring or honouring/ 
denoting 'fastening/ &c. are prefixed to ^ ; ^^^ 

. 4. 69 

228 SANSKRIT GEAMMAE. [ 369-372: 

( 2 ) TO:, sn', ftwr, *$, *rr$TT^and some other words may 
be optionally prefixed to ^ or remain separate? 
or 5$ ^ 'to bring under subjection/ *rT$rr^ ^ or 
make manifest/ &c. 

( * ) 3*tn; is prefixed to roots meaning 'to go/ qj, T%, and 
similar roots. srerftrtr ' having disappeared/ sTOvrfr ' dis- 
appearance/ 3^a^?T, &c. 

(<f J.SIWB( * 8 prefixed to roots implying motion; 3^nq: 
letting/ affffim "set/ srttfalr Vto cause to set, to lead 

to destruction 

( e ) <3TT^. f , and sn: are prefixed to ^, 3^^ and ^; and 
to ^ vjr and similar roots, and optionally to 


manifested/ &c.; mfpg?T Banishing out of sight,' 
'disappearance/ &c. 

5 is prefixed to 5?, ig; , ^ &c.. suffer 'placed before, 
headed by/sffrra 'gone in the front/ &o. 

370. Several nouns, substantive and adjective, may be- 
prefixed to the roots ^P> , ^ , and 373 to form what are 
called in Sanskrt ' chvi-derivatives' ( vide chap. IX. 
See. III. 

Such nouns are also termed 'Gii. J 

371. Like prepositions may be further used the words to 
which the Taddhita affix ^T^ is affixed, aTTJJ^Kfr ( to 

consign to flames/ ^YT^TTr^cT- 'reduced to ashes/ 
4Hl^dl 'made over to the king. 7 &c. ( vide p 4 216. ) 

II. Adverbs. 

872. Adverbs are either primitive or derived from nouni r 
pronouns or immerals. As adverbs may also be further used the 

372-373 ] 



Ace. ting. neu. of nouns and adjectives ; and sometimes the sing. 
of other cases also ; *ran* ' truthfully / ^f ' softly, ' 
'happily,' yg < quickly, ' f^fo[, 3W^Hi, aTfM^H , 
' strongly, ' ^q-:, < again ' &c. ; ^.-jfr, 'painfully, ' a^r, 

< virtuously, juitly, ' ^fi^R, Stftor, 3I^T, T%*OT ' after a long 
time, ' qvft &c. ; f^HT, f%TTTWTq' for a long time, ' 

' for the sake of,' ^JT^ f forcibly, ' ^fq^, ^f^I^, 
^FRT^&c.; f%Tia; ^or along time/ 5^, ^TfT^ &: 

< properly, ' f^, spTW, STf^, 3^, ^^q 1 ^ ' at once, ' 

< near, ' &c. 

A r . 5 Adverbs formed from pronouns and numerals are 
given in their proper places while those formed from nouns 
are given in Chapter IX. 

373. In tho following list are alphabetically arranged almost 
all the words used adverbially in Sanskrit. 

Suddenly, all at once. 
In front of, before, 
front of, before ; 
ahead, at first. 

Not long since, 
recently, quickly. 

Ever, constantly. 

Through ignorance. 
Rightly, correctly, pro- 
In, into. 
: From this > on this account 

Exceedingly j rising 
superior to, with the Ace. 
3T?f??rT5 : 'n^*f^Tra > : M. B. 
3TaT Here 

Then, afterwards. 

3T^r Truly, certainly, indeed. 
3TO To-day, this day. 
Now, now-a-days. 

Belnw, down. 

Again, moreover. 
f : On the followingday 
Now at this time. 




arf^T^ Incessantly, ceaselessly. 

*) Except, without, 

araiTT / 

.. *> inside. 

3T^>OT V 

v J Between, amidst. 

} Again, moreover, be- 

) sides. 

Elsewhere, 4n another 

Otherwise, in a diffe- 
rent manner. 

: Near, close by, in the 
proximity of. 

Frequently, repeat- 

Quickly, little. 
Together with, in com- 
pany with. 

There, in the next world, 

? Before. 

Enough, sufficient for. 
It is a prefix also. 
without, on the outside. 
Repeatedly, often and 

^Improperly, unfitly. 

Instantly, speedily. 
) Uninterruptedly, one 
) affcer another. 

Near, in the vicinity of,. 
at a distance. 
3TT4gg^ Forcibly [ Pan. I. 1. 


3TTf%^ Openly, before the eyes. 

Hither and thither, to 
and fro, here and there, &c. 
In this manner, so. 


another day, the 
other day. 

Thus, indeed, quite in. 
conformity to tradition. 
Thus, so, in this manner. 
st now, at this mo- 
^ Here. 
f^ Slightly, little. 

3^ Loudly. 

On the day following. 
3MJ5J Secretly, in private. 
From both sides. 

On both days. 

Early in the morning, at 

i Truly, Truthfully- 

5 73] 



without, except, 
together, in one place, 
once, once upon a time. 

one way, singly, at the 
same time. 

all at once, suddenly. 
Now, at present, 
crqp Just, quite. 
Thus, so. 
o be it. 

> I trust, hope. &c, 
ra?r ; 

flFSH* How, in what way. 

1 With great difficulty, 
J With great effort. 
3>m*U*4 How indeed, how possi- 

^r When, at what time. 

One time, once upon a 


used as an enclitic. 
When, at what time? 

ny time. 
What a pity. 
f%^ Moreover, further, again. 
) To a certain degree, 

) little, somewhat. 
But, yet, nevertheless, 
What indeed, whether. 

who, what, which?; 
How much more? 
What how ? 

Whether, how. 
Verily, indeed, assuredly. 
What then, how much 
more, &c. 

Whence, from where? 
Where, in which place ? 
mewhere, anywhere. 

n the best manner. 
n a good manner. 
^H^ Enough, no more of. 

, merely, simply. 
Whither, where ? 

80me pl&ce. 
i?I%cr Nowhere. 

Certainly, surely, indeed. 
ft^ A long time. The singular 
of any of the oblique cases 
of this word may be used 
adverbially in the sense of 
'long/ 'for a long time/ aa 
, ft**, &c. 
T For a period of many 

nights, long. 

Perhaps, sometimes, 
s^ro; Silently. 




Quickly, at once. 


Therefore, consequently. 
TO Then, in that case, &c. 
Then, at that time, in that 

Then, at that time. 
So, in that manner, as 
surely us. 

As for instance, to be 
more plain, &c. 

From that, therefore. 
Then, at that time, 
n the first place, &c. 
^Crookedly, across, in- 
1 directly, badly. 
) Silently, without 

) speaking or noise. 

By that, on that account. 

By day. 
f^TT Fortunately, luokily. 

To a distance, deeply, 

At night. 

) Quickly, forthwith, 
g** Certainly. 

Not 10. 
iHF^ By night. 

Not so, not at all. 

in various ways, distinct- 
ly, separately. 
By name; indeed, certain- 
ly, probably, perhaps. 
Near, close by . 
Very much, exceecung- 

Jy, to one's satisfaction, 
agreeably to desire. 

Certainly, assuredly, 
most probably. 
q^ Then, oyer, out of. 

Day after to-morrow. 
: Around, on all 'sides, all 

Tb other day, 

To one's satisfaction, 
sufficiently; willingly. 
Well, behold ! see ! 

Behind, backwards, at 
last, atter wards. 
: Again. 

I 373 



5^: Again and again, re- 


> Before, in front. 

irjr In former times, of yore, 
at first. 

m or to the east, before, 
in front of &c. 

On the former day, yester- 

Severally, apart trom. 


at will, with pleasure. 
SIJT In the morning. 
TOT^ Extensively. 

Being exhausted. 

Every day. 
On the contrary, on the 
other hand, rather, &c. 

On high, at the 

8ame time 
Forcibly, violently, ex- 
ceedingly, much. 

Before, at first, in or to 
the east. 

In the morning. 

Crookedly, in ait oppo- 
site manner favourably. 

: Mostly. 
In the noon. 
ar?q- After death. 

Forcibly, powerfully, 
i excessively. 
Out, beside, except. 


Exceedingly, again and 

Greatly, exceedingly, re- 
Quickly, immediately. 

A little, slightly, slowly, 

mfe ' 

Without delay, imme- 

To each other, secretly. 

Wrongly, incorrectly, to 
no purpose, in vain. 

gTjT To no purpose, in vain, 
unprofitably, wrongly. 

Often, again and again. 
Falsely, lyingly, in vain, 
q-^ Since. 

q<T: Since, for which reason, 

3rsr Where, in which place. 




As, namely. 
In cine order. 
In the manner men- 
tioned, just as required. 

As much as, as loDg as. 

at once, simultaneously. 

High up in the sky. 
In vain. 
t Verily, to be sure. 
5&: Gently. 
SP^ Always. 

Hurriedly, quickly. 
Along with. 

At once. 

Perpetnally, always.. 

Stealthily, under cover. 
At once, the yery moment. 

: Ail round. 

I, proprely. 
lolly, gladly. 

Face to face, in 
Well, in a good manner; 
r: On all sides, perfectly. 
Every wnere. 
W Together with, along with* 
All at once, suddenly. 

Together with, along 

In the presence of, in 
person, in bodily form, 
crookedly, in a sidelong 

* When ^T and qr^ are prefixed to a personal form of the 
Present Tense, it has the sense of the Future Tense. 

373-375 ] INDECUNABLES. 235 

, at present, fitly, 

Oneself spontaneously, 
ff Because, indeed, surely. 
Without, except. 

In the evening. 

Very much. gfTfl 

' I On account of, because of, 
In vain, to no purpose. -|-^ ) 

Well, in a good manner. jpfr Yesterday. 


374. The particles are either used as expletives or inten- 
sives; some of these are f%5T, *^, ^,5, 3, *, If, &c. 

375. The following particles are used with certain words: > 
3^ 3T^cT ' a wonder '. 

^T OTSW 'a bad man,' gjfajj Uuke-warm,' gjr^r^ 'a little water 7 . 
l a bad deed >. 


qr is generally changed to acr or s*^ when prefixed to words be- 
ginning with a consonant or a vowel respectively. This 
particle has six different senses* ( 1 ) ^T^q" 'likeness* 
or ' resemblance' ; as 3t3Tran 'one not a Brahmana, but 
resembling a Brahmana * ( wearing the sacred thread, 
&c. ) i. e. ' a Kshatriya or a Vaisya* (2) ^HT^T ^absence 
or negation' ; sr^itf ' the absence of knowledge'-, ( 3 ) 
317373* ' difference from'- as sro 3TO?: 'this is something 
different from a cloth' i. 9 . '& jar' or so (4) ^^mi 'little- 

* These are given in the following couplet: 

236 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 375-376 

ness' or 'smallness'j as ar^^TT sp^qr ' a gi'l baying a 
slender waist' ; ( 5 ) 3isrT3n?*r 'badness, unfitness' ,&c. ; 
3TOT& i something unfit to be done', 3^f*T ' an 
Improper time, not a favourable opportunity,' and 
lastly ( 6 ) fifte or * opposition '; 3R*Tfir: ' non-mora- 
lity'j immorality 3157: 'opposed to a god't. e. 'a demon'. 

OT is generally used as an expletive. Used with a form of 
the present tense of a verb, it gives in the sense of the 
past tense ; as H*ift CT *'. 3^3"^. When used with 
the particle W it has an intensive force as ITT fIT 3TT% 

wr: &m &o. 

f^fg; is added to i% and other indeclinables and aska a question 
or implies a doubt ; fifefaat, 3l?tR^> &c. 

TfT is need with 5 and its derivatives like a preposition in the 
sense of acceptance'. **fan*: 9ft$?ra(, &<>. 

376. The following are the principal conjunctions in 

( a ) Copulative 3?^r, wt, *ff, ^j f%^, &c. 

(5) Disjunctive WT> TT...^T, &c. 

( e) Adversative aro^T, 5, 1^5, fifor, &c. 

(d) Conditional^, q-f^, q^rffi, ^g;, ^t%^, %? ( used in 

sacrificial ceremonies ), &c. 
() Causal f|,?Tg:,fR,&c. 
(/) Interrogative '^njt a^rf?^;, ^T, ^mft, f%, 

Affirmatives and negatives ajf , 3W fti^ , 3TT^> 3T^[T &c. 
t( A ) COD junctions of time qrc^-tTWI? ^T, ?T^T &c. 
( t ) 3,r and 5 RT are used to mark the beginning and the close 

of a work respectively. 



377. " The interjection is not properly a part of speech, 
as it does not enter into the construction of sentences. It is 
sadden exclamation prompted by some strong feeling or emo- 
tion. There are various utterances suited to the different emo- 
tions of the mind ": Prof. Sain. 

( a ) These are 3Tf, f, gr, <r, $, aft, 31* , ff , 3Tft, ^T, 

?> fT, 5Tyr &c. expressive of wonder, grief or regret, &c. 

( * ) f%^, ftr^s &o. expressive of contempt. 
( c ) f T, ^T; &o. expressing sorrow, dejection, &c. 
( ^ ) ?T> 5f^T> ^^ showing ffrief. 

( e ) 3tT, f^ ff** , & c - expressive of anger, contempt, &c. 
(/) ?^. &c - expressing joy. 

(y) There are some interjections used to call attention. 
Of these. 

( 1 ) some show respect, such as ar|p, 3^- 

^t: r &c. 

( 2 ) and others, disrespect or contempt; as aqp, aft, 

( 3 ) The exclamations sfi^, qfi^ and ^^ are need when 
offering oblations to gods or manes; and 

( 4 ) Hlgl &d ^qrj when offering oblations to gods and 
manes respectively. 


Chapter XII. 

378. There are in Sanskrit 
(a) Two kinds of verbs, Primitive and Derivative. 
( 5 ) Six Tenses ( ^Ryr: ) and four Moods ( 3j*fr ) which are 
as follow: 

or Present &^ 3TT*n or Imperative &Q 

or Aorist g^ flrfir or Potential f*Rr^ 

: or Imperfect 5^ grrrfn or Benedictive STT^Trm^ 

r: or Perfect fJ^ 0%cf or Conditional 

or 1 st Future g 

or 2 nd Future <g. 

t the Subjunctive is used only in the Veda and is 
therefore termed ' The Vedie Subjunctive. ' 

Note: The ten tenses and moods are technically called the 
ten Lakaras in Sanskrit grammars. 

( e ) Three Voices ( snfrTT: ), the Active Voice ( grcffaro ) as 
IT, the Passive Voice (^pffofnro ), as 5T?CfT 

, and the Impersonal Construction 

These technical names are given in the following Karika. 

This terminology of Panini, it will be seen, is artificial. 
Other grammarians use different names. The ten Lakaras of 
Panini are according to their nomenclature, as follow. 

and 3TT^FfJ 
Ouidt '. 

87b-382 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 239 

( d ) Two eets of personal terminations, the one called ' Paras. 
maipada,' the other ' Atmanepada. 7 Some roots take exclusively 
the Par. terminations and some the Atm. ones; while there are 
others which take either. Several roots again, though Paras- 
maipadi, become Atmanepadi and rice versa, when preceded by 
certain prepositions or in particular senses. These will be con- 
sidered in a separate chapter. 

379. Primitive verbs or roots are those which originally 
exist in the language, while derivative verbs are those which 
may be derived from a parent stock a root or a noun. 

380. Every verb, in Sanskrit, whether primitive or deriva- 
tive, may be conjugated in the ten tenses and moods given above. 

( a ) Transitive verbs are conjugated in the Active and 
Passive voices and intransitive verbs in the active and the 
Impersonal form. 

381. In each tense and mood there are three numbers, 
singular, dnal and plural, with three persons in each. 

382. In four of the tenses and moods given above, viz. the 
Present, the Imperfect, the Imperative and the Potential, the verds 
undergo peculiar modifications ( dnE^ur ) and these are therfore 
called Oonjngational (firS^f^)* or special tenses and moods; and 

* Strictly the term Sarvadbatuka ( belonging to tile form of 
the verbal base ) is given by Panini to the terminations of all 
the tenses and moods; except those of the Perfect and the 
Benedictive, and to the affixes distinguished by an indicatory s 
( f$TC ) . . the various conjugational signs of the 9 classes ( ex- 
cept that of the eighth ), and the terminations of the Present Parti- 
ciple Pars, and* Atm. All other verbal affixes t. e. the conju- 
gational signs of the 8th and 10th classes, the affixes added 
to form the causal base and a few denominatives, the affixes 
**Tr *TT> ^and q- added to the bases of the two futures, the 
Desiderative and the Aor., and the Passive and the Frequentative 
respectively, and those forming the Past Participle ( Act. and 
Pass. ), the infinitive and the verbal indeclinables, and some 
others are called Ardbadhatuka, the remaining Non-Oonju- 

240 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 382-385 

gational ( STTOTTg^r ) or generel. In th* former the characteristic 
marks and terminations of each are mostly added to a special 
base formed from the roots in various ways, while in the latter 
they are combined with the roots itself. 

( a ) The base ( aijp ) of a root is that form wuich it assumes 
before tne personal terminations. 

383. When a root is capable of taking eitner pada, the Para- 
smaipada (lit. word for another) should be used when the fruit 
or result o the action of the verb accrues to any other person 
or thing than tne agent, and the Atmanepada ( lit. word for self )> 
when it refers to the agent. Thus ^^w: q*rfff will meau 
1 Devadatta sacrifices for another ( his Yajamana );' while 
will mean ' Devadatta sacrifices for himself. 9 






384. With reference to the various moods the verbs are 
divided into ten conjugational classes by Sanskrit grammarians, 
each class being denominated after the root which begins it viz. 

(i) Tcrrf* (2) 3?srf?, < 3 > Sff^rfc (4) f^nV, (5) *rrfo (6). 

3*Tft, (7) Wrfifc (*) cfTrit ( 9 ) ZFITfS and (10) gnft- 

g 385. The roots contained m the first nine classes and a few 

of the tenth are primitive roots, while almost all roots of the 
.tenth class, the Causals, Desideratives, Frequentatives, Deno- 
|minative9, and the roots s<r x , ^, f%*^, q^, qsg[, ^, and ^,, 

are comprised under the head of Derivative roots. 

380-387 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 241 

386. Thwe ten classes may again be conveniently divided 
into two groups, the first comprising the 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th 
classes, and the second the remaining. In the first the base 
ends t K and remains unchanged throughout-, while in the 
second ic does uot end in 3? and is changeable. 

I. GROUP 1. 


( 1st, 4th, 6th and 10th classes ). 
387. Terminations: 


Par Atm 

S. D. P. S, D. P. 

2. fs *rj ? % ^ 

S. D. P. S. D. P. 

& ^ *t a 

3 ft 3TII aTJ 

*^ "1*^ ^iT^ 

S. D. P. S. D. P. 

2. -* an 

3. 3* 

* rTTr^is optionally added in the 2nd and 3rd person singulars 
when the Imperative has a Benedict! ve sense. 

H. s. a. 16. 

242 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. [ 387-390 


Par. Atm. 

S. D. P. S. D. P. 

1. $w fa f* & faf| $nf| 

8. 1^ 

JVbte- Terminations beginning with vowels may be called 
Vowel terminations; those beginning with consonants, con- 
sonantal terminations. 

Formation of the base of the roots of the first group: 

388. 3T($FTji& added on to the roots of the First or 
9TT^ class* before the terminations. Before this 97 the penulti- 
mate short and the final vowel of a root take their Guna 
substitute . e, g. 

389. q- ( ^77 } is added on to the final of a root of the 
Fourth or f^rf% class before the terminations ; the radical vowel 
remains unchanged ; e. g. ^-f T%=^+^+f?T=^T^. 

390. 3T is added on to the roots of the sixth or ^rf^- class 
before which the penultimate vowel remains unchanged, and the 
final f 9 7, short or long, ^ *nd =^ are changed to $q^, ^r , 

: I Pan. Ill, 1. 68, 69, T7. 
Of about 2200 roots occurring in the Sanskrt language nearly 
half ( about 1076 ) belong to the first class. 
t Vide 24. 

and f^ respectively; 0. g. 

391. Roots of the tenth or ^fc class* add nr before 
the personal terminations. Before grq- ( 1 ) the penultimate 
short vowel ( except at ) takes the Guna substitute; and the 
final vowel and the penultimate 37 not pros odi ally long, take 
their Vriddhi substitute- 0. y. 

; but 
rfir, &c. 

392. (a)f The preceding 3V is lengthened before a conjuga- 
tional termination beginning with a semivowel, a nasal or 
S^or w; 9. g. HUlffl &c. 

( b ) The final 37 is dropped before terminations beginning 
with i; ;nT+3ifrff=5nrf(T, &c. 

1st class. 
sft P. A. * to carry. ' 

Pan Atm. 



*This class contains a few primitive verbs, almost all the 
roots belonging to it being derivative; besides, all CausaJs 
and some Nominal verbs may be regarded as belonging to 
this class. 

t srtr *if *& i P&n. vn. a. 101. 



J 393. The augment 3? is prefixed to roots in this tenee. 
This 3T is replaced by 3U in the case of roots beginning with a 
; this sir forms Vriddhi with an Initial vowel; o. g. 

; similarly 

(a) When a preposition ( 3TO*T ) is prefixed to a root, the 
augment or or 3TT comes between the prep, and the roo s ; e. g. 
f with sr, 5TTf m 

P. ' to know..' A. ' to see. ' 


S. 3fJist 




H,P. ' to be. '. 55^ A.' to get. ' 


Pan. VI. 4. 102. 



*g P. ' to remember.' g^ A ' to rejoice/ 








2. a j* 


4th Clasa. 

'. ' to be pleased. ' g^ A ' to fight' 


* Hereafter the optional form in r^ will not be given ag 
the student can easily form them by adding H-^ to the base it 
be has to express the sense of the Eenedictive. 







2. ftq 

6th Class. 
. A. 'to throw.' 
P. Pf*0n*. A. 


ftftr I^R ftfcr ftWJ 


* For the change of ^ to o^see 41. 




10th Class. 
^ P. A. ' to steal. ' 
P. Present. A. 






The forms of other roots should be similarly made "p. 

248 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. f g 394-395 

394. * The ^ ( long ) of a root, penulima*e or final, when 
it does not take Guna or Vrddhi, is ehanged to %% , and to g^r 
if a labial or ? precedes and the ^ or 3* is length* ned when ^r 
or g^* is followed by a consonant; e. y. 3? 4. P. <to lecom<* old,' 
5fnn?r, snftfci;, &c. ; & 6. P. T %tf?T, 3T!%^, &c ; here % does 
not become long as f%^ is followed by 3T; fTc^ 10. P. A. 

395. The penultimate ^, g-, ^ or t? of a root, followed 
by ^r or gr^is lengthened when a consonant follows f e. g, 7^ 
1. A. to measure, to play, 3$%; similarly y^, ^, ^ 
all A. and meaning to play, |^ , to act dishonestly, to be 
crooked, gq? to faint. ^^ to spread, to forget; \ $r^ to 
thunder, to shine., ^, 5^, ^, | , ^all meaning to kill, s 
* tr ^> 5'<, &-> a ^ Parasin. and belonging to the 1st class, 
lengthen thoir penultimate vowel; ife4. P. 3fro^t?T> similarly 

, &0 - 


1st class ( gr^: X 


o go/ 

qO 'to praise ' <mwr?n but TOfr 
wh n it means *to barter or 
transact business to bet.' 

* 3vT?5r?fr: I ^T?^: I Pan. VII. I. 100, I. 1. 51. 
Pan. VII. 2. 77. 

t ' f leJ ^ ' I l^f^TRT^ ^T^?qwnn f^r fi^: ^t^ ^i& I Sid. Kan, 

t 5i^MHfi^q(opTfir 3TPT: I Pan. III. 28. These roots insert 
before ST. The vowel of 5^ takes Gupa subsiituio before 
this 3TR. 

395 ] 



U. ' to conceal, to keep 

A. * to 

f P. ' to spit/ 

with 3TT ' to sip/ 
t Bnfi *<*T*T A. < to shine/ 

II i'. ^to pervade.' ^ 

P. ' to roam 

*>H P. 't 

3* P. A to desire,' 

. 'to kill 

P. ' to 
i to reproach^ ' to pity> ' 

H^ ^[ P. < to go/ *T 
q^ P. * to restrain 
H $ P. 'to drink, ' 
jry P. ' to smell, ' 
VlTf P. ' to blow/ 
P. ' to stand/ 
P. ' to think/ 
P. * to give/ 
to see/ 
P. < to go ' 

ntf : I Pan. VI. 4. 89. The penultimate a; of 3f is 
lengthened in the Special Tenses and before a strong teimination 
beginning with la vowel 

1 feafefi^l ftfi I Pan. VII. 3 75. anfe =^T fi?T ^ESIT^ Vart. 
These roota lengthen tueir vowel in the Special Tenses. 

I. 1. 70. These roots 

take the 7 of the 4in class optionally in the Special Tenses. 

fafrfTJc% ^ | atft g|q: , Pan. Ill 1 87. VJ. 4 48. Tne roots 
ft^and ^u^ substitute 3T for their ^and then add the augment 
3- ( before which the ^ is dropped ). These are then conjugated 
like roots 01 the 5th class. 

II 3?^ and ?w when it means to make thin, belong to the 5th 
C;",ss optionally. 

-t & ^ \ see 44. Pan. VII. 3. 77. 

i: [ Pan. VII. 3. 78. 

250 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 895-397 

P. < to run,' 
P- (*A.) ' to perish,' 

to perish,&c.?5fnffit 

P. A. to dye, 
P. to be clean, 
5f r A. to yawn, 
cpt A. to be adequate, 

P. to adhere, ^RrfrT. oJf^ A. to blush, ^jsn 

A. to embrace, ^3T%. ^rf^ P. * to be ready ' 

396. The following seven roots form their bases like the 
Desiderative in the senses indicated. These are: f^g; to 
administer medioine, to treat as a patient f%fi^frfif-?T 3^to 
censure, ^mfr; f^^[ to bear, to forgive, farf*$i%; *\J to abhor, 
to act loathsomely, JTMrCT^; SJT^ to make straight, ^T^tfrfS^j 
reason, to think, ritafa^-, *ff^ to sharpen, ^ff^rhnR ft- But 

to desire %r|ftli to dwell, %rf*TfflJ 5fT^[ to. cut sp^nf^-^f. &c. 

397 There are a few roots which add a penultimate 
nasal in tno Special Tenses and Moods necessarily; 0. g. 
cut f*F^!%, SUIT t o go at^W, Rg^to roll into a ball fitrgrt, 
purify, to go ja^ &c; and a few more which do so optionally; 
* 9' S^ to be firm f5f?f-*zfyi?l > $ w^r or i^-d to go 

A. to hum iff 5^, !&; J^ P. to roar infra 1 , 4^fd RBd others 
less important. 

4th Glass ( f^T^T ). 

K^ P. ' to go ' ff^vqfif. I ^(tP- 'to be pacific' 

srat A. to be born ' znrfx. hrar P. ' to desire ' 

* 5T^: 1%rT: I Pan. I. 3. 60. ^ is Atm. in the Special Tenses. 

t ^SRTsreratf 5TIT I TT P. VI. 4. 25-26. These roots drop 
their nasal in the Special Tenses. 

t 5TTi?^f ^|* wft \ Pan. VII. 3. 94. Of these VR is given 



^P. 'to be intoxicated' 
P. ' to endeavour ' 
TfrfrT; but when followed by 
a preposition except ^ it 
belongs to the 4th class 

P. 'to pacify' ^ii-qfff. alone; 

P. 'to be wearied' vnmfa. mj^qfa only. 
P. 'to endure' $ntqfet. ^ft* P. 'to sharpen' 

' to be weary ' ^fFqrft, ^t P. 'to rut' &5nff. 

P. ( to put an end to' 
P. 'to cut' trfir. 

'to fall' 

P. A. 'to colour' 
P. ' to be unctuous ' 
'to strike, to pierce' 

398. The following roots belong to the 1st and the 4th 
classes: WTST , v^jfsr ( ^ra ), -^j 37 all meaning to shine, ^V 
to fly, all A. 3^ , ^^ , ^ to fear, g^, ^ to spit, f^ to be 
pleased, Wfi^ to embrace, ^^ to be angry or vexed 
rfPJ.C 1 ) to turn out auspiciously, ( 4 ) to succeed, all Par., ^qg, 
1. A. 4. P. to bear, %r--^( ^ ) to full, ^33^ to be dyed, 
3T^ to curse, gtr 1 . P. 4. A. to know, ^^ 1. P. to bewail, 
4 P. A. to be afflicted, a^,^! A., 4. P. andf?^4. P. to 
perspire, 1 A. to be anointed. 

6th Class ( 

; P. 'to cut' 

P. with s<r or 
tfH or JrfifR^f. 

P. to suffer pain 
P. to swaUow 
P. to cut 

. to ask 

P. A. to 

P. to bathe 

P. to cut 
P. to deceive 

P. to go 
P. to go 

U. to release 
to anoint 

T: ^f%iP&n. 8. 71. Theee four roots drop their 
before q\ 

252 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 398-399 

U. to bresk or cnt g*qft-?T I ffl^ U. to sprinkle ftaaf?!- 
U. to obtain ftr-^t | flP. to form 

399. ( a ) The following roots belong optionally to the 1st 
and 6& Glasses:- ^^ 1. P. 6. U. to pi ugb, to draw, 5^!. A. 
to return, 6. P. to against, 50^!. A. 6. P. to roll, to whirl; 
1. A. te take, to r ceive, ^ 1. A. 6. P. to rtel, whirl round, 
move to and fro, |g^ 1. P. to divide, 6. P. to nvelope,^g, 
^wP. to kill ^ P. to sit down, fw^P. 1. to sprinkle, 6 
t open the ey<s, fc? p. 1. to stir, to chnrn, 6 to cover, to 
adhere, g^ 1. A. to cheat, 6 U. to release, to leave &c. 

( I ) The following roots belong to the 4th as well as to 
the 6th das*: ujr? 4 P. 6. U. to throw, 5^ 4. P. to 
confound, C. U. to take away, ^yj P. 4. to covet, to be 
pcrplexe , 6 A. to p rplex, ^^4 A. to let loose, to send 
forth, 4, 6. P to create. 

10th Class (!*T<prO 

ttf P. to ' shake ' \j^?rf>r sft P-. 'to pi ase > 

*Thia root belongs to the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 7 h closes, with 
different senses. All these are given in the following couplet. 

f The following stanza fiom the ' Kavirahasya ' gives the 
various classes to which this root belongs: 

i^ n 

The^e opiional forms are according to $H*PH an ^ others 

400-401 CONJUGATION or VERBS. 253 

400. The following roots of the tOth olaas p eserye their 
vowel unchapgf d ; r^ to sin, ^q; to tell, $|T to send, to pass. 
ITOI; to count, if$ U. to filter, A. to throw, ^r to choose or 
seek, to get, VTJ to souud, 33 19 honour, ^ to o >mpose, ^ 
to taste, ?^ to forsake qt^to speak ill of, deceive, ? to scream, 
<r? to weave, ( but <rr?ft when it means to tear &c. ), *ft^ 
to thunder, ij^r to sound, qr^to go, qjw to cou t*t, f^ to sound, 
<r^A. to go, afojr to divide, j^toaeparao, &H o shine, 
to bore, &Z to conceal, ^F^to cheat, q^g to dwell, n^ or 
to be weak or lax, 5*13 to give, to spend, *fa to desire, ^j 
to seek, ^^to bear, ^55 to pity, to be weak, ^*r, gtrr to converse 
with, us A. to take ( aho irrgtrift when cau. ofr^) ig^A. 
to astonish, to deceive, 5^ to bind or etri g together, *<^ 
to become manifest. HJ^" to make happy, and others less common. 

401. Some roots of the 10th class exclusively take the 


Atmant'pacU t. e. even when the fruit of the action expressed by 
them does not accrue to the agent. These are: a^tr to request, to 
desire, ^f to astonish, to deceive, f^|^ to be conscious of, 
to tninfc, 3f5T^to bite ; ^ ( or ^ according to some ) to see, 
to bite, ^or fi^to accumulate, ^7^ to support a family, ^F5T 
to counsel secretly, ^ to search^ to hunt, to seek. $$r to take, 
to string together, jf^ and *r?!^ to reprove, ifftj and 
to injure, to hurt, f%c^r to kill ( f^^ according to some ), 
to measure, <fff^ to desire, ^0^ to contract, 5^ to fill, *jw 
to fenr ? ^r<^to praise, ijvx to worship, ^^ to guess, irjr to strike, 
^HT to look at, to inspect, <r^ to reproach, 3"f ( according 
to some g ) to cut, ifcT to drop down, ^r^to see, to expound, 
ijp^ to abstain from giving, to muddle ^ to cut. tfa-xi to 
deceive, fw to have the power of generation, to be eminent, 

254 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 401-403 

^ to gratify, f^j to bewail, ^ to know, fq^ to know, to be con- 
scious of, fl< to stop, 3 to censure, and ^r^ to smile improperly. 

402. The following roots belong to the 1st and the 
10th classes: 

3P^ , $^[ to unite, to restrain, 3^ to worship, f j; to throw, 
5ft to melt 3^ to abandon, to avoid, ^ to coyer, ^r, f^r to grow 
old, fixf to separate, to join, f^rq^ to leave a residue, <fr to burn, 
^to be pleased or satisfied, fjr^ to kindle, ^q;, qq^ gqr^ to 
kindle, ^ to fear, SH to release, to kill, jfr to go, jrwr^ to 
string together, $n^ , ^7^ to endure, 3j| to kill, ff^ to kill, 
3l to worship, ^rf with sff to go, to assail, gro to purify, to 
cleanse, 37? to cover, ^^ to satisfy, to guess, to kill, sft to 
jplease, 9F^, gro. to compose, arrai/ge, 3ir^ to obtain, ^ to 
confide, to stretch, ^q; to confide, to hurt, q% to infonn, q^ 
to speak, in^[ to honour, worship, 79; A. to obtain ( trtffr also 
according to some ), tf to censure, yrr^ to seek, B^Q^ to grieve, 
to remember with regret, ^r to clean, ^ to endure, ^ to 
brave, to overcome, r^ to burt > to ^uie r f^g- 10 A. 1. P. to 
-torment, to beg, 5^ to aver, and some others. 

II. GROUP 11. 

( 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, cmd 9th Classes. ) 
408. Terminations: 


The terminations of the Present, the Imperfect and the 
Imperative an the same as these c the first group, the termi- 

408-404 ] CONJUGATION OP VKBBS. 255 

nation of the 2nd per. sing, of the Imperative is ft. The ter- 
minations of the Potential are as follow: 

2. ^ ITcWL 



Present Imperfect 

35 flV 5 ^ft 

Imperative Potential 

1. tfc 3TT^ 3?[fl1> The same as those given 

2. ^ B?T*nJ^ ^^ f r the fir 86 group. 

O L-11T - 

404. The base of the roots of the 2nd group of Oon- 
jugationl classes undergoes many modifications with regard 
to which the terminations are divided into sets, one set 
' called < strong', the other < weak.' The base taking the 
strong terminations may be calld ' The strong base;' and that 
taking the weak ones ' The weak base'. 

( a ) The strong terminations are: 

The singulars of all persons of the Present and the Imper- 
fect, the third person singular and all numbers of the first 
person of the Imperative , in the Parasmaipada, and all 
numbers of the first person of the Imperative in the 

( b ) The rest are weak. 

256 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 405-409 

405. Before strong terminations the penultimate short and 
the final vowel of the base take their Guna substitute. 

Fifth, Eighth and Ninth classes 

406. * 3 and 7 are added on to the roots of the 5th and 
8th classes respectively before the terminations. 

407 The final 3- of the base is optionally dropped 
before gr^and j^if it be not preceded by a conjunct consonant. 
It is changed to 3^ before a weak termination beginning with a 
vowel, if precede 1 bj a conjunct consonant aud to 3; in other 
cases. The ffr of the 1 input a ive 2nd per. sing, is dropped after 
3 1 not preceded by a conjunct consonant. 

408. f In the ninth class ;TT is inserted between the root 
and the terminations *fr becomes ^ before the weak terminations 
beginning with a vovel, and ft before the weak terminations 
beginning with a consonant. 

409. (a) The penultimate nasal of a root is dropped 
before*! &c. as frenft; irs^far:. JT^R: &c. from jr?xy to 
put together. 

( b ) I\ the case of roots ending in a consonant, the impera- 
tive second person singular termination is 3jrf instead of 
T$j as g^TT 1 ! fr m 9^ .' to steal '. 


5th Class. 
g P. A. ' to press out juice/ &c. 

P. Present. A. 


: i ffHiftfor; ar: i Pan. III. 1. 73. 79. 
j$m P4n. III. 1. 81. 

409 ] CONJUGATION or VERBS. 257 

P. A. 



2 33 



3. ._ 

^TT^P. 'to accomplish.' 3?^ A. ' to pervade/ 







H. 8. G. 17 



1. ST^TH. *n*39ra 31*3*11* 




8th Class. 
cR(P. A. 'to stretch.' 

JP. Present. 






410. Irregular base: ff. P. A. 'to do' is changed to ^ 
before the strong, and ^r before the weak terminations. The 
of the base is dropped before * and n. 

P. A. 

1. 3*ifa 3%' *&' 3^ 







i. iNH ffe f ^ 


9th Class. 
^t. P. A. ' to buy. ' 

P re^n*. 
P. A. 


260 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 410-142 









^IW^P. 'to obstruct/ or 'to stop/ 

Present. Imperfect. 

3. *tf*tl Kt 

Imperative. Potential. 



411. In the case of the root gp^ the ^ of ^r is not changed 

412. The roots 37 ' to know ' and TUT ' to become old ' 


412-416 ] CONJUGATION OP VKBBS. 261 

assume the forms 3fT and f3f respectively; as 

413. The ^ of 5^ is changed to ^ as 
T*r^TW> &c. Imperf 1st. pors. 

414. The roots ft, *T, 3?ft, &, *, * *, % f 

T> ^ and f have tlieir finals 8llorkeIXfld 

, tfr, and rffr optionally in the Special Tenses; as 

415 The roots ^ * to go by leaps, to raise, ' S|P < to 
obstruct, ' ^wr ' to stop, ' ^i^ and ?& l to obstruct ' belong 
to the 5th and 9th classes; as ^pfrfif , ^ftft, ^ftl^, ^3^, & c ' 

Second, Third and Seventh Classes. 

416. Special rules of Sandhi of the finals of roots and 
the initial letters of terminations: 

( 1 ) The ending ^ of a root takes its Vriddhi substitute 
when followed by a consonantal strong termination ; as g-f 

( 2 ) The final f or 7. short or long, of a root is changed 
to f^ or 7^ before a vowel weak termination. 

( S ) The ending ^ of roots is changed to ^ when followed 
by any consonant, except a nasal or a semivowel, or by nothing; 
and that of roots beginning with ^ to q; under the same circum- 

( 4 ) The initial ^ or ^ of a termination is changed to \j 
after a soft aspirate ( 4th letter of a class ). 

( 6 ) ^ or ^ followed by 5 is changed to ^. 

262 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 416-420 

( 6 ) ^ and j when followed By a consonant are ' changed to 
the nasal of the class to which the following consonant belongs, 
and to an anuirara when followed by sj, q^ , ?r or 5. 

( 7 ) The ending f of a root, short or long, not preceded by 
a conjunct consonant is changed to q^ before vowel weak termi- 
nations, when the base consists ef more than one syllable. 

( 8 ) The ending % of a root is optionally changed to ^r or 
Visarga in the Imperfect second pers. sing, and the ending 
^ to gf or ^ before the termination ^ and optionally before tr. 

( 9 ) When a conjunct consonant having ^ or ^ for its 
first member is at the end of a word or is followed by a 
consonant except a nasal or a semivowel, the ^ or ^ is 

N. B. The usual Sandhi rules t. e. those given in the 2nd 
and 3rd Chapters should be observed. 

417. ( 1 ) * The second person sing, termination of the 
Parasm. Imperative is ft when the base ends in any consonant 
except a nasal or a semivowel; also in the case cl the root 
8 P. < to sacrifice. ' 

418. The ^ and ^ of the Imperfect 2nd and 3rd per. 
sing, are dropped after a consonant. 

Second ( or s?3Tf$ ) Class. 

419. In this class the terminations are directly added to 
the root. 

420. In the case of roots ending in 3ft, the terminations 
of the third person plural of the Imperfect is optionally 

. VI. 4. 101. 



P. ' to go. ' 









Conjugate aimilwrly ^iTT P. ' to tell, ' ^ P. * to cut, ' <nP. 'to 
protect, 7 !TT P- 'to fill,' e^r P. ' to eat/ ar P. ' to fly, *i P. to 
shine/ m ' to measure, *r ' to give/ 5JT ' to give or take, ' *) 
6 to blow, ' iff to cook r add ^r < to bathe '. 

421. In order to exemplify the rules given under 
416-418 we will give the forms of the regular verbs ^r, 3, 


P. ' to go ' 


according to some ) 


Imperative. Potential. 


g P ' to praise ' 

Present. Imperfect. 



Imperative. Potential. 



Conjugate similarly ^ P. ' to sound, ' ^ P. * to seize, ' $qr 
P. * to sharpen/ 5 P. to attack, 3 P. * to join, ' 5 P. to 
possess supremacy, ' and ^j ' to drop out, to distil. ' 

P. ' to awake. ' 



Imperative. Potential. 


* See TOU* p. 272, 


&; A. 'to go.' 

Present. Imperfect. 

- v <C-v SC*s ^ ,s, 

1. V ^t W <K 

o ^5f 5..^ ^r^( 2^Ji 

2 1^ fW ^=q v$\: 

3. ^ !<% |^T ^ 

Imperative, Potential. 

1. 5^ tv^t[ l^i^ I'fl'r I'fl^fl |(iflf| 

L- 'to speak. 
Present. Imperfect. 



^^ A. 'to go.' 



Imperative. Potential. 




. Ti^ 

J5 P. A. 'to milk.' 

P. A, 

1. ^% 55 : 

2. '<Jrier* ^: 


2. pfl: pn^W pTR, |fl^T: 

f^g; to be similarly oojngated ; f and ^ being substituted for 
^ and aft respectively^ 

* For the change of ^ to r x , vide 95. 






3. S 





P. A. ' to lick. 





&c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

fto^ A. * 'to Purify ' 


* f?M%, i%, i^L, f3T, 153^, 5^ all A. should be similarly 

268 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. L 421-423 


Many of the roots of the 2nd class are of irregular 
conjugation. We will treat of them in alphabetical order. 
422. 3^ P. 'to eat' forms the 2 and 3 sing. Imperf. as 
an d 3ir^ respectively. In other respects it is regular. 

Present. Imperfect. 

2. offer 3R*i: 3K3T 2. 

3. arfa: am: 3T^cI 3. 

Imperative. Potentia*. 

2. Sift 3T^ 9ffi 2. 

3. sr 9Rini 3^3 3. 

423. 3ft P. < to breathe, ' srac to eat, ' ^ P. to weep, ' 
P. ( to sigh ' and ^ P. ' to sleep., ' insert the augment 
f between their final and the terminations beginniog with 
any consonant except *r; in the case of 2 and 8 sing. Imperf. 
they insert f or 3f; e, g. 

' P. to breathe. ' 

Present. Imperfect. 



Imperative. Potential. 




Conjugate ^, >\^ and ^ similarly ; as **^ 3 sing. Pre., 
:-<i: 2. sing. Imperf. ; a^rft^-q^ 3 sing. Imperf.; SW<rrr% 
1. sing. Imp. prftft 2 siag- Imp.} Wrn^ 1. sing. Pot.; &c. 
>*f%fa 3. sing. Pre, : arerff:-*: 2 sing. Imperf .. 
sing. Imperf.; Ajqift 1. sing. Imp. *a1%ft 2. sing. Imp. 
3. sing. Imp.. *wm. 1- sing. Pot., &c., ftftfw 
Pre-; 3Tft^*l'- sing. Imperf. 3?^:-^, 5 iing. Imperf. 
^fRT-^ 3. sing. Imperf.; ft^Tft 1. sing. Imp. ^fitffc 2. sing. 
Imp. ^ 3. sing. Imp.; ^qm 1. ing- Pot. &o. 

424. gf3( P. ( A.* rare ) 'to be' drops its sr before 
weak terminations and ^ before a termination beginning with 
^ and &r. Before 2 and 3 Imperf. it takes the augment f , 
It is irregular in many respects. 








\ ft 




* Sf^ia Atmanepadi in a few cases. Cf. Bhattikavya II. 
35 ' 3T^r o^f^rT 3 qRlW R: ' &c. where it implies *nfcrftlT or 
an exchange of duty. 

270 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [ 424-426 



425. "an^ A. 'to sit also drops its ^ before ^r 
Present. Imperfect. 


3. sn^i an^ 3TRra 

Imperative. Potential. 


Conjugate eT^[ A. * to dress ' similarly. 

426. Thef of the root 5 P.* /to go' is changed 

before a weak vowel termination; qrfjr ^: ?yf?^ 3 pers. Pre. ; 
g^Tq^^^riT 1st Pers. Imperf.; ^: 2 eing. Imperf.; aTOTR> 
ff|, irg 1. 2. 3. sings. Imp. zr^ 3. pi. Imp. 

f with &fa A. f 'to study. 7 &c. is regularly conjugated ; a& 

* |P. * to go ' is conjugated regularly like 
3rd Pers. Pre.; |% 2 sing. Imp. $37$ 3. plural. Imp. 

f f With arRr P. 'to remember' should be conjugated like f , 
3?icnri% 3rd pi. Pre. Some think that it is to be conjugated like 
f in the Non-conjugation&l tenses only. According to them the 
third pers. pin. will be 3T*fap%. The line of Bhaf ti 'frtft?rtt 
III. IS. &c. is quoted hi support of this opinion. 

TR I Sid. Ran. 

426-428 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 271 

Pretent. Imperfect. 


Imperative. Potential. 


427. J^A. * to praise, y and 53^ A. ' to rule ' have an 
added to them before terminations beginning with ^ or n 
except that of the Imperf. 2. plu. 

flv A 

Present Imperfect. 

1.3 %ft 

Imperative. Potential. 

2. ffl^ 

be similarly conjugated; J 

1. sing. Imperf. ^T: 2. sing. Imperf. ^ 3. sing. 
Imperf. q 1 ^^ 2 pi. Imperf.; S I. sing. Inly. Jf^r^^ 
2. pi. Imp. f^ft<T 3. sing. Pot. &o. 

428 w P. A. 'to cover r substitutes Vriddhi ft)F its g- 
optionally before consonantal strong terminations except those 
of the 2nd and 3rd sing. Imperf. 

272 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [428-429 

P. A. 


1. s^iqi^ ajt*jqf 

2. 3?|qf: 

3. sJt'n 


1. 3?fefR *|c(iq 

2. 3jf^ 

3. OTTg-SJ'ffg 



S 42y ^r^, P. ' to shine/ ^^T^ > ^[ > ^TO, ^3T and 
^rn^ drop the ^ of the 3rd pers. plu. termination when added 
to them. In the Imperf. they take gr^ as 3. pi. termination. 
Imp. ^ sing, of ^^ng is 

. Paradigms. 

Present Imperfect. 



1. "^flrft 



P. see am and 






1. ^ 




| 430. sffrr P. ' to be podr 'drops ita an fcefore -weak 
termiaationa beginning with a Vfrwel and changes it to f before 
those with an initial consonant. 




1. tffelfo 

2. *feTT% 



M S.O. 18 

274 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 430.432 


481. ff^P. A. < to hate * takes g-^ optionally in the 
Imperf. 3. pi. Par. 


2.5% 155: ii fg% 




- ---^ -% 


l.'^nft l^ra S^R 
2. f^% Q[*t. ffe 



| 432. 5 P. A. to speak 'takes the augment f before 
consonantal strong terminations. 


432-433 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. 275 

fr:-3n5$: 1* 





\ " "\ 

3. 3T5r*fH afljflw ^g^i 



<% ** 



g 435. ^ P. ' to cleanse ' substitutes Vrddhi for its vowel 
necessarily before strong terminations and optionally before 
vowel weak terminations. 



Imperative. Potentiat. 

276 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 433-43* 


434. w^P. ' to speak' is deficient in the 3 plu. Pre, 
according to some in the whole plural, and according to others- 
in all the third person plurals.* 

Present Imperfect. 

L ifa TO: 

Imperative, Potential. 


4S5 ' ^5^ P- ' * w * 3 ^ ' changes its ^ to ^ before weak 

Present. Imperfect. 


3. m 

Imperatire Potential. 


(Sid. Kan). 


486. ft^'to know' takes optionally the termination* of 
the Perfect in the Present Tenee. Its Imperative forms are 
optionally made np by adding ?inr to it and then appending the 
forms of the Imperative of fr. 

Praent. Imperfect. 


3.^% ftfl:-ft53: fi 


2. ftft 

3 .^j 


437. SflTRf P- *to govern, to teach,' &c. changes its vowl 
to f before consonantal weak terminations. See ^t|5Tf^ also p. 2V 2. 

Present. Imperfect 

1. sarfin 

2. snfer 

3. ?m% 


with 3n A. should be conjugated 1 iKe 

378 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [437-440 


438. sft A. < to lie down' guoates its vowel before all 
terminations and prefixes qr to the termination of the third pers. 
pi. except that of the Potential. 

Present. Imperfect. 



O W 

Imperative. Potential. 


439. *? A. 'to give birth to' does not change its vowel 
to Guna before strong terminations. 

Present. . Impttfsct. 

Imperative. Potential. 


440. * P. A. <to praise,' 5 P. 'to grow' and ^ 'to sound' 
have f optionally prefixed to the consonantal terminations. ' 


V P A 

Par. A tin. 

3. *ma 


1 I I M _. 

2. ^31^ 



2. ^Ift 

Z80 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 440-441 



Conjugate similarly 5 and *> 

441. ^ P. A. < to kiirdrops its sj bcfere a weak termi- 
nation, beginning with any consonant except a nasal or a semi 
vowel, and it 3f before a vowel termination, the F then chang- 
ing to 9. The Imp. 2 sing, is 

i|5*P. 'to kill, to go 

P re tent. Imperfect. 


Imperative. Potential. 



fpf * Atm. 

Preteiii. Imperfect. 

This root is used in the A. in certain cases 

5 441-444 J CONJUGATION OF VEBBB. 281 

Imperative. Potential. 



442 |gf A. Ho take away' 









443. (a ) The base is formed by reduplication of the root. 
( b ) The third personal plural termination loses its sj. 

(c) The Imperfect third person plural termination is 
( P. ). before which the final arr of coots is dropped and the 
final f , ^r and 3^, short or long, are guftated. 

Hules of Reduplication: 

444. The first vowel of a root together with the initial 
consonant, if any, is reduplicated t. e. doubled- as q^ 
, &c. after reduplication. 

282 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 444-44 & 

Note The first syllable of a reduplicated root is called 'the 
reduplicative syllable ; e..g. the first q- in tnrg;, or first g- in ;jgre 

445. If a conjunct consonant begins a root, the first con- 
sonant only with the following vowel is reduplicated* e.g. 

(a) If the first member of a conjunct consonant, however, be a 
sibilant (si,^or^r) and the second a hard consonant, the 
hard consonant is reduplicated: f *>j-q?<T.iJ , yq^-;^A:j<lr but 

446. A radical aspirate ( 2nd or 4th letter of a class ) is 
changed to its corresponding unaspirate in the reduplicative 
syllable; as %^-f%f^ , g-<J, ^IS^, &c. 

447. The guttural of the reduplicative syllable is changed 
to the corresponding palatal ( subject to the above rule ) and 
^to ^. e. g. $^-3?^-^re^, ^53[-^^ra[-^^= ; gT^, |-^5 &c. 

448. A radical long vowel becomes short and ^ is changed 
to H in the reduplicative syllable ; as irr-^TTj ^T-R^V, ^-^^ &c. 

449. The penultimate cr or cr and 3fr or aft become f and 
3- respectively in the reduplicative syllable ; 

% P. * to know. ' 

Present. Imperfect. 

449-451 J CONJUGATION OF VEBB8. 283 

Imperative. Potential. 



f P. ' to sacrifice. 

Present. Imperfect. 


3. __ 

i. Potential. 

^[ P. c to be ashamed. ' 

Present Imperfect. 




2. ftsiii ftsfeH 


450 The vowel of the roots m, fT ' to go ' $, f or ^ 'to.fill' 
and ^ is changed to f in the reduplicative syllable 

451. The f of the reduplicative syllable of f^, f^r and 

284 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 451-464 

far, takes it* Guna substitute before all terminations and the 
radical is not gapated before vowel strong terminations. 

452. ^T and vq-f drop their arr after rednplication before 
weak terminations; ^becomes ^T before ?j; , tsr, cf and *r. The 
Par. Imperuti vt> 2 per. singulars are ~^ff and ^rf^ respectively. 

453. *ft optionally shortens its vowel before consonantal 
weak terminations. 

( a ) jrr and 51 ' to go r assume the forms fti^ and f*ffT before 
vowel ^erminatioDS and fifrfr <JL "d fjr^r before consonantal ter- 

454. gr * to abandon ' assumes the forms irfg- or ^ff before 
consonantal weak terminations except in the Pot. and fpr before 
vowel terminations and those of the Pot. The Imp. 2 sing. 
forms are oT 5T and 

35 Par. ' to go. ' 

Present. Imperfect. 



Imperative. Potential. 



>sn P. A. ' to place, to hold. ' 













aj is similarly conjugated. The forma of 57 will be obtained 
by changing v;r to qr wherever it occurs. 

P. A. ' to cleanse. * 









Conjugate f^ P- A. similarly. .. 

2 P^ to fill, to protect/ 

Present. Imperfect. 

1, ftqfir 

3..ftqf8 I%T: fqsifcr 

Imperative. Potential. 



f.P. 'top^tect, to fill/ 

Present. Imperfect. 

2. iqqf^ fqq4: f^rf atfqq: 

* See 394. 


Imperative. Potential. 

1. ITOlfa 


*ft P. ' to fear. ? 


2. fWift 
3 fwft 

Imperative. Potential. 

1. ft*WTft ftw^ 13*RUT 


*. P. A. s to hold; to maintain. 


1. ft^m ira: mR: ft& i&A 

2. ftw ft^-T: l^JST ft*i^ ' I%H'4 









HT A. ' to measure, to sound. ' 

Present. Imperfect 

1. fift fifrfal ft*/l*f^ 9TTflfR 


Imperative. Potential. 

2. wfi 5 ^ . fitersnn fojiNsp^ ftjfi^n* 

. A. to pervade. ' 






^T P. ' to abandon ' 

Present. Imperfect. 



Imperative. Potential. 



TT. fl. O 19 

290 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 455*456 

Seventh or ^m? Class. 

455. In this class the base is formed by inserting ?r bet- 
ween the radical vowel and the final consonant before the strong 
and j before the weak termii*ations. 

456. ( a ) The original nasal of a root is dropped. 
( b ) In the case of the root ar^ , ^ is changed to % before 
consonantal strong terminations. 

3T$ P. f to anoint/ &c. 


Present. Imperfect. 



I operative. Potential. 

1. H^iiPi BR^TR 


A. ' to anoint, ' &c. 

Present. Imperfect. 

Imperative. . Potential. 

* Also f^, ^^:, ^g^ f? E^ > |^n^^ &c. See 20 ( a ) 




SP[ P. A. ' to pound. ' 









P. A. to break, 3*3- P. to be wet, %^ A. to suffer pain, 
P. A. to cnt, ^ P. A. to shine, to play; ^g; P, to spin, to 
surround; ^ P, A. to kill, to disregard; and %^ P. A. to 
know, to consider, should be similarly conjugated. g7ff% 3rd. 
Pro. of gR ; ^orf?r 3 sing. Pre. of ff^, &c. 

P. ' to kill. ' 






Imperative. Potential. 


ftr P. ' to grind. ' 

Present. Imperfect. 

1. ffaft? fW'. f%T: 

2. fin% fife; fte 

3. ffafe ffe: ff^f^cl 

Imperative, Potential. 


3. TOg ffeH, fi^ fif2IRl. 

%^ ' to distinguish ' should be similarly conjugated. 

3^. P. A. ' to join. 


\ . g^ir gp5(: 333*: gir 








3. 3^ 3f 11 


.3. 35391^ 

Conjugate similarly 7*57^ P- ' to brfiak ? ' OT p * to eB i7 ' 
A . ' to eat/ (%^ P. ' to shake, to ramble/ and fir P ' to avoid. ' 

P. A. 4 to evacuate 





2. fczm 

Conjugate similarly ^ P. A. < to separate/ <fo^ P. ' to 
contract ' and is ' to touch.' 

. A. 'to obstruct/ 


1. 3W*TO 

3. siw^ 


2. ^B. 

3. ^IJ 


1. ^TOl 

2. ^aiT: 

3. 5*an^ 

* Or ^r; &c.; see note p. 290 

456-458 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 295 

. ' to kill. ' 
Present. Imperfect. 



Imperative. Potential 






457. In the General Tenses and Moods and in the 
formation of verbal derivatives generally, the augment f is 
prefixed ( necessarily or optionally ) to terminations begin- 
ning with any consonant except q- in the case of certain roots. 
Such roots as take the augment f necessarily are called S*t 
(^T+f^t. e, with f ), such as take it optionally are called 
Wet ( 3T+TC. ), and those that do not, are called Anit ( 3*3+ 
^ i. e. without f ). 

458. ( a ) Roots of more than one syllable, derived roots 
and roots of the 10th class are always Set. 

( b ) Oi all monosyllabic roots ending in a vowel those given 
in the following couplet ( Karika ) are Set and the rest Anit. 

. e. roots ending in long 37 and long ^, the roots 5, 


*fc3,3,S fa*r ft, fIX. cl. A. and ? V. cl. P. A. 

are Set ( excepting these, all monosyllabic roots ending in a 
vowel are Anit). 

( e ) Of monosyllabic roots ending in a oonsonant the follow- 
ing 102 are Anit\ and the remaining Set. 

f^r i 

<d) The following roots are Wet: 

* The following qouplet give the endings of these roots and 
their number in each: ' 

The first line gives the ending consonants and thus enables 
the students to know at once which root is Set and which is 
Anit; 0. g. ^^may be at once known to be a set root as ^ does 
not occur in the first line. The second line gives the number 
of roots ending in a particular consonant. Thus roots ending 
in ^ are ^ t. 0. one ( ^ being the first consonant ) in number, 
roots ending in w are ^ i. e. 6, ( ^ being the 6th consonant ) ; 
roots ending in ^are ^ t. . one, in number j and so on, 

458-463 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 297 

Hi/3 HiJld *iit} 

'* <r5w **<i<l ii ^ it 

In V STTn 

11 " n 

H H u 

II 5 II 

459. Roots ending <?, ^, and aft are to be treated as roots 
ending in 3ft. Also the roots ft 1 6. A. ' to throw ', fr 9 P. A. 
'to kill/ and gfr 4. A. 'to perish/ before a termination causing 
Gopa or Vrddbi- sft 9 P. 4 A. * to adhere or cling to ' changes 
ita vowel to srf optionally nnder the same circumstances. 

460. Roots of the tenth class preserve their anq^( i. *. 3W 
with the final 3? dropped ) with all the changes that the root 
undergoes before it in the general tenses. 

461. The roots TO , ^, ft^, r^r, q^c, js*, and ^ preserve 
their oonjngational bases optionally. 

462. 3^ and g^ substitute for themselves ^ and ^ 

463. Neither Oupa nor Vrddhi is substituted for the vOWel 
of a few roots of the 6th class even before a strong termination 
except the 37 of the 1st and 3rd person sing, of the Perfect, the 
3TO of the causal and the f of th<? 3rd pers. sing, of the Passive 

* These couplets as Well as those bearing on the 2nd variety 
of the Aoriat are composed by Mr. Chintamana Atmlram Kelker, 
the present learned S'astri at the Poona Training College. 

298 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 463-169 

Aorist. These are 

, , , , , , , 
a * 6W more not often to be met with. 

464. The root 9^ assumes the forms ^TSJ; and H^ in the 
Non-conjugational Tenses. 

465. The penultimate ^r of ^^ and 3^ is changed to ^ 
before a consonantal strong termination in the General Tenses.. 

466. The intermediate f is weak in the case of the root 
f^C 6. A. 7 P.- and optionally so in the case of 3^5. 

467. The roots <\ft 2 A. < to shine > and %^r 2 A. to go r 
do not take Guna or Vrddhi before any termination. They also 
drop their final vowel before the intermediate f and 3. ^HST a ^ so 
drops its 3fT before a non-conjugational termination except in 
the Desiderative and the Aoriet where it retains it optionally. 


( 1 ) First Future ( g^) 
ALso called Periphrastic Future. 
468. Terminations: 

Paraam. Atm. 

1. cfff^T* ^q: 319?: 1. ^ 

2. cnr% ^I^T: ^n^i 2. 31% 

5. ciT 31% 3R: 3. ^T cllf^ 5IR: 

469. To these terminations the augment f is prefixed in the 

* The forms of the First Future may be derived by adding to 
the Nom. sing, of the noun of agency derived with the affix <j the 
forms of the Present Tense of the root 3^ * to be ' in tne lst 
and 2nd persons. The forms of the Nom. are the forms of 
the 3rd pen. 



case of Set roots, optionally in the case of Wet roots, and not 
fixed at all in that of Anit roots. 

470. All these terminations are strong. The final vowel 
and the penoltimate short of a root therefore take their Gupa 
substitute before these. 

471. Anit roots with a penultimate ^ change it to ^ op- 
tionally before a strong termination beginning with any con- 
sonant except a nasal or a semi-vowel; ^r-^nftRlT, MHIKW & c 

P. A. ' to give &c., ' 




ft P. A. carry ' 

: &o. 



472. The roots f^, *$ I A., ^, fi^ and ^ admit 
optionally in the First Future; e. g. 1 sing. inHll7n, 

473. cFtf is optionally Parasm. in the First Future and 
when so it rejects f : ^qRTTf , <fe<MI$i ^g^l^R 1 sing. &c. 

474. The augment f as added to ^ is long in all Non- 
conjugational Tenses, except in the Perfect} ir^T(nf?JT 1 sing. 

475. The intermediate % is optionally lengthened in the 
case of ^ and roots ending in ^ ? except in the Perfect, the 

300 SANSKEIT GBAHHAB. [ 475-480 

^enedictive Atm. and the Aorist Par. 


476. n if inserted before the ending consonant of the root 
before which ^ it dropped, and after the vowel of JT^, 
when they are followed by any consonant except a nasal or a 
aemi-TOwel; inp &c.; ^CT, srftnTT. The ^ of irf^ is changed 
to ^ when not dropped. 

477 TT is substituted for 3T^ 1 P. < to go 9 necessarily 
before any non-con jugational termination, and optionally 
before such as begin with any consonant except $r, %fTT, 

) Second Future ( ^ ) nd ( 3 ) Conditional ( ^ 
Terminations of the Second Future: 

Parasm. Atmtr*. 

1. ^nfif* ^?Rt WW : 1. 


479. Terminations of the Conditional: 

JL ^*ij| ^*4i*i \^n*i * x*r 

ju* 'W* WM*^ ^*in ^2. 

O ^^^F Q 

480. ^ is substituted for the ending ^ of a root when fol- 
lowed by any non-conjugational termination beginning with 3. 

* These terminations, it will be seen, are obtained by adding 
those of the Present to fir with its 3T lengthened before initial 
*T and *, and dropped before a vowel. 

f These are obtained similarly by adding the terminations of 
the Imperfect to <*r the usual rules of Sandhi beiag observed. 

481-484 ] CONJUGATION or VERBS. 301 

481. f is to be prefixed, or not, or optionally to the termi- 
nations given above, according as the root is Set or Ami or 
Wet. Before the terminations the final vowel and the penulti- 
mate short take their Guiia substitute. 

482. In the Conditional the augment & 19 prefixed to the 
root as in the Imperfect. 

Second Future 

5T?55 P. 9 P.I A. 

1. 3?pnft SIWK jwnv 1. 

2. 3R3J% ww WT 2. 

3. TOra siW' wrf^J 3. 



2. SRT^T: ww^i QTWRT 2. 


48S. ifH P. 5^[ and Anit roots ending in ^ admit f in the 
Second Future and the Conditional; ro P. ( also that substi- 
tuted for f < to go ' and with 3^ * to remember ' ) also admits 
it in the Desidorative; nfoqTW, fH^HW, ^f^nftr, &c. Sec.. 
Fu. 1. sing, ammwr*, 3T^f^T^, 3*5R*n*, &c. Con. 1. eing. 

484. The roots ^r, a-^, ?vj, 3T>i and ^?| optionally take 
Paras maipada terminations in the Second Future, Conditional 
and the Desiderative. They reject the auement f whei Parac- 

302 SANSKBIT GBAMMAB. [ 484-487 


sing. Good. 

4*. The roots ^^ ^, ^r, ^ and ^take f optionally 
when followed by an ardhadhatuka ( Non-conjugational tenni- 
nation ) beginning with ^ except in the Aorist; 

Oond &c 

486. In the case of f with arft, in is optionally substu 
tnted for f in the Oonditional and the Aorist. ^ is substituted 
for the final vowel of the verbs 51 3 P. A. 1 P. *r, ^t^,^, WT, 
WIT, ITT ( substituted for f 2. P and 9 with grft, ) qr, ft, and 
^ft before a consonantal weak termination. All terminations 
added to ITT substituted for f are weak. 




487. We give below the first pers. sing, of some of the 
roots of more difficult conjugation. The student should find 
out the various rules by which he should arrive at them. 

Boots. 1st Future. 2nd Future. Conditional. 






Boots. First Future. Sec. Future. Conditional. 

3 2. P. 





TO to dwell 

1st Future. 2nd Future. 


Wet roots: 



* For the change of 3T to art in this and in 
it.-note p. 317. 


Boots 1st Future 2nd Future Conditional. 


* Bee ft. note p. 320. f See ft. note p. 323. J ^ is set in the 
2nd Fat. and tim Condi. 
H. 8. G. 20, 

306 SANSKUIT GRAMMAR. [ 487-493 

P. A. & ^ P. are similarly conjugated. 


similarly conjugated. 

488. There are two kinds of Perfect, Reduplicative and 


489. The Reduplicative Perfect is formed of all mono- 
syllabic roots beginning with consonants, as well as of those 
beginning with the vowels 37 or a^r, And f 9 ^, and ^ short. 

Exceptions ^gr, gw, ^r^, 3TT^. These take the Periphrastic 
Perfect necessary. 

490. The Periphrastic Perfect is formed of all roots 
beginning with any vowel except 3? or SH which is naturally or 
prosodially long, and of roots of more than one syllable ( roots 
of the 10th class and other derivative roots included ). Excep- 
tions: 5)1$ &1> d *fe-oi% which take the Reduplicative Perfects. 

491. The roots ^, fi^, 5TTO, >ff, ft, f , ^, and ^ftsrr take 
both the perfects. 


492. The root is reduplicated according to the rules laid 
down in 444-449. 

Parasmaipada. Atmanepada. 



tr 31335 3T % 

3. 3T 3T^[ 3^ ^ 

494. The Parasmaipada singular terminations are strong; 
the rest weak. Before the strong terminations the penultimate 
hort vowel takes its Gnna substitute. The final vowel and 
penultimate at take Vrddhi necessarily in the third and 
optionally in the first person singular. In the 2nd person 
singular the final vowel takes Guna and the penultimate 3f 
remains unchanged. 

495. *8peoial rules about the admission of the intermedi- 
ate f before the terminations*, *, *, %, *fc jff , *; see (457 )i 

( a ) All roots, whether set or anit, except ^ 3, JT, , ^, 
g, 5, and g admit f . Bat ^ with ^ , and 9 admit It before 

reject it 


Anit roots ending in short ^g 1 , except 
J as ^rfini f fom ^; but arrf^I from ^ . 

( ) Anit roots with a final vowel or with a penultimate gr 
admit it optionally before 9. 

496. When initial f or gr of a root takes Guna or Vrddhi 
substitute, the reduplicative f or ^ is changed to f^ or 3^; 
otherwise the two vowels combine to form long j or 3: as 

497. The final 3-, short or long, is changed to ^r before a 
vowel weak termiation and f to fv or q- as it is preceded by a 
conjunct consonant or not; as f^+f9r=^[f^Rr 1 dnal; 

vn. 2 is. 


308 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. [ 498-502 

498. Boots ending in 3TT take aft instead of 3T in the 1st 
and 3rd per. sing, and drop their final an before vowel weak 
terminations, and before such as take the augment f as 
1st Per. ^^nr, ^f^r 2. Per. sing, o 

499. Gupa is substituted for the final vowel of roots end- 
ing in ^ preceded by a conjunct consonant, and in long sg 
and of the roots 3^, ^^ and 5TTOt fl s ^qrr^ 1 dual of ^, &c. 
CT, ? and q* optionally take the GuDa substitute before the 
weak terminations, and shorten their vowel when they do not* 

dual of CT, &c. 

500. Monosyllabic roots, having a short 3? for their 
penultimate, change it to <r and drop the reduplicative syllable 
before the weak terminations and before q- when it takes f r 
provided their initial letter undergoes no change in the 
reduplication, . g. ^ 1st dual ^at+^zr^+fq-^KTsr, qfasi 
2 sing, 5fT%sr, 3731^4 2, sing, of ^r^, but 3Rff33T 2nd dual of 
as the 3f here is prosodially long. 

Exceptions: Roots beginning with q- and the roots 
and ^. 

501. ^ is inserted after the reduplicative syllable in the 
case of roots beginning with 3? and ending in a conjunct 
consonant and in thai- oi 373^ ' to pervade ' and 3T^ ' to go. r 
The reduplicative sr is changed to 3TT5 315^- 3T3T;>^+ 31=3? -- 
-f 3T=3TR^j similarly 3n^f 1 sing, of 


502. The change of a semi-vowel to its' corresponding 
vowel is called Sampraaarana. Samprasaraoa generally takes 
place before weak terminations in the case of the following 
roots *^[, *nj, cr*, ^5, ^ * to dwell, > % sq-, |^, f^, *^, fqr, 
\?m wsr , 5^, ir^, iP^[, ^^, 2T^ and 5^. In the case of the 
Perfect the roots *re, ff* and , 9 form an exception. 

503-504 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. 309 

503 Before the strong terminations of the Perfect Sam- 
prasarana takes place in the reduplicative syllable only. In this 
case the initial conjunct consonant of a root is reduplicated as 
it is ; t. a, 

( a ) The vowel following the Samprasarana is dropped. 
504. The roots that reject f altogether in the Perfect 

> P. A. ' to do ' 



Conjugate similarly 3, *, and ^ tMCcept in the 2nd per. sing. 
which is ^?^. 

But With 



r i ^ M i r M 

Pan. VI. 1. 137139. 5 is prefixed to the root ^ after the 
prepositions *tq and <rR when it means to ornament or collect 
together ; and after the preposition OT in the above sense, as 
well as in the senses of ' imparting an additional quality to a 
thing without destroying the thing itself ( ^t 3WI*NWf MM<4M: 
Kas. on Pan. H. 3. 53. ) or preparing as food, or supplying 
what is implied. 7 

f The 5R is changed to GuDa as it is preceded by a conjunct 
consonant now ( Vide 499. Sid. Eau. on Pan VII. 1. 10-11. ) 

J The tj of the terminations <fr^, t^, and ^ of 2nd per. pi 
of the Benedictive, the Aorist and the Perfect, is changed to ^ 
when preceded by any vowel except 37 or an or by *r, r^, c^, ^ or 5. 
When the intermediate f is added, this change is optional, if 
the f be preceded by one of the consonants given above. 

310 SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. [ 504-606 

^ P. A. 

3. gsra 

Conjugate similarly f , f , g. 
505, Boots that admit ? 
( 1 ) Set roots ending in a vowel. 

^ 9. A. c to choose. ' 

1. 33R-TO ^fe 3^$ 1. ^ 

2. 33% 33^: 33^ 2. 

3. 33R 35Rg: 33$ 3. 

*J, ^, ^ &c. are similarly conjugated; a3Trc-ft9!T> atdR &c. 
^ 9 P. ' to tear, ' &c. ^ 2 P. to sharpen. ' 

1. 5RIR 'W^ 9Riitn 1. 


3. 5R1R SRRs ^RR: 3. 

^ is similarly conjugated 
Oonjngate similarly ? and <. 

^ 2 P. A. ' to warble, to go, ' &c. 


2. J^l 3H: ^^ 2. 

3. R ^5: ^: 3. 
Conjugate similarly 5 P. 3 P 


tft 2 A. ' to lie down.' 

P. A. ' to resort to.' 

2 ffofto i%i^: \Ww 2 
8 I&TO ftf^: fii&g: 3 

(2) Anit roots ending in a vowel : 

?T 1. P. A. ' to give.' 

1 ^ ^3 3$$ 1 ^ 

2 ^PT-^T ^^: ^ 2 

P. 'to sing/ 


3 5i 51*13: 513: 

All other roots ending in 3TT> 7, q", and aft are similarly 
conjugated. & 3rd per. ^?ft, 5^$:, ^v^:. 3[t 'to cut' 3rd per. 

2 P. c to go.' 



f 1 P. 'to go' is regular; f^rrir-^ fftw tf*frf &c. f 1. 2, P. 
4 A. * to go ' takes the peri. per/. 


?ft P. A. r to carry.' 
Far. itm. 

See & 'to lie down above. 

P. ' to remember.' 

ft 5 P. A. ' to throw.' ft 9. P. A. ' to destroy/ 


3 f^ig: ftig: 3 

^T. 9 P. 4 A. * to adhere.' 1. P. ' to melt/ 

Par. Atm. 

3 i%3Rf, fe fe^rg: i^g: Like 

( 3 ) Anit roots ending in a consonant: 
5 P. ' to be able/ 


. A. 'to cook/ 


tot % 3. to toft 

g^ 6 P. A. 'to release/ 

1. 9^^ ggfo? 99^ 1- 

2. 3ftfef 99^5: 99^ 2. 99^ 99^ 

991 : 3.99% 99^ 

1 P. 'to separate/ A. 'to purge/ 

CdDJngate fl^ 7. P. A., f%^ 6. P. A. t fr^ 3 P. A., 
3. P. A., gsj; 7. P. A., 5^ 7. P. A., g^ 7. P. A. and others 
having f or *f for their penultimate, similarly ; f|r^[ f%%^ 
1 sing! f^ftM^i dual 5 i%frl%*r 2 sing. &c., g^ ^ft* 1 sing. 
2 sing. &c. 

6 P. 'to ask/ 


1 P. 'to abandon/ 


7 P. 'to break or to destroy/ 

. P. A. 'to fry.' 


4. A. 6. P. 

2 tra&r ^5T: ^5f 2 

3 ^RR ^1^.^13: ^^^ 3 

SST^l. P. 'to see/ 

should be COD jugate d like Q^ ; ^^fir^r, 

7. P. A. 'to cut' 

2 Pj-f^*( I^F^i^: ftP^ 2 

3 i%^ ftf^<^'- ftf^: 3 

q^ 4. A. 'to go. ^ 1. 6. P. 'to decay/ 



3 <& " 

Conjugate *;* A., ^ P., ^ P. $pr P., A., 
A., ^ P., m* P., *C A., ^ P., sfg P. similary; 
2 iing.., -%nr^-^Tr^ 2 sing., ^ %m^-^^^ 2 sing., 

2 sing., 

1 P. ' to drop ' |^. 9 P. * to bind ' 



5. P. to grow, to accomplish. 9 ^^ 6. P. ' to touch. * 
^fifa TOi^fa 1 

2 ^Dff^r ^ra*j: w% 2 

3 w? ^n^: wig- 3 

^5j and ^^x are similarly conjugated. 
( 4 ) Set roots ending in a consonant. 

1 P. < to be glad. > cTFT 1 A < to salute.' 

. 1. P. < to dance g^ A. 1. ' to rejoice. 

1. P. to afflict.' 

3 99^ 99^ 

6. P. < to go. 

816 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. [ 505-506 

2 3TRf?*T 9TW%: W*t 2 

3 3TR^ 3TR% STffif ' '3 

1. P- ' to worship. ' SR^ 1. A. to go, to acqnire ' &c. 

3 3TH 9TR3: 3JR1: 3 

g^ P. ' to vomit. ' ^ A. ' to give. ' 

2 ^Rffiw ^JT^: ^?T 2 

3 ^TH 33^: ^9*. 3 

6. P. ' to be crooked. ' ^5^ 6. P. ' to flash forth 
' to cheat. ' ' to throb. ' 

IfraT 1 

2 ^TCT 3f2g : 3f2 2 

3 ^fe 5f2^: 595: 3 

506. Roots taking ^TKTqrKOl ( regular and irregular 
1. P. A. 'to worship. 

5 ^?T3l *l<j: ^: 3 

t 1. 2. P. ' to speak. ' cr^l. P. ' to dwell/ 


* Roots of the 3?^ class ( see 463 ) retain their vowel un- 
changed option ally in the 1st pers. sing, of the Perf.j i-^pnw, 
1st sing. 

f ^ as a substitute for 5r may also be conjugated in At* 
, 1 Per &c. 



1. P. A. 'to sow seed.' 

2 Sqffa-S^ 3ftg: 3?? 2 

3 3^rq ^^5: 353: 3 

1. P. A. 'to carry/ 


3 3qif 3^: 5: 33% 

1. P. 'to speak/ ( A. in some senses ). 

2 33I^T ^3 : ^ 2 3>[^ 35^13? 3jf^E[ 

3 33T^ 3>^3: -KJ: 3 3>^ 3J^IrT 3rf^ 

2. P. 4 to sleep. ' 3ST 2 P. 'to grow old/ 

2 s**?q*r 9^3: OT? 2 

3 S^i^ 95^'. 53- 3 

q^2. P. to desire. ' sg^ 6. P. 'to deceive/ 'to surround/ 

*When the ? substituted for the ?r of the roots ^ and ^ ia 
dropped, the preceding sr is changed to &\ and not to an: 
=:;3-5t? + *r, by 416, 3, 4 = 

-818 SANSKRIT QEAMMAB. [ j$ 506 

9. P. A. 'to take.' 

P. A. 'to pierce/ 

1. P. 'to swell.' 

( Regular ). 

% ( Irregular ). 


* ft it to be optionally considered as |f in the Perfect. 
f % optionally assumes the form 3^9; before the strong, and 
or ^ before the weak terminations of the Perfect. 

< 506-508 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. 919 

3O ^> 
3^2? 393: 3J: 3 g^T 


^* P. A. 


3 f^|4( Hsjjg: %: 3 

- A. 'to call.' 

consonantal terminations except ^T; ^f -^rprir^ 1 dual, 

2 sing.; 5^11, ^vftsqr 2 sing, of ^, &c. 
1. 7. P. 'to shrink, to contract.' 797 6 P. 'to cut.' 

507. Wet roots: 

508. Ttie roots *j, ^ and ^ admit f necessarily before 


2 ^i^T aerag: ^cW 2 

3 ^P5 clcreg: ^55: 3 

is similarly conjugated. 

* oq- becomes f^sqr^ before strong terminations and ffi\ before 
*he weak ones in the Perf . f "jj is to be considered as 5 in the Perf . 

920 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. [ g 508 

. 2. P. to purify. srar 7. P. to anoint.' 



4 P. 'to be wet/ ?RF 1. A f to distil.' 


3 R^ ra%^: T%%|: 3 

4. P. to destroy.' T%^ 1 P 



1. P. to be able.' 4. P. c to be 

TT is similarly conjugated. 

* tq^and ^insert a uasal when' their final is followed by a 
vowel, r-^, however, does not do it in the Aorist or when ii 
takes f, except in the Perf. f 8ee 471. 




. A. ' to be ashamed/ $m 4. P. ' to forgive/ 

1. A. ' to forgive. 1 

5. A. 'to pervade/ 

'. ' to be afflicted/ ^ 4. P. ' fcrperish, 

3 T^'SI RI^STjJ: ra%5j: 3 

. P. ' to occupy.' ^ with ^^ 9. P. to tear, to expeL' 


pare' should be similarly conjugated. 

* Sea 512. 

j- Roots ending in q change 'to ^ when followed by ^ or 
t See. 476. 
H. S. G. 21. 


1. A. ' to enter/ 1. A. * to take/ 

A. is Set and should be 
conjugated as such, in? 10 P. 
A. takes the Periphrastic Per! . 

1. P. A. ' to conceal/ 

3 ^J5 gg^: lap 3 

c 6. P. * to kill/ <S 6. P. f to kill 

2 cl^l: 33*3 

3 ^| ^83: ^|: 3 ^ 

4. P. ' to bear malice.' ^ 6. P. * to hurt, to kill/ 

When^or i^is 6feppe<3. the preceding *r. ? or 3 is hsn> thrived. 

508-509 ] CONJUGATION OP VE*BS. 323 

is similarly conjugated %f is similarly conjugated 

ftQ*r 58Ra I dual, gfTT%^r, ^wfifa-^W 2nd sing, 

5KTC, gRt*ST - sing. &c. ^ 1 daal 

4. P. ' to love. ' 


is to bfr similarly conjugated. 


509. The roots sr?*r, 3T?gr, f*w. and ^f^ drop their nasal 
optionally before the terminations of the Perfect, <grt, !I^T 
<W. obey 500, even before the strong terminations -when their 
nasal is dropped. 



* T&e final f of th roots j^, gf , T^T^ ; and ^g^ is changed 
to q or 9 when followed by any consonant except a nasal or a 
)i vowel or by nothing. 

324 SANSKRIT GRAMMAK. [ 509-511 


* $0. The a? of the roots inr , 5^[ > 3T^ , ^P^ and ^, is 
dropped before vowel weak terminations except those of the 
2nd variety of the Aorist; the ^ of ^j is then changed to 7 
and 3Tt( and ^ become 5^ and ^respectively. 


2 snrftsr WR^: smr 2 

o ^PTTJT ^IH: ^n: 3 

Conjugated in the 

2 ^^ sfUfsT ^ft^ Perf. as a substitute 

3 ^ ^ffiB ^fft? of 91 which see. 

P. A. 

2 ^^i ^^H: =^1 2 

3 ^n^ =^P5^: ^^: 3 

511. v^ is optionally substituted for aq^ in the Perfect.. 

511-612 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 825 

512 f The roots ^, cf^ ^, ^ and n^ when it means 4 to 
offend or to injure' necessarily, and X gj, ^^, ^ qnr, 1. P. to go, 
T53[, ^T?r, ^^ and ^^ optionally obey 500. 

1 P. ' to cross. ? q^j 1 P. ' te bear fruit. ' 

3 qqfj 

. A. 'to serve. ' &c 

3 ^ 

5. P. with 3?q. 



4. P. < to be old. ' ^[ 1. 4. P. ' to wander. ' 


* Vide 515 f ^<^>?3T5fTai I 
Pan VI. 4. 122-125. 

326 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 512-514 


1. A. ; to shine.' ^3W 1. P. ' to sound.' 


[ $rT5T> TT^ aTe to be similarly conjugated. 
513 T forms its base irregularly as 

414. 1% and ff are respectively changed to f*T and f^* 
and f% optionally to %, after the reduplicative syllable in the 
Perf. and the Desiderative. 


1 1*1" I W 


514-518 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. 827 


515. 3T^, 3f an d scfr admit f necessarily before 37. 


3JK aflfa arife? For 3^ and s^ see p. p. 325, 319; 

'to go.' 


516. f ' to go ' lengthens its reduplicative ; before the 
weak terminations 
For the forms see p. 311. 
517. The base of f with 3tfr ' to study > is 


518. 37^ forms its base as 37153. Its vowel is optionally 
not gnnated before a strong termination when it takes f. 

* See 476. f See 477 

328 SANSKRIT GP.AMMAB. [ 518-519 



519. rarr and 7^7 are optionally substituted for ^r^in the 
Perfect, and necessarily in the other Non-con jugational tenses. 
and cf^rr take both the Padas. 



5 520-527 J CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 329 

520. q^ifl prefixed to vowel weak terminations in the case 
of ft 4. A. < to obey.' 

1 fKA fcflWfc 

521. ^ 1. A. Ho protect' asstimes as its base the form 
in the Perfect, ftifc, fltffcjsfy 1 sing, and dual. ftftnft-| 2 pi. 

522. ^i after reduplication assumes the form (533 , f^T? 
1 sing. , %ia<* 2 sing. 

523. <ft is. substituted for c^ 'to grow fat' in the Perfect 
and in the Frequenf ative < f^- 1 sing. , rafor&-| > 2 pi. 

524. The root scng tak^s Samprasarana in the reduplicative 
syllable in the Perfect j f%sq-F 1 & 3 sing, forf^fty sing. 

525. For the forms of ft^, see k 466, f%>^ 1 
ftftir 2 per. &e. 


526. The Periphrastic Perfect is formed by adding 3U*T to 
the root and then adding the forms of the reduplicated Perfect 
ot& y Tg;, or 3if^ as terminations ; when the forms of ^, ar 
added, a Parasmaipadi root takes the Parasrnaipadi forms and 
an Atmanepadi one takes the Atmanepadi forms. 

527. Before 3tre( the final vowel and the penultimate short 
except that of f^ , take their Gun a substitute. 

$( 2. A. ' to praise/ 


frta* frtart 


&c. are similarly conjugated 
' to give.' 

2 ^i- 

3 ^?FI 

is similarly conjugated. 


i3 similarly conjugated. 

. 'P. 'to bum.' 

, &c. sri^t^f^, &c. 

3?^: 3fl 

> &C. aJltlHJb^:, &C, 3ftafa3F>, &C. 

, &c. an^itjttig:, &c. sfNi^i, &c. 
P. 'to know/ 

5 527-528 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 831 


, &c. ft^WW^:, &C. f^TRRT, &C. 

3 fiN ftfea-- 

f, &C. fifcWflS'., &C. 

2. P. ' to awake.' 

, &C. snifWTKR, &C. 

, &c. ^rncwRi?!:, &c. ^sTHRmw, &c. 

, &C. 5IWWRQ:, &C. ^pRWTg:, &C. 

TO~ ^PftTt *Tt<TT*Ji'c<*K, &c. 1 sing. ?^f^r, ^S^Tt ?lmMW- 
5^. &c. dual; ^firtlTO, ^fr^ ifniM!^*HF, &c. 2 eing. 

'JT^T, or ^qnrt^n^T, &c. 1 sing- 

fHgr ftfif^, or f5^^Tm^TT> &c. 1 fing. 

qrir qot or qurNM^H ( 7araN^f according to Bopadeva ) 

&Q. 1 sing. 

3?R(T or ^emirtw &c. 1 sing. 
628. When 3ttn is added to the roots ft, t w and ^ they 
are first reduplicated as in the third conjugation} e. g.- 

-ft 3. P. 'to fear/ 
fwr f^i^ rai^m 

, &C. ft^Rf^f^, &C. WWl^fR, &C. 

2 ft*jftr, ft^r fl?3: fir 

, &C. ftw!^^:, &C. ftwf^ &C. 

, &C. fi'*?^^: &C. 


gt 3 P. ' to be ashamed.' 


T, &C. 


&C. f^lfa^g: &C. !%3fa$, &C. 

, &c. l%qH^:, &c. 1%^f :, &C. 

^!TT, TOT, fiH*r*OTT-*^-nRnr 1 sing. 
1. sing. &o. 

( 6 ) THK AORIST ^. 

629. There are seven Varieties or Form.9 of the Aorist. 
The augment sr is perfixed to the root as in the Imperfec f 

First Variety or Form. 

530. The terminations of the First Variety are the same 
as those of the Imperf.. except that of third person plural 
wlrch is g: 

3 <l 

531. The radical 3fr is dropped before 3^. 

532. ^, ^SJT, ^f } ^f, and roots assuming the forms of %\ and 
cIT ( Vide 459 ), Tf 'to drink 7 and ^ take this Variety. 

533. Tho roots 97, \j,*ft> ^ti nd *ft belong to this Variety 
optionally. They optionally take the Sixth Form, t* takes 
the Third Form also. 


P. ?Tt P. 


2. 3TCTT: 9WT^L aiwa 2. 

3. arc*n^ 3rc*nfiUi arc^ 3; 

534. ^ takes 3^ instead of g^ in the 3rd per. pi. and 
changes its vowel to ^[ before tbo vowel terminations ; . g. 
3TO?TC(> 3HI*, W*$* 1st pers.;^^, a^f* , 3POT 3rd per. 

535. ITT is substituted for f in tbe Aorist ; 3*irn*, 
3TTTTR 1st per.-, ^ with 3n\J 'to remember ' 

arwrnr, &c. 

536. This Variety is exclusively Parasmaipadi. ^r, vn, 
and ^r take the fourth Variety in tbe A tin. i^wbenAtm. 
takes tbe fifth ; and with a^|% Atm. , the fourth. 

Second Variety or Form. 

537. In this Variety 3? is added on to the root and then 
the terminations of the Imperf. of the first group of conjuga- 
tional classes are added; riz. 

Par. Atm. 

2. s <m ^ 2. 

3. <* am, ^ 3. 

538. The preceding ^ ia dropped before ^jj;, a^j, and 
3T?rT and lengthened before 7 and IT. The radical vowel except 
a final ^-, short or long, and tbe 35 of g^j, does not undergo 
Gupa or Vrddhi substitute. 

539. This Variety is Parasmaipada with a few exceptions 
such as s?t with ^u , ^qr, ^; and 3?^ 'to throw ; with a preposi- 
tion. The roots fjj<r ft^, and *g take this form in the Par. 
and optionally in the Atm., in which they also take the 
Fourth Form. 

540. The penultimate nasal of a root is dropped, as ?l- 

334 SANSKRIT GBAMHAB. [ 541-542 

541. The roots 3T^, *$*rr, <T^, ^[ ? 5TTS; , 1% and g become 

, *, and g, respectively-, *. y. 
, &c. 3rd uing. 

542. The roots giving the following couplets ( Karik&f 
belong to this Variety necessarily: 

u 1 u 


u ^ ii 

t I 

w u ^ u 
^i^ i 
: nnri&: ^ft: n ^ u 

Rr^^Rf^^^T I 

: 3?%: tgf^: II X II 

U ^ II 

n * n 

u ^ n 
^ i 
n s u 

P. with ^E A. 

3 a 


3F 3 P. < to go A. with 

2 an*: 3n*craL 3n*3 2 

3 9?R^ 3n^ sn^L 3 

I . ' to go ' 

1 P. A. 

3 3ffc^ STPIH Tf^ 3 

2. P. ( also that substituted for ; Par. and Atm. ) 

2 , 


P. A 

2 3rflR: aifiracP*. 3rft^ 2 
.3 BH%^ amRcn^ sjftR^ 3 


2 orfeq: arfeqan. wfa^ 2 

3 3rfc5H^ srfeqcn aifeq 3 

* f&r, f%5 aud^ ( also take the fourth Variety in the Atm) 


. P. A. withqft 

anww 1 

2 3H^T: 3TfWTq afl^KT ? 

3 3nwr anwrr^ ajiwi. 3 

We give l>elow the 3rd per. siog. of the rest. 

Roots. Roots, 

* ( 5. 4. P. A. 
4. P. < to collect.' 

. P. to wallow/ ^g^j rcr 
3n^f?f 5W-4. P. < to be c 

4. P.' to be wet.' 3=rr%3r^ TOT : --4. P. to throw' 3fft^ 
. P. ' to be oily.' - 

1 . 1 A 4. P. 'tobeuDctuoiiB, ^q^J 4. 6. P. A. 

to melt 3ffr$qi ^q: 

t 6. P. A mr^: ^* 

1 P. ' to perish, to decay' 5 ' to kill. 

- ' to kill 

4. 5. P. Ho prosper'- 

ijvr 4. P. 'to covet' 
4. P. 'to hurt' 

* 5T3? 4. A. takes the Fourth, as well as the Fifth Variety, 
in the Atm. 3T$TrE, 3T5rf% 3rd sing. 

f ft^ A. takes the Fourth or Fifth Variety. 3fl%TT, 3T>f^ 3*d 

J gq^ takes the Fourth Form in the Atm; 

642-543 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 887 

3T5TR<* SJ* 4. P. 'to be dry' 

1. P. to be confused or ^ 4. P. to embrace' 3*$^, 

agitated.' arerjT^ <qft- 1. P. ' to eat' - 

. P. ' to be thin ' 3T^T^ 3TO( 4. P. ' to release'- 

3TO3T^ jre( 4. P. ' to fade away ' 

jj^ falP 3T^P1 ^[ 4. P/to decay, to perish ^ 

3TCITO ^[ 4. P. 'fco be straight' 

4. P. <to choose' 3^r5T^ ft^ 4. P. c to go, to direct' 

. P. to be fMraty' 3^w^ 5 5^ 4. P. 'to 
. P. < to be spoiled/ &c, JT^ 4. P. ' to weigh, to change 
[ 3T1^ form' 

4. P. 'to burn' 3?g^ 5^ 4. P. 'to cut ' 

4. P. 'to injure, to kill' ^ 4. P. 'to strive' 

arf^ra; ^ same as ^ 

P. 'to be angry or vexed' fi^ same as 

f ( I R^f ( 
to spread through ^IT^ 

4. P. to divide'~ 

543. The following roots belong to the 2nd Variety 
optionally; they optionally take the Fourth or Fifth Variety 
according as they are Auit or Set. 

* fi^ Atm. takes the Seventh Variety, 
H. S. G. 22 


II * II 

Boots. 3rd ting. Optional forms. Boots. 3rd sing. Optional forms 



takes the Third and Filth Varieties besides the 2nd. 

54S-544 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. 339 

Boots. 3 sing. Optional forms. Boots. 3 sing. Optional forme. 

544. The following 25 roots, which are all Atmanepadi, 
are conjugated in the Paraemaipada when they belong to this 
Variety. In the Atmanepada they take the Fourth or Fifth 
Variety according as they are Asit or Set. 

\\ <\ 

: u H n 

n x n 

Boots. 3 sing. Optional forms. Boots. Ssing. Optional forms 

3? 3132^ 

340 SANSKBIT QKAIOCAB. [ 645-648 

545. Terminations:- 
The same as those of the 2nd Variety. 

546. Boots oi the tenth class, cansals, some derivatives*. 
the root qn^ and the roots f$r, g, and g when expressing the 
agent, take this Variety necessarily, and the roots qr and ft 
do it optionally. 

547. ( a ) The root is first reduplicated and then the aug- 
ment gx and the terminations are added as in the 2nd Variety. 

( b ) Final f and 3- are changed to fq^ and s^ before 3% and 
final aft is dropped. 

fa P. A. 'to go,' Ac. 




also, when it takes an^ ; see 461 and 648. ) 

3 sing. fo-3Tf5rftr<r^ ( see p. 338. foot-note ) 5 ^ 
(% also takes 1st and 6th Varieties besides this ). 

548. Boots of the tenth Glass and Oansals: 

( ) The gnr of the base is dropped ( the vowel changes tak- 
ing place before it being retained ) and a short vowel subati- 

548-549 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 541 

tuted for the long one ( q- and q- being shortened to f , and 3Jt 
and sft to ^ ). 

The base so modified is then reduplicated according to the 
general rules; *rnnr ( Oau. B. -of jj ) =*rre=*T*=5nr^ after 
reduplication; ^f^( from f%O=%a=f%^=l%T%aL &C * 

( I ) f is substituted for the 3T of the reduplicative syllable if 
ths syllable following it be short, and not proeodially long; the 
f of the reduplicative syllable is lengthened if not followed by 
a long syll. or a conjunct consonant; thu97H^=f^^=firvT7; 
ifof%^=^n%rj *^-^=^=T%*^, the f is not lengthened 
as it is followed by a conjunct consonant ; ^q r d=rq^qrd only, 
-as q- is followed by a syllable proeodially long. 

( c ) Boots having a penultimate 35 , short or long, optionally 
preserve it, the long * being changed to the short one ; 3^ 
causal base ^&r=^ after dropping gjq- and 33; by this : q^= 

( d ) To the base so prepared the augment ar is to be prefixed 
and the terminations added, P. & A., as in the 2nd Variety: 
from ^; yftftf%g from f%g;. 3TMH^^dl-(T from 


TV. B. The Atm. form in ft when not given should be 
supposed to be understood. 

549. Bases with initial vowels: 

( a ) If a root begins with a vowel and ends in a single con- 
sonant, the consonant is reduplicated and 5- added to it in the 
reduplicative syllable: 3^=3T^= 

( b ) If it ends in a conjunct consonant with q[ t ^ or ^ for 
its first member, the second member of the conjunct is redupU- 

342 SANSKRIT GBAMMAE. [ 549-552 

oated : ^?^=vT5^=grf^[^ and finally 3ftf?5TC-ir 3 8in g.j similarly 
[-fl f rom 3T ( considered as g?^, otherwise 

from <fl arrfSrST^-cT from g, &c. 

( c ) The roots 37^ , 3T|F, 3T^, 3T?>3C, 3^[, 3^ Atm. and some 
others, substitute 3f| for 5^ in the reduplicative syllable* 3 ting. 

550. Hoots ending in 3-, short or long, substitute 3- 
( changeable to 37 like jj ) for ^ in the reduplicative syllable, 
provided it be not (immediately) followed by a labial consonant 
or a semivowel or ^ 7 followed by 3T or 3H"; 
-^*ld, 5-3T^T^-tf, &c. But 

' to hasten ' ar^fnFT^ , 5 * to bind ' srrf^R^ , g * to 

( a ) The roots $r, ^ y, w 'to go' w 'to swim 7 and ^ optionally 
retain the 5: arilrff^ or mflm%, 3rf|rsr^ or 34^81 !<!, 
or 3Tgr 5^ or 

551. The roots 
'to moan' ^OT 'to sound,' <to go/ ^or 'to sound/ rT 7 ^^to sound/ 
for 'to give' ^^6. P. A. ( to cut/ 55 'to harass/ %, ^r , g^ and 
. P; shorten their penultimate optionally; 1. sing.: 
or 3f^ 

r s 

or aq ^ or 

or ^XJ^IUIH , 3TfRor^[ or 

or 3{tc(Ti!i^ , 3rr%?rnn3; or ^^nsrrop^ 9 3ita<3Mn or 

or sriSfts^, 3T^^[ or 31^!^ ( sen 553 below), 

552. The ar of the reduplicative syllable of ^, , ?sn:, JT^T , 
' to pound, to wish/ *H, and ^q*^, is not changed to f ; ^^ 1. A. 

552-556 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 84* 

f to surround* and % optionally change their to sr; 1 sing 

553. The roots g and fqq; can. take Samprasarana. 
does it optionally; gT^^ P^ or 5^> then 
550 then 3T^T5n3[, 3T^TO ^rqc-^TT^ 

1st sing. 

554. The roots given under 400 preserve their vowel 
unchanged- s. 0. do not substitute f in the reduplicative syllable, 

&Q. E 

555. Tbe roots 

, s^ji^, %^, %^, and 

others less important, do not shorten their penultimate; 3 sing. 

&c - 

556. Roots which form their Causal Aorist irregularly: 
j with 3?ft <to study,~^tTm^,3itTnftinq[,(f with 
'to rememW 3T\i?nfTiTJ^ ) 

f ?j f to envy ' 


^TT 'to drink' a^qr^rg; ( <TT 'to protect* forms its Causal Aorist 
regularly as 

544 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [556-558 


Par. Atm. 

( Only Parasmaipadi ) 

N. B. The Sixth and the Seventh Varieties are given here 
before the Fourth and Fifth as it is more convenient to do so. 

557. Terminations of the Sixth Form: 

2 tft: 

3 ^tcj 

558. Hoots ending in srr (including those that change their 
final to 31T ), the roots q^, ^ P. (i. a. with f?r, 9RT, *ft ) and R^ 

558-563 ] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. 845 

take this Variety, mj with s<T or 3^, A. and ^ A. take the 
fourth Variety. 

559. The roots ending in sg which are restricted to the 
First, Second and Third Varieties do not take this Variety. 


&C ; ?n ST^nf^ 1 ^, &C ; S! BT^STI^q^^ &c.; ft OF 
, &C.; 


( Parasm. and Atm. ) 
560. Terminations: 

Par. Atm. 

2 m ^^ ^ 2 

3 ^ ^^T^ ^ 3 

561. Anit roots ending in ^ ^, ^ and ? and having y, g-, 
^ or cT for their penultimate take this Form, g^is an excep- 
tion ; it therefore takes the Fourth Variety. 

562. 55^, ^5^ and ^, 1 P. 6 P. A. optionally belong to 
this Variety. 

663. The roots ^ 7 f^ , f?J5 , and 5^ when Atmanepadi 
drop the initial ^ or ^rr of the terminations of the 1st dual, 3rd 
ing. and 2nd sing, and pi. optionally. 






5- is to be similarly conjugated. 

2 sn%3T: 3n^j^ 3Tfgci 2 

3 srf^ arfe^ciiJi arf^e^ 8 

P. A. 



S^ being a Wet loot optionally takes the Fifth Variety. 

563-566 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. 347 

Roots. 1 bing. Roots 1 sing. 

. *% 


S 584. Terminations: 

Paraam. Atm, 

1 J-JL 1 f^L 

ft j_r, r 

565. ( a ) Anit roots not belonging to any of the preced- 
ing Varieties take this Form. Anit roots that optionally 
take any of the preceding Varieties and Wet roots optionally 
belong to this Varirty. 

* Wet roots which belong to this Variety, as Auit, optionally 
take the 5th as Set. 

348 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. [ 565-567 


( 1 ) ^j and $, when Parasmaipadi, belong to the Fifth Variety. 

( 2 ) Boots ending in 3* preceded by a conjunct consonant 
may take Fourth or Fifth Form in the Atmanepada. 

( 3 ) 3T5^ and ^ Par. take the Fifth Form only. 1% A. may 
take the Fourth or the Fifth Form. 

( 4 ) Of Set roots 3 and those ending in =^ ( long ) when Atm. 
belong to either ( 4th or 5th Variety ). 35, and JR^ when A. 
belong to the Fourth. 

566 ( a ) In the Parasmaipada the radical vowel takes 
its Vrddhi substitute ; 5ft-3^fi*I 35-31$ rffo ^S^anrisffS , &c. 

( b ) In the Atmanepada, Guna is substituted for final f or 
3", short or long; final ^ and the penultimate vowel remain 
unchanged- final = is changed to f ^ or 37^; in accordance with 
394 ; t%-3T%^ > ^T-3^ ; ^-3^ftg-, g;-3T^ftr, ^ see below, 

( e ) The Panultimate -^ of Anit roots is optionally ohanged 
to T 

567. After a short vowel, and after a consonant except a 
nasal or semi-vowel, the ^ of terminations beginning with ^ 
and TO is dropped y f -3Tf fT 3 sing.; 
; ^T-3f^^ 3rd sing. &c. 



Conjugate similarly other Anit roots ending in consonants; 
P. 1. sing.-, an%far Atm. 1. sing.; 5 


1. sing. P. &. A.., 5^-3rarT$rn * sing, ararsn 2nd dual, 

t with *nj[ A. *THT% 1 sing.; XTS^-^xn^ 1 sing. ; 

Wre 2 per. &c; *>J-3nrtc*n* 1 sing.; 
2 sing.; areVire 2 per. dual., &c 5 A. 8^1% 1st sing.; 
3rd sing, and L dual 5 g^T^C 1 sing.; 

2nd dual 

fif P. with T* Atm. 


Conjugate similarly j%, ^r, eft, t * c -> ^ 5 ^- P- A. &c. ; 

, P. 4. A. r^ 1 sing., 

r, 1 sing.-, 


f^[ P. A. is similarly conjugated. Conjugate 3 A. similarly 

A. * A. 

2 STft: ^S^ *$fr 2 

3 Bif| aqjftgin Bf^T 3 

A. ^ P. 

* Vide 465. 

f Also take the 6th Variety when it substitutes an f or its finaL 
t ?5l, ^C &nd ^t also take the 7th Variety; 3^ and ^ take 
tne 2nd and 5th besides this. 


2 ar^iBf: srStqwm arlif^ 2 

3 arere sretarau whrer 3 

. ^^ 

Atm. sf^rg, &c. 

Conjugate 8i 

2 Qror^r. swili srwi ^jT-a 

3 snn^ wi^i W!^: ^-aren^fa, RSIT^; &c. 

; &c. 

. A. 



similarly conjagatd 
. &c. 

' ^C-Vide 480. 3T^+STf^=3TWRJ+^^=3reiTTnj 3rd 
dual. IK A. takes the 5th Variety since it is Set. 
t Also takes the 5th Variety. 

668-571] CONJUGATION or VEBBS. 351 

Irregular Aprist or the Fourth Form. 
568. gft, ^7, and roots assuming the forms of ^r and ^r (Vide 

459 ) and ^JT substitute $ for their final vowel in the Atm. 
This f does not take its Guna substitute. In the Parasm. these 
roots take the first Variety ( vide 532 ). 

569. 5^( ( with 3JT A. ) drops its nasal before the termi- 

It takes the Fifth Form optionally both in the Parasm. and 
Atm. in which case pj is substituted for it. 

570. im, and q^ with gr<T ' to marry,' optionally drop 
their nasal, when they take the Atm. terminations, qi^ when 
it means < to give out ' ( as the faults of others ) necessarily 
drops its nasal. 

571. The third person sing, of <r^ is arqrf^. ^[ 4. A. 
takes the termination f optionally in the 3rd sing, before 
which the penultimate gr takes Gun a. 

A ( with 3TT ) 


with 3& 3TT. 

TO with 

352 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 571-572 


3 wrer 

with ^ir to be similarly conjugated grrpi%, 
5T<Trfa*f|', 4m*J<Hlf3 1 dual, 3MHI*mi:, ^trnmn ^ sing. 



? with 


1 sing 

572. Terminations: These are obtained by prefixing the- 
aagment *[ to the terminations of the Fourth Variety, dropping 
the ^ in the case of the 2nd and 3rd per. sing. ; . g. 

* Vide 486. 

572-574 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 353 

Par. Aim. 

W ** 1 0* 

2 {: ^^L 52 2 ^T: 

3 & 383, 5$: 3 ^ 

573. All roots not restricted to any of the preceding 
Varieties take this Variety. Consequently it is peculiar to Set 
roots ( Vide 565 ). 

574. ( a ) In the Paraarnaipada, the final radical vowel and 
the penultimate 3f of roots ending in ^ or 3^ and that of ^? and 
take their Vrddhi substitute necessarily; 3- 

(b) The penultimate short vowel of a root takes its Guna 

substitute- f\J 

(e) Vrddhi is optionally substituted for the penultimate 3T, 
not prosodially long, of roots having an initial consonant and 
not ending in ^ or w ; q^-- 

(d) But the vowel of roots ending in ^ , ^ , q y and of the 
roots ^,^,3^1,^, ^ 'to cover, to surround/ ^, 'to 
break, to pierce,' ^r^, ssr^ , 'to ask, to beg,' qsrjto go or move/ 
*T*T < to churn, 7 ^yir^ 'to stick or cling to/ ^ and |^ <to sound 
or to be diminished/ does not take its Vrddhi substitute. 

(0) In the Atmanepada the radical vowel takes its Guoa 
substitute; *; 3*$yfir. 


3KrTTfiq** 1 sing. areTTBTTS ^~3Trfif% 1 sing 
3 sing. 3 sing. 

l sing, a^rrfr^ f and f P 

3 sing. 

, WWrf^ 1 aing. 
H S G 23. 

354 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 574-575 

1 eing 

. 1 sing. cfi^ 3 sing 

BT: fBT: 2 sing. 5^ 3**rrraTO[ 1 sing- 
f/sr A. 3Tm?ft-3T^Vfir 1 sing. 3 sing. 

mftaft, 3TOfr*ft, & c - S 5 * am***, aiwRnR 1 sing. 

areRer: <> r ^^frar- Par - and Atm. ( See 569 ). 
2 sing. &o. sETCC 3T5RmTO[ 1 eing. 3??fjjftg[ 

3 sing. 

For the optional forms of these roots see the preceding Variety. 

3 sing. 

3 sing. g^r-SRTT^r^ 1 fling. 

1 sing. 3TTltar 3 sing. 

eing. W^-aroro?^ 1 sing, 

sing. ^bH^fld. 3 sing. 

3 sing. 

7. P. f sjftfsm,. 6. A. 3 sing. 

1 sing. sq^-^^rqi*^, 3R?rftl^ 1 fling. 

WTftrTT 1 fling. ^ST^rR V^ 1 sing. 

Bin g- awrtl^. 5T^ ^T5TT%^ 1 sing. 

3 sing. iTTf^ 3Tm%ft 1 sing. STirrri^ 

sing. 5T^^ 3 sing. 

gg *<iflW X ,3TUff ft 1 sing. 

Irregular Aorists of the Fifth Form. 

575. The roots ^, 5T^, tp; , ?TT^ an d cqr^ optionally sub 
stitnte f for f^ ( third person sing. Atm. ). 

* See 475. 

f Vide 46ft. J Vide 461. 

X Vide p. 249 foot-note f ; 3*^ also takes 7th Variety. 

576-578 ] OoNJuaATioir OP VEBBS. 355 

576. Roots of the 8fch class ending in or or ^ drop their 
nasal and substitute optionally $rr^ and 3 for the terminations 
fgT: and ?E of tbe 2nd and 3rd person ping. Atm. *ng 
lengthens its vowel after dropping q[. 

577. The vowel of sn takes Vrddhi optionally in the 
Parasm. i. c. optionally takes Gupa substitute; also it option* 
ally remains unchanged before f ( Vide 466, 518 ): 

578. The su of ^TT i optionally dropped in the A orist- 
-consequently it takes the Sixth and the fifth Varieties. 






rni: amrfirfw; 


356 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 578-580 

Boots of the 8th Class. Boots of the 8th Class. 

1 sing. Par. ^ 3ran>?^, 3THRTO Par. 
1 sing. Atm. 3Tm%ft Atm. 1 sing. OT- 

3TT<T 2 & 3 aing. Atm. 2 & 3 sing. Atm. 

I sing. Par. 
1 sing Atm. 

3TfsT?T 2 & 3" sing. Atm. 

501^ 3|%|fO|tf^ v 3TOT&rf^r ^ sing. ^*3[ ^T^TRT^J S^R*?^ 1 sing. 

Par. Atm. srornSTv 3T^r^TT'j Par. 3^RTf 1 fi i n K. Atm. 


^nrnir^, 3^?r 2 & 3 sing. S^TRHT*, 3?w^n.*; sraR'sr, 

Atm. 3pygf 2 & 3 sing. Atm. 

1 sing. Par. ^R[ 3TOTRTO, 3it!M^^ 1 sing. 

1 sing. Atm. Par. aroRftT, 1 sing. Atm. 

2 & 3 sing. Atm. S^RT 2 & 3 sing. Atm. 


579. The Parasmaipada terminations of this mood may 
be obtained by prefixing *rr^ to those of the Imperfect, 
dropping its final ^ before the ^ and ^ of the 2nd and 3rd per. 
sings.; and the Atmanepada ones by prefixing ^ to the 
terminations of the Atm. Potential and also to the ^ and ^ 
occurring in them These, therefore, are: 

Parasm. At mane. 


(a) Parasi. pada. 
58 o The Par. terminations are weak and therefore occasion 

580-587 ] CoNJUOiTiON or VERBS. 857 

no Guna or Vrddhi change in the root. All roots reject the 
augment f. 

581. The final f or 3- is lengthened; final 3* short is 
changed to ft, and final ^ changed to f^ or to 3^ when preceded 
by a labial or a^ before the Par. terminations of the Benedictive, 
and the q- of the Passive; fir 

582. Final =5; preceded by a conjunct consonant and the 
root ^t are changed to Guna under the same circumstances; 

583. Boots capable of taking Sampras aran a take it. 
substitutes f for its vowel. 

584. A penultimate nasal is generally dropped. Some of 
the roots dropping their nasal thus are: 3T 

585. ^T, \jf and roots assuming these forme, JTT, W, ^T, 
^T, 'to drink', 51, 'to abandon' and ^r, change their nnal to q-. 
Final 3TC ( original or substituted ; see 459 ) t if it ba preceded 
by a conjunct consonant, is changed to ( optionally : g[T ^^"TT^, 

iT--W^, % *t*na;, ^ri^rr^, i^T^ra[ &c.j but <rr to 

'protect, qrq-r^. 

A tmanepada. 

586. (a) f is prefixed to the terminations after Set roots 
and optionally after Wet ones. 

(b) Roots ending in ^f preceded by a conjunct consonant, the 
root ^ and roots ending in =^ admit of f optionally. 

587. The Atm. terminations, are strong. Before these 
radical vowel takes its GnDa substitute, but when the inter- 


mediate f is not prefixed to the terminations, the final ^ 
remains unchanged and ^ is changed to ^ or to QT if a labial 
or ^precedes; f% %^r, 

or <jffe, &c. 


Par. Atm. 


2 ^n: 

S nt iwi Ti* 3 

. P. A. 


: 3 
Par. 3R Par. 

wn^r w^iw 1 

2 w: wfePi w^?W 2 

3 wiK w^ilwi^ wfe: 3 

* A. 

587-589 ] CONJUGATION or VERBS. 359 

2 ^K^fgr: wfrfawnj, 2 

Conjugate ^ Par. like 

1 sing 

Irregular Benedict ives. 

588. f ' to go ' f?TRnc; but shortens its after a prepo- 
aition j gf^TTH^: ; Atm- q-q^T. g^ also, when joined with 
prepositions, shortens its ^before waak terminations beginning 



589. Every root in every one of the ten conjugational 
classes may take a Passive form conjugated like an Atmanepadi 
root of the 4th Class.* 

* The only difference is in the accent ; in the Passive it falls 
on q, whereas in the case of the primitive verbs of the 4th class, 
Atxn it falls on the radical syllable. 

360 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [ 590-592 

590. There are three kinds of Passive Verbs: ( 1 ) the 

ve properly so called ( ^ftfor s?o ), as ^or jotf 
( 2 ) an Impersonal Passive. ( >JT% * ), a8 TT^ t it is 
and(3) a Reflexive ( SF&ff^ft sro ), at gftf*: T^J% 'rice 
la cooked. ' 


591. Formation of base: 

( a ) IT is added to the root, which is weak t. ; no Guna or 
Vrddhi substitute takes place before it j ff ;faT, ft^fw 

( b ) Before q* roots undergo the same changes as they do 
before the Par. terminations of the Benedictive ; f$r *ffa, $> 
farc, *^ w#, *T w, f sftJ, * ^, ?f?yr *w, ( but ft^- 
f^^ ), ^[ gr^r, 1?^ ?zr, &c. 

( c ) The final art C original or substituted ) of ^r to give, ' 
%, ^T, ^TT, ^, ITT, ^ r qrT ' to drink, ' ^t and ^r ' to abandon^ ' is 
changed to f. in other cases it remains unchanged; 37 and ^ 
, fT fTO"; but ^r ' to cut, to purify ' arizr, fir 

592. The passive base is conjugated like a root of the 4th 
class in the Atm. ; e. g, 

" It might even be suspected, that the occasional assumption of 
an Intransitive signification and a Paraemaipada inflexion by a 
passive verb, was the cause which gave rise to a 4th class of Primi- 
tive verbs as distinct from the Passive. Instances are certainly 
found of passive verbs taking Parasmaipada terminations, aud some 
passive verbs ( e. g.jydyate, 4 he is born, ' fr. jan ; puryate, * he is 
filled, ' fr. pr. ; and tapyate ' he is heated, ' fr. tap ) are regard- 
ed by native grammarians as Atmane. verbs of cl. 4. Again, 
many roots appear in class 4 as Intransitive verbs, which alao 
appear in some one of the other nine as Transitive. For example, 
yuj, * to join ' when used in a Transitive sense, is conjugated 
either in cl. 7, or it the Causal; when in an Intransitive, in cl. 
4. So also push, l to nourish, ' kahulh, l to agitate; ' Kltsh * to vex '; 
Sidk, ' to accomplish. ' 

Monier Williams. 

592 ] 




Imperfect . 



5^ Present. 


362 SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. [ 592-594 





598. (a) Theroota^[, 5fsg[,?i^, and ^R[, optionally 
drop their ^ and at the same time lengthen their ar$ 

( & ) 5ft 'to lie down' and ft form their bases as ^xf and 
( e ) gjjj shortens its 37 when a preposition is prefixed to it. 
( & ) Tft&T, ?[hff and %*ft drop their final vowel before q-. 

( e ) aj and 3?^ substitute q^ and ig; for themselves) ^ and 
1^ also substitute 3?^ and sfr respectively. 

594. To assist the student, the 3rd sings, pie. of some 
roots, regular and irregular, are given below. 

Boots. 3 ring. Boots. 3 sing. 


<n ' to drink ' 
qr ' to protect/ 


Boots. 8 ling. 'Boots. 3 sing. 


5T A. 

' to drees ' 

^with S 
&c. &c. &c. &c. 

364 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 595-596 

( 1 ) The Perfect. 

595. ( a ) The Reduplicative Perfect of a root in the 
Passive is formed in the ordinary way, every root being consi- 
dered Atmanopadi : ;ft f^r ; ^ sr^s). R^[=f%R^ j 

( b ) The Periphrastic Perfect of the Passive does not differ 
from that of the Active, except in that the Auxiliary verbs take 
Atmanepftdi terminations necessarily . 

( 2, 3 ) The two Futures, ( 4 ) the Conditional and 
(5') the Bemjedictive. 

596. ( a ) The forms of the two Futures, Conditional 
and the Benedictive of the Passive are made up in the same 
way as those of the Active, every root being supposed Atmane- 

padi ; f 

( b ) Roots ending in a vowel * and the roots 5^, jra^ and 
5j optionally form the two Futures, the Conditional and the 
Benedictive of the Passive by changing their vowel to Vrddhi 
and appending the Atmanepada termination of those tenses 
with $ prefixed to them invariably in the case of roots ending 
in 3TT ( and in tr, q- and sffr changeable to an* ) ^ is inserted 
between the root and this f ; ^r-^TFTm%, ^mrl; ^Tf 

and similarly |f 

', t 


** y^ and ^ take Vrddhi in this case though ;it is usually 
forbidden with them see 463 . ^rr takes Gupa only 

Tho f of f ^ is changed to g; immediately before ^ and before 
an affix containing a mute 5^ or TJT , t. e. q of the Passive, &c. 


(6) The Aorist. 

3 597. (a) The Passive of the Aorist of foots belonging to 
the 4th, 5th and 7th Varieties, is made up similarly by append- 
ing the Atmanepada terminations to the base ; i-3i?rftf5; fT 


(b) Boots belonging to the first, second, third and sixth 
Varieties take the fourth, fifth or seventh Variety in the Passive, 
in accordance with the general rules; f^-3tfWP? 1 8 i n o-; 

(e) The third per. sing, of the Aorist Passive of all roots is 
formed by adding f : 

(1) Before this f the penultimate ( prosodially ) short vowel 
takes its Guna substitute and penultimate 3? except that of ^R; 
and of Set roots ending in 3^ except ^p^ with STT, ^HL> an( * 
and the final vowel take their Vrddhi substitute 

; but 3R[ 3T3^; T^ 3mTmj but^ 3TRf &c. 
with an 3ff : 5rnfl'5 ?P 3^n& &c. 4 
' ^ or > 

(2) Roots ending in an original or substituted ( t. 0. of roots 
in ^, ^, 3TT ) insert ^before this f ; 


w insert a nasal before their final consonant, 
so that their penultimate 3? cannot take Guna or Vrddhi 
substitute ; 3TTfH, 3nrf* r, 3TTpT. 

(4) ^^ without a preposition does the same optionally and 
with a preposition necessarily 5 3T3i?r, 3T5JTPTj but sn^rr. 

(5) v>^ 'to break ' forms K*lfr or ^HTM? 5T^ 3^rffir *nd 
3T5nf^ in the sense of ' to observe ( 10 A. ).' 

(6) ^^ takes Vrddhi j 55 lengthens its vowel ; 3rmf5r, ?Hlfi. 

(7) f ' to go ' has annfir; with arR A., arwnf? or 

366 SANSKRIT GBAHHAB. [ 597-598 

(d) The roots at 461 will have two forms ; gcr-3i*fnfi, 

<nfir, ft^-sri*i%, arrS^^rwr &c.-, ^-arrfS or ^rRrw 3 sing. 

(0) 596 (b) holds good in the Fassiye Aoriat except in 
the 3rd sing.; the optional forms must be made up by append- 
ing the Aim. terminations of the 5th Variety as the roots 
necessarily take ^ ; ^r arf^ft, aw[rftrfti * 31%flr, 3RTfirR; 
3Tff%, 3T$Trcft; f *Z 3TTfT% ? ^^ififft; awfirft; 1 sing.. 31^ 

598. Roots of the tenth Glass 

(a) The gpj ( i . e. sw with the final sr dropped ) is optionally 
dropped in the General Tenses, except the Perfect. The Aorist 
forms, except that of the 3rd fiing., are made up by adding the 
terminations of the Fifth Form ; ^r 1 sing, 
Perf ; -^KJTjni^ ^RffT^ 1 , 1st Fu. 

2nd Fa.; 3T^t<firfir, <W^flf<i%, Aor. ^<H44)i|, -cTlK'fl^l Ben. 

(b) Roots which do not lengthen thier penultimate sr ( see 
also 603 ) lengthen it optionally in the general Tense? of the 
Passive, except in Perf., when srcis dropped; ^r^ ar^qpinft, 
sref&fts A <>r. 1 sing., &c. 

(^ The 3 per. sing, of the Pass. Aorist is formed by drop- 
ping ar^ necessarily and adding y, ^W-^rtl^-ST 

TT?, 3TOf$ Aor. 3 sing. ; 
Anrist, 3rd sing. &c. 

1^ 1 P. ' to know.' 
Perf eel. 1st Future. 


598-599 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. 367 

2nd Future. 




N. B. The Passive forms of roots of the tenth class do not 
differ from the Passive forms of Causals for which see the forms 
of g^cau. Pass, given in the next section. 





S 599. The Derivative Verbs are divided into four classes : 

( 1 ) Causal* or Nijantas ( fargSRr: ); ( 2 ) Desideratives or 

Sannantas ( fr*r?ff )i ( 3 ) Frequentative* or Yanantas ( q^?ar ); 

368 SANSKRIT GRAMAIAR. [ 599*603 

and ( 4 ) Denominatives or N&madhatus ( snuvimq: ). The 
formation and the conjugation of these will be given in the 
present section. 


600. Any root belonging to any one of the Conjugational 
classes may have causal form which is conjugated like a root 
of the Tenth class. 

601. The Causal of a root implies that a person or a 
thing causes or makes another person or thing to perform the 
action, or to be in the condition, denoted by the root. It is 
also employed, sometimes, to convert an intransitive verb into 
a transitive one. 

( a ) Formation of the Oausal Base. 

602. The Oausal Base of a root is formed like that of a 
root of the Tenth class. In the case of roots of the Tenth 
class the causal form is identical with the primitive. The 
Oausal form takes either pada. Thus from ^j comes the causal 
base *ftnr, ^tvnr^-^ ' he causes to know '; |J^-$ftWT% ' he 
shakes or agitates/ *TtJT-*TOT*TfS * he causes to count, ' *fr-Hmmff 
' he makes another lead or carry '; fj * to do ' and eg- to 
scatter ^r^rfif ' he causes to do or scatter ' ^qfowra, &c. 

603. Roots ending in ar^, except 3^ 'to go' &c., ^ 

love/ ^pj 'to ctit/ 51?^ when it means ' to see ' and q^ when 

it does not mean 'to eat/ and the roots* marked with an indica- 

tory frdo not change their vowel : t. e. their vowel takes its Guna 

substitute; n 

* These are: q^, s^ir, p^r, qg;, 'to spread/ JR[ 'to pound/ 
1 A. 'to destroy, to cut/ $33^1 A., 'to go/ f$, ^n 1 A. 
to pity/ ^ , ^ 1 A., ?^, 3^r , n^ 1 Par. < to distil/ K ' to 
surround/ ^, H^Ho speak/ sf^'to dance/ ^ 1 P. 'to resist/ 
^gr 1. P. <to shine/ sjng^P. 'to laugh/ ^p. T to doubt/ 
'to cling to', g^, $i, ^, ^?fiT, all meaning 'to cover/ 
<to move in a zigzag manner,' q^ ^ P. 'to go/ 

603-606 ] CONJUGATION OF VEBBS. 860 

bat jsn -^TO^; ***tr- ^TTOTftr, 5H* 'to eee' 5rm*rf?r; but 
in other cases; q^ q-rari%> &<M but g^ ' to eat ' TOTT?}. 

(a) The roots srij, ^,^3[, 3*c, $, and jr^, lengthen 
their vowel optionally when not preceded bj a preposition; f*nrfjt r 
llJUjft, but irararafit, &c. 

{ 604. Boots ending in 3^ ( qr } <t or aft changeable to 31T; iee 
459 ) and the roots SR- to go, ' ^r ' to be ashamed, ' fl- to go, y 
( 9 cl. ), 'to flow' ( 4. cl. A. ) and ssfr < to choose, to go/ insert 
the augment a before ^{^f and their vowel takes Guoa substitute; 
. ? or r \mT^ *r. ^ TTWf* fr. t & 

605. (a) fir 'to throw,' ft 'to destroy,' ft 'to perih/ 1% to 
conquer,' and s?r ( to buy,' also insert T , but after changing their 
final vowel to stf; nmfifr, ^CH^rfS, Sfmfif. HiT^Tf^. 

( I ) The roots $", sir or to cook' and jn ( wz(. ), shorten 
their vowel Becessarily, and ^ and 3T optionally, bofore ^h 
inserted <j when not preceded by prepositions., $mfir, 

( q& if^w^tiays. sr^nwrS fi* &. ); but irnfrt 

rrarntf wHvf?t; but ni>4^f?r 7 ^Mwm<jf?T only 

C06. sft 'to pare, to sharpen, ' ^t 4 to cut,' *ft 'to flnisn/ 

P. * to give,, ^n^, IK^, a^mr , all P. and meaning ' to injure/ 
to kill,' ^rw, 'to kill, r ^, P. "to honour/ ^rw , ' to thine/ gj^, 
JTJ^. * to shake/ Ho move/ f^r> V I P., to fear/ ^ <to guide/ n 
( to cook, to boil,' ^T 'to kill, to gratify, to sharpeu, to manifest, 
^rw, ^ , * to live or to be' (^gfflf in other senses), &f <to port, 
to loll the tongue/ R^ ' to be poor, to reduce/ s^ t ^r^ v 51^ ^, 
^ 'to be crooked, to shine/ TOL,*H, *^, ir^^ndjirB^i P. to go/ 
* Bee 605 (6). 
H. 8. O. 24 



[ 606-610 

4 to call/ 5^ 'to cover/ % 'to weave/ % Ho waste away/ and 
'to drink' insert ^ instead of *, 

( a ) <n to protect' and % when it means <to shake/ insert <$ 
and ^ respectively before awj TOraft 'he protects/ M<jfi *n* 

607. The roots gn^, ^%j , 5pr , and ^^ insert a nasal before 
their final; 3f*inrnT%, T^nmf-t, &c. 

608. The roots 5^, ftr^r, ^ f <P3T, q^[, and ^f^ have two 
forms in the causal, *^rfi|%, ift<rnnrfo-?r; 

609. ^fhfr, %4r nd ^fhtr drop their final vowel before SRT, 

610 The following roots form their Causal base anoma- 

to go'- 

* to remember. 1 - 

with u fti STrM i M << in. 
or ^jar 'to sound/ &c. <HN<l(d 'he causes to sound. f 

tremble* simnrf?r , tremble. 

'to conceal' 
5 cl. 'to collect' 
10 cL 

, f 


,, collect. 

'to awake 
3^ -'to sin, to be 

'to shake' 
'to please' 
'to fear.' 

be rouses 

he causes to sin 


the sense of ' he corrupts or 

makes depraved.' 

he causes to shake. 


he frightens with. 

fear - 

5 610-611 ] CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. 371 

e causes to fry. 

<to wipe' 

to dye' rwrfR he dyes or paints : also in the sense of 
<he propitiates or satisfies'; ef. 'winft jtf ;f *1T- 
trfi' Bh. Ni. Sa. 3. Bat firgft only, in the 
sense of he hunts deer"; (Vide Kir. VI. 84). 
to grow'ft^Tflr-%, ftamft-% he plants or causes to grow. 

take 7 and ) 3RWfir%, ftnnrft%5 and <ft*vft, 
jft -'to embrace/ > grrTTfit in the eenae of ' melting an 

d ) 

/ > 


adhere' nnotuons sobetanoe.' 

'to blow' armfft he causes to blow or move. 

TOWfft he shakes. 
to smile' feHmmjfft he causes a smile by ? or astonishes 

or frightnes by. Rwiq^ he astonishes. 
4r irprf&, ^nnrft he causes to conceive ; 

9rmrft% in other senses. 

'to fa*T- ir^qft he eauses to fall, cuts down. 
he causes to go. 

he accomplishes or prepares. 

be %rf?t, he makes perfect, &c. with reference 
accomplished 7 I to sacred rites or things only, as 3ro 

r-'* swell' *nmnTlt he cuses to swell. 
^TC 'to tremble ; to shine forth.' wt?^tS, fVfWrfft he causes 

to tremble or shine. 
TC 'to strike or kill' vnurA he causes to strike, &c. 

(5) Conjugation of theOansal Base. 

611. The Oausal base is conjugated like the base of a root 
of the 10th or Ohnr*di class in all the ten Tenses and Moods of 

272 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 611-612 

the Parasmaipada, the Atmanepada and the Passive. The 
with the final 3T dropped is retained, as remarked before, in 
the General Tenses, except the Aorist and the Benedict! ve, and. 
U dropped before the q- of the Passive. The formation of the 
Aoriat of cansals has bean fully explained along with that of the 
roots of the Tenth class, at 548-656. 

- 612. Paradigms of all the Tenses and Moods in the Par. 
Atm. and Pass, of Causal base 

Special Tenses. 

Par. Atm. 







P. Imperative* A. 



1st Future. 



2nd Future. 



P. Potential. 


General Tenses. 




* Also ihnniT 












Par. Aorist. Atm, 


Present Imperfect 


Imperative. Potential 

3 ^ 

2 ^h*j^ q(<)fi+^ ih^MH. 2 

3 ^qai^ fMai*^ 'fl^'dlH, 3 


1st Future. 

2nd future. 

SANSKRIT G&AXKAB. [ 612-613 





For the various irregularities, &c. see the third Variety. 


613. Any primitive root of the ten classes,, as well &s 
any causal base, may optionally* take a Desiderative form 

* Or the notion of desire may be conveyed by means of a 
sentence; t. . fatfsifa or MQ^ft^ft 'he wishes to read, 7 &c. 

613-416 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBS. 377 

which, like the causal base, it conjugated in all the ten Tenses 
.and Moods of three voices. 

614. The Desiderative expresses the notion that a person 
or thing wishes ( or is about ) to perform the action, or to be 
in the condition denoted by the root or the desiderative base; 
fttrfsroff * He wishes to study > from q^; g*$fr ' he is about 
to die ' fr. ^; &c. 

615. There are a few primitive roots, which, though they 
take a Desiderative form, do dot convey a desiderative sense 
( See 396 ). As these are looked upon as primitive roots, 
new Desiderative bases may be derived from them according 
to the rules given below; as ^ft^qfr * he wishes to censure ' 
from ^m^ &c. 

616. The Desiderative base is formed by reduplicating the 
root or base according to the general rules of reduplication 
given at 444-449 and 649 (a) (fc), and by adding ^ ( which 
may by changed to 3 according to the rules of Sandhi ) to it. 
The ST of the reduplicative syllable is changed to f } e. y. TCT 
by *he following rule. 

N. B. The ^ of a primitive root is not changed to \ when 
the characteristic ^ is changed to 5-, f%-fa*Tl^, flr^-ftn%8^ 

M%*rflrc *-ss*;b*t wr-rasr^-, sra^cau. of 

3, however, forms 

Note: (1) A root takes a Desiderative form only, when the 
agent of the wish and of the action expressed by the root is the 
same; so f^T: *&% I* f^rfft S* and not fW^?W; also the 
sense of the root must be the object of the wish: 
cannot, therefore, be equal to M 

Note: (2) Though the Deaiderative form of a root is not 

to be found often used in cltssictl language in its character of 

a verb, yet nominal and participal derivatives from it are not 
uncommonly to be met with. 

378 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [ 617-61* 

617. To this ^ the augment f is to be prefixed after Set 
roots, optionally after Wet ones and not after those that are 
A nit, subject to the following exceptions: 

(1) Boots ending in 3- or 37, ^ and 3? short; and the* roots 
3T and 35 do not take f - 3-333; Vide 618 > ( <*)> *rTO, &c - 

Exceptions: ^ 'to go/ 5 A. 'to respect/ * 6 A. 'to hold/ 
nd i A. 'to purify/ admit of f . ( see also 4 below.) 

(8) far, 3T3?^, ST^, *t?^ take f necessarily. 

(3) fg^, ^ , sp* , *q^- and gp^do not admit of f in the 
Par. ( see 484 ). In the Atm. they admit f , the last two do 
so optionally; 33-T'<i3rlt, ftqidlc), &c. 

(4) Boots ending in long ^ and f? and the roots rffer, fir, 
3T^, 5, f , ^, ^, ^t^' *o prosper/ 5*j, ^iR^ ffq^C ?H^of 
the 10 cl. and optional Can. Base of ^T ), ^ ' to give/ ffs;, ^, 

Vide 485. ) take f optionally. 

Exceptions: ^ 'to scatter/ ij 'to swallow/ take f neces- 
sarily The intermediate f is not lengthened in the case of these 

(5) The roota g^, if^and w take f in the Par. and reject 
it in the Atm. 

618. The radical Towels undergo the following changes- 
before ^ 

(a) The ^ with f is strong and without f weak. 

The usual rule as to GuDa substitute holds good in the 
one case and does not in the other; gq^ftqffo, 

(ft) The final f and 7 and the penultimate f of ^ and 
( Bubstitut-d for f 2 Par. 'to go/ and for f with 3|fr 'to 

618-621 ] CONJUGATION OP VEBBB, 879 

remember ' or ' to stud j ' ) are lengthened and final ^ , abort or 
long, changed to y^ , or to snt a *ter labials or * when the ^ is 
nnaugmented; ra-ftnfta , -55^, ^-1%^K, 1-mrfH, ?-gS& 
*-SS$, &c. 

( 6 ) The roots ^ , fir^ and g^ do not change their vowel 
to Guna ; and the roots OT , ^tr and jr^r take Sampras AraD a; 

( n ) Roots with an initial consonant, and having f or %* 
short for their penultimate, and ending in any consonant, except 
ir^or 3., change their vowel to Guna optionally whan f ii 
prefixed to ^ - ^-%mf f^TfN ; ST-OT% or 5^% &c - 

619. The formation of Desiderative bases of cauiali and 
of roots of the Tenth class does not differ from that of 
primitive roots. 

Art. 550. should be attended to in forming Desiderativea 
from Oansals and roots of the Tenth class. 

620. Roots in their Desiderative forms take the same 
terminations, Parasm. cr Atmane. that they do in the primitive. 
The roots ^n, , f? And g$r take Atm. terminations in the 

621. The following roots form their Desiderative bases 

Roots. Desider. base. Third pers sing. Pre. 

a to eat ' 

' to go ; 

with erfa ' to study ' 

with sjfrf * to be convinced' 

' to sound ' 


Boots. Deiidar. base Third pen. sing, Pre 

^J 'to give' 
^ 'to protect' 
% 'to cat' 

' to prosper* 

with *m, A 
to swallow' 

' to gather ' 

ft 'to conquer' 

fP3[ 10 cl. & optional) fft^ |fr*n% 

Oau. Base of m ) 
Hi^ opt cau B. of 9T 
9^ 'to stretch' ftd^ or 


621 ] 

m 'to mewure' 
fit Ho throw' 
lit 'to destroy' 
fc 'to barter' 


Desider. base. 3rd pen. sing Pre_ 

injure, to kill' 
to propitiate' 

desires for Ubeition. r 

38* SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 621*623 

Boots. Desiderative base Third pers. sing. Pre. 

^ 8. P. A. <to 

<to throw' 


, rfS IT1TH5T*** 

(b) Conjugation of the Deaideratiye Base. 
Conjugational Tensef 

622. 91 is added to the base in the Conjugational Tenses 
and then it is conjugated like the special base of the 6th class 
in thfl Active and Passive. 

Non-Oonjugational Tenses. 

3 623. (a) The Perfect is formed by adding srn^ to the base 
and appending the Perfect forms of the auxiliary verbs 3T^. ^. 
and ^ ( see 490, 526 ). 

(6) In the Aorist the Desiderative Bases take the terminations 
of the 5th Variety. 

(c) In the Benedict! ve the Parasm. terminations are added 
without f and the Atm. ones with the intermediate f . 

(d) The remaining tenses have no peculiarities. 
* These roots do not change their ^ to ^, 



624. In the Passive, the Aorist 3rd sing, is formed accord- 
ing to 597. ( e ). The forms of the remaining tenses are 
made up in the usual way. 


f desi. ( 3rd sing. ) 
'Tenses. Par. Atm. Passive. 






.F. Future 
Sec. Future 


Boots. 3 sing. Pre. 

Roots. 3 sing. 


-P. A. 

^-, *** 
^ l^ 

. A. 

-1 P. 

384 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 624-626 

Boots. 3 sing. Pre. Roots. 3 sing. Pre. 




625. A Frequentative or Intensive form may be derived' 
from any monosyllabic root of the first nine classes, beginning 
with a consonant. The Frequentative or Intensive is used to 
signify the repetition or the intensity of the action denoted 
by the verb from which it is derived. * 


626. (a) f A Frequentative may be formed from 315 
' to go, *t to go, 3^ ' to eat ' and 3^5 ' to conceal, ' though 
these begin with a vowel; and from 35^ cl. 10 ' to hint, ' ^ 
cl. 10 < to string together ', and 33" c). 10. though they belong 
to the 10th cl. 

( ft ) The Frequentative of roots signifying motion convey* 
the notion of tortuous motion and not of repetition. J The 
Frequentative of roots ^^' to cut, ' ^ ' to sink down, ' ^r^ 
* to go ' 3f^' to mutter prayers, ' 3f^' to yawn, ' ^ ' to bum, ' 
3^* to bite, ' and JT ' to swallow, ' imply reproach on the- 
manner of doing the act $. 9*!'$ar% < he cuts awkwardly, * 
falls down badly, ' 

I P? Ill 1. 23 

Sid. Kau. 

t ^M $f* R^y^rw^orf ^yfr in^WT^r: I Vart. on the above 

t fa* *h%*q- *tA \ Pan. III. 1 ; 23. 

$ Q'^tk^^t^">i i^ij^3wrr HWTBjMW I Pan. III. 1. 24. 



627. There are two kinds of Frequentative bases derived 
from roots; hot a arc formed by a peculiar reduplication of the 
root} but in one the affix q- ( q^; ) is added to the root before 
reduplication takes nlace, and the base is conjugated in the 
Atm. alone; in tho other the affix q- is dropped ( q^^r?F ) 
and the base is conjugated in Parasm. only ( in the Atm. ulso, 
according to some grammarians). It will bo convenient to 
call the one of the Atm. Frequentative, and the other the 
Parasm. Frequentative. 


628. The Atm. Frequentative base is formed by adding 
q- to the root before which it undergoes the same changes as 
before the q- of the Passive; ^T qffar, T% xfrqr, sff 
3TO, f 
*q &c. 

( ) 5TT and VRT change their vowel to i\ and ^ preceded 
by one radical consonant is changed to ft? and not to f%. ^TT 

roots sir^, sqvjr, fq^ 7 f^, ar^, sr^, y^ and 
take Samprasarana; ?qr and ^ substitute , and %, 37 
for their final vowel} ^TT^ becomes f^n( and 

( c ) 395 should be observed. 

629. The form in q- derived as above is reduplicated 
according to tho general rules of reduplication. 

( ) If a root begins with a vowel, the following syllable 
is reduplicated. 

( b ) The vowels ^ and 3- of the reduplicative syllable take 
H. S. G. 25. 

386 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 629-630 


their Guna substitute and the ar of the reduplicative syllable is 
lengthened; sp 

^^ by 628 f^fw by reduplication *^fnr by 629 


by reduplication 

similarly ^f^ 

630. When a root ends in a nasal preceded by 3? and the 
nasal is not dropped, 3 ( changeable to an Anuswara or the 
nasal of the class to which the letter following it belongs ) is 
inserted between the reduplicative & and the first radical 
consonant; the 3T of the reduplicative syllable remtdns un- 
changed ( against 629 b. ) 

or 3TSTlct, but when 3T53[=3fFr> the A. Freq. base is 
3rd sing. *||<H14J^. 

( a ) The same rule applies to the roots ^r, q^, 5fl 
3R i 3?^' <5 ^>^ &n d ^?X. ^^ &n ^ ^S?r x a ^er inserting ^ change 
the 3( of the following syllable to 3", ^n;=' 
or ^T5^=5%^|J^ o' ^F&^Srlr by 394. qn?= 
or vivfctrq?t; yg^TST ^arTST=V^Irt or 


631. When a root contains a penultimate 3^ ( ^ ) original 
or brought in by samprasarana the syllable f( is inserted between 
the 3? of the reduplicative sy 11. ( which remains short against 
629 b) and the radical consonant; ^=^T=?r^?q t = 

Conjugation of the Atm. Freq. Base. 

632. In the Oonjugational Tenses the Atm. Freq. Base 
is conjugated like the Cocjugational base of the 4th class in Atm 
In the General Tenses, and in all the Tenses of the Passive, the 
base loses its final gg when the final q- is preceded by a vowel 
and drops the *r itself, -when it is preceded by a consonant. 
As regards the Perfect, the Fre. Base takes the Periphrastic 
Perfect. In the Aorist the Atm. terminations of the 5th 
form are added. In the remaining Tenses the Atm. termina- 
tions with the intermediate f prefixed to them are added 
as usual. The passive is also formed like the Passive of 
derived verbs. 

633. Paradigms: The 3 sing, of sn^W the Atm. Fraq, 
Base of the root *z and w tiiat * the root 37 

Tenses. Active. Passive. 


388 SANSKRIT GBIMMAS. [ 633-637 

Tense. Active. Passive. 

Perfect. itatal>,&c. ^fR?N%&c. Like the Active. 

F. Future. ftlf^T ^ftutaf Like the Active. 

Sec. Future. 



N. B. Irregular Aim. Fre. Bases will be given under 639. 


The Paraem. Frequentative is peculiar to the Veda. It* 
forms arc very rarely to be met with in Classical composition. 

Formation of the Base. 

G34. The root is reduplicated according to the genera] 
rules ol reduplication -, the vowels 5* and g- of the reduplicative 
syllable take their guna substitute; and the sr of the redupli- 
cative syllable is lengthened ; 

635. The rules 630 (a) (b) apply likewise to the 
Parasm. Frequen. Base; ?m-tnw: or "T^i -<R or 

656. ^ or the syllable ft or fr is inserted between the 3? 
of the reduplicative pliable and the radical consonant of roots 
ending in short ^j" or having it for their penultimate ; similarly 

or or is inserted in the case of ; =^-9 or 


Conjugation of the Parasm. Fre. Base. 
637. In the Con jugatlonal Tenses the Paiarm. Frequeatatives 

637-638 ] CONJUGATION OP VERBS. 389 

follow the conjugation of the special base of a root of the 3rd 
class, f is optionally prefixed to the terminations of the singulars 
of the Present, of the 2nd and 3rd singulars of the Iinperf. 
and of the 3rd sing, of the Impera.. when is prefixed to these, 
a penultimate short vowel does not take Gupa; ^T-^T^lfft or 

or sm^fir or ^n*f or srfrfrm or srfirftfSr or 
or r ^ or 


638. As regards the formation of the Non-conjngational 
tenses grammarians seom to be at variance. The Perfect follows 
the usual rules for the polysyllabic roots. In the remaining 
tenses the augment f ia always prefixed except in the Benediotive. 

As this form of the Freq. is mostly confined to the Veda 
details are not given here 

*rfa or rnr^f rora the root *. 

Present. Imperfect. 


2 *im\fir ^1^5: ^1^4 3RiH: or 
or $w4i& 3Riw: 

3 itoitft ftvra: ftqfe swft^ or 

Imperative Potential. 


x 2 







or Wfl3 or st*jj ftgra3, 3t*n^ ^iw or ^ 
, &c. it^t^^: 

;: &c. 

, &c. 




&c. &c. &c. 

2nd Future. 

Ac, &c. &e. 


&XJ. Ac. &0. 

638-639 ] 





&C. &C. &C. 

Tenses. Atmanepada. Passive. 


Imperf . 




1st Fu. sitHftciT *mmr or 

2nd Fu. itafifaict WiSl**in or 

Con. wfofSww sr^vrisfczra or 

Aor. awtafite 

Bened. *ta$Kte ft^OTts or 

639. The following roots form their Frequentative* 

Boots. Atm. Fre. Par. Freq. 

3$ to cover 
5 1 cl. to sound 


3 to swallow 

^ to walk 
to worship 
be born 
to shine 
to expand 


, &c. 

See 630 a. 
See 630 a. 
See S 630 a. 


392 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 639-642 

3ft to lie down W^^ra PTift or 

ft to swell stl%ft or smcf ^Mift or 

^ to obtain *te3?[ or SM^RT sfcffitfif or 

to inure \zft *t*m or 

in other cases siRffi or 


640. Verbs are formed from nominal bases by means of 
certain affixes. Those ate not very much in common use and are 
generally used in the Present Tense. They have various mean- 
ings. They sometimes convey the notion of performing, practis- 
ing, or using, or treating like the thing or quality expressed 
by the noon and are used transitively; sometimes they express 
the idea of acting, behaving or becoming like the person or 
thing expressed by the noun ; and at others they yield the sense 
of desiring or wishing for the thing expressed by the noun. 
These will be arranged here under four heads, according to the 
affixes by which they are derived. 

( a ) By means of the affix ^ ( RT^[ ) and 
Conjugated in Parasm. 

641. When the sense of 'wish' is to expressed, a nominal 
verb may be derived from any Subanta or nominal stem by affix- 
ing q- to i^. The derivative verbal base derived in this manner 
is conjugated in the Parasm. only. 

642. Before this q>, 

( 1 ) final ar and stf are changed to ; 5^ 3TPJR: **&{% 5*fr- 
1T?r ( T 3 T + * = 33fHq"M < iT ) 'he wishes for a son.' 

( 2 ) final 5 and g- are lengthened ; 9fl 3^tafff ' he wishes 
ior a poet.' 
( 3 ) final ^ is changed to ft} 

642-645 ] CONJUGATION OP VBEBS. 393 

( 4 ) final aft and aft are changed to 3ftt an ^ 

( 5 ) a final nasal ia dropped and tho preceding vowel is changed 
like an original final owe! 5 TTH^Ksftaffr 'he wishes for a king.' 

( 6 ) in other cases the final consonant remains unchanged; 
sr^Farra 4 he wishes for words/ f^-f|gifft ( Sftenlr according 
to eomo ) 'he wishes for heaven, ^rftr^ flfrwft ' he wishes for 
holy sticks/ &c. 

( 1 ) The Tad. affix expressing ' a descendant of is dropped 
and then the changes mentioned above take place; irrttT ( the 
son of nJ 

643. The consonant ^ and the syllable 3f^ are inserted 
between any nominal stem and the affix *T; jrg 3ftr3T 
W\p*Tf% or trererft '^e wiahes for honey'; so srfv 
&c. Final af ifl dropped before 3^5 ^fqfh 

(a) 3T^ is inserted niter g^ and apq- when the sense to be con- 
veyed is that of longing for them, after $frT *nd &9BT when the 
one is desired to be drunk and the 4 other to be licked; sr^^rfk *fr: 
the cow longs for the ox/ 3^ J ^qla > 33T3T 'the mare longs for the 
horse/ $frT<qftt ^T5J: ' the child desires to drink/ 

the camel wishes for licking the salt.' But fwnrm 'he desires to 
have a bull/ artfurifr 'he wishes for a horse/ 

644. The affix q- is not added to nouns ending in ^ and to 
indeclinables; qn^^l^ ^R^iTfR ( he longs for heaven ). 

646. 3f$R has af^nrrqiff ' he wishes to eat/ and ar^rsfnTUT 

le wishes to possess food/ ^p has ^5q-f%; 'he wishes to drink 

water ' and 34^ far ' he wishes to possess water/ and %R has 

394 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. [645-650 

'he wishes to acquire money.' and ^rfium 'he wishes to 
be wealthy, ' 

646. This form of the Nominal verb has not always a 
desidertfive meaning. 

(AT) Tiie affix q- U added in the sense cf 'treating or considering 
like-/ gsfanl* OTPJ, *ta treats the pupil as a son/ f%w>r*rra 
<he treats the Brahmana like Vishnu/ 

beggar considers his hut a palace/ f^rqfa smn^^nn **he king 
in his palace considers himself to be in a hut. 7 

(b) Tt is added to nT^, *R^ an< * f%3" ^ the senses of 'ador- 
ing/ ' serving* and 'striking with wonder respectively, HIWJf?r 
'he adores the gods', q-Rgwfff 5*^ 'he serves the preceptor 7 , 
qra 3ftrq( ^e strikes the people with wonder.' It is also 

added to <rq^ in the sesse of ' practising/ 

647. In the general tenses the affix *r ( $*r^ and 
be given hereafter ) is dropped when preceded by a consonant, 
*ftqfettK Pwf .' 1 sing, qfaflm, ^rftriwn^ lt. and 2nd Fo. 

3 sing, from ^mvTf?T, but H^NMfeK from 

(b) By meats of theaffii^rwT (^TT^ ) trad conjugated in Par. 

648. To express the sense of wishing for that which is denoted 
by the noun; the affix $mr is also added like the above and the 
base so derived conjugated in the Par. as before, g^qsimfft * he 
wishes for a son/ U^i^feimR /he wishes for fame/ q|7fcimtff 'he 
wishes for ghtej 

649. The restriction given at 644 does not hold good in 
the case of this affix, fefcl^M, W^l^lrf 

(c) By means of the affix T%rjo) and conjugated in Par. 

$ 650. Nominal bases are formed without the addition of any 
affix: the characteristic signs of the tenses and moods and the 



personal termin tions being added immediately to the nominal 
base. The bases thus derived convey the notion of acting or 
behaving like that which is expressed by the noun , and are cdn- 
jugated in the Parasm. 

651. The penultimate 37 of a noun ending in a nasal is 
lengthened. Tbe base is treated like a root of the 1st con- 
jugation , its last yowel only taking Guna before this 3?; 3T 
( name of Vishnu ) f^ a<H<ffi 3TT?T ' he acts like Vishnu, r 
< he acts like fjwr ' ( %wum lat sing. ), 9?f% ^r- 
I act the poet or behave like a poet, ' ft ^TW ' he be- 
haves like a bird, ' m3T-mdll3 ' ^e or it acts like a garland ' 
( Peri mate* &c. ), fas-far^ 4 he acts like a father.' ^-H^ft 
* act? like the earth ' ( Perl. fWT^, &o. as ^ is the base), 
fnr^nfTRf^ ' he acts like a king/ qrw^-q-^iRffw ' it serves as 
aroad/&c So f^rrf?t from f^, ife^mffi from 
name of Indra. 

( b ) The words aumiyii ( a bold man ), gt? ( & child ) and 
take the affixes ^TSF and f^optionally and are conjugated 
in the At man t 4|q4|?r?t or ^^il^MIMc^, j)4d or C^SIM^, |^R?f 
or jfi-mq^. 

( d ) By means of the affix q- ( ^q^ ) and 
conjugated in the Atm. 

652. The affix tr ( 3*r^ ) is added in the same sense aa 
above to nominal sterna and the nominal verbs so derived are 
conjugated in the Atm. 

653. Before this affix the final 37 of a nominal base is 
lengthened, 3ff remains unchanged, other final letters undergo 
the same changes as they do before the other q- ( 73^ ). Tbe 
final of a noun ii changed to srr optionally and that of 

396 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 653-655 

and 3U3T^ necessarily, ^jsor $% 3TT^KT, ^OTTT^ ' he acts like 
$**; ' *TOTE qgmflv ^Siro* ' he behaves like one who is 
famous, ' f%5^ re^nfifr, re5**rW * be acts like a learned man, 
&c.; bat 3TMfT-3Tl^nM ' acts like one who is lustrous ' ( power- 
ful ;; mcq<^-^CH^rqd she behaves like an Apsaras/ 

( a ) A feminine noun not having ^ for its penultimate drops 
its fern, term., f:ffHR airatti* $*rm*n* ' he behaves like a 
girl/ $Ruii* aiKKfil Sttornrft ' she acts like a female deer'; 
'acts like a stout woman.' But tHR^aT f ^ 

'she acta like a female cook, 7 and not 

she acts like a 
co-wife, TrenT has ^Ta^i 'she behaves like a young woman.' 

654. The affix q- is added to a few nouns, such as ^ 
'much/ Jirgp 'alow/ 'qw^W 1 'learned,' fpreff 'generous-minded^, 
^"^H^ 'agitated/ &o. in the sense of 'becoming what it was not 
before/ or 'what it was not like to before/ gr^r: *rem ^TT7?T ' what 
was not much now becomes much/ 3?9TOTqi% ' he ( who was not 
agitated before ) becomes agitated/ similarly giHiqff &c. 

655. The following are the different senses in which the 
affix qpiTj^ is nsed in the particular cases given below. 

(a) It is added to ^3, ^^ ^s^ and lyf^ in the sense of ' de- 
sirous of committing sin/ <rrqr f%WUf tf^TOfr, ^^nTff, &c., 
added to ^^ it has also the sense of ' prompt in', 
( <ntf ^gSc^Tf^ inl:, Sid Kau. ). 

(b) to f^TTtq- used obiectively, flR^nqcT { is ruminating.' 

(c) to ^rsj 'taars/ 3^Jnj 'heat/ and qnT,in the sense of 'send- 
ing forth, vomiting.' ^|^M|i|ff ' he iheds tears/ ^RpfFT ' gives 
out heat/ qr^TPTfr \ sends forth foam.' 

655-657 ] CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 397 

( d ) to 3Hr and others in the sense of ' experiencing or enjoy- 
g' S# %^T^ SOTTR ' he enjoys happiness ' but 
' he show* the happiness of another.' 

( ) to 5T5?, %r, **J*, 31*, q^ * sin', ^f^T 'a fair day', 
<a cloudy day' and jfrsn; ' f g, kea^y dw/ in the sense of 'mak- 
ing or doing; 1 ^ri* <E^ra $l*iWtt c he makes a sound '(also 
cau. it 

( ) By means of the affix cpr? ( q- ; and 
conjugated in Parasm. and Atm. 

656. The affix q- is added to &\\fa and some other words 
and to words ending in the affix srr (Tx[)andthe nominal 
base thus formed is conjugated in the Parasm. and Atinane.; 
*- 9- Jtfi?r WlrfffPTirr-^ 'becomes red:' q^Mdl^ ' utters the 
sound Pat pat/ 

( /) By means of the affix f ( foi^r and 
and conjugated in Parasm. and Atm. 

657. Verbal bases are formed from the nouns given below 
by the addition of the affixes 5 ( for^T ), and y ( ftr^) with vari- 
ous senses; those derived by means of for? are conjugated in 
the Atm. and those by fur^[ in the Par.; e. y. 5^5- with |%, 35 
and qft T?H^3^ *raiscs the tail,' ftg-o^rf, qff^'ci^^} fTna^- 
?jar 'collects together the vessels'; ^^fjgpcq^ f*Tg: 'the mendicant 
collects together or wears tattered garments-/ 

Manavaka'j f^sr~mT^fff 3W*C ' ne 
boiled rice with ( curds, curry, &c. );' 
weaves cloth of a very thin texturej' 
salt with condiments; ? sT^qr^t nT^ 'he observes the vow of 
living uoon milk only;' jr^gfar^ri^fi^* he observes the vow of 

398 SANSKBIT GBAMMAE. [ 657-660 

abstaining from eating food at a Shadra's house*,' 

'he clothes with a garment;, 555 gfKrfff 'he uses a large 

plough-/ qn% cj^ra 1 ' he quarrel* ! ' &* 5*^ ( 

Sid. Kau. ) ; <j^f sin or hait or matted hair, ' ( g^ 

I Sid. Kau. ) g^ri?r ' ties into a 

braid the hair } ' &c. 

658. f is changed to grffq when added to ^q-, 3^^- and 

659. ^ is further added in the following cases; 

( declares her variegated.); &c., &c. 

The various changes taking place here before the affix q- the 
student will easily notice as irregularities. 

( g ) By means of the affix ? ( *Tf> ). 

g 660. There are several loots* which are also Praiipadi- 
kas and which may ba regarded as Nominal verbal bases derived 
from those Pratipadikas by means of the affix *r ( q^ ). The 
more important of these are given below: 

f*ri=Hr he scratches. *m rff& ^ worships. 

he offends against, f^^-f^q^fri treats medically. 
he becomes angry, also g^-f!|Ujfd it contains arrows. 
tfg-gflr according to ^T5?T. Tg?*^>tf ne stammers. 
becomes hand- %gnr, ^f %<<ftr4lc), <4Wl3 
some, mild or gentle, honours, he sports or becomes merry. 
STS 3T^?nff% ( 3TWTH ) he is f eft ftjfWfr h is angry or 
jealous, he envies, &'. feels ashamed. 

* In the Kaumudi these roots aje classed separately under 
the head of*^jrf^Tor^or the group of roots beginning 


he shines. ^WT 3*3" wfi he approaches. 

it dawns. JTfV irffrKT he is adored, &c. 

he is quick in f?PKfr M<t^f% he disappears. 

understanding, 3CT^-3W3rnT he becomes healthy. 

5W &^*\ IT ftek happy. 3T^ 3T^n?^he becomes powerful. 

unhappy. <ni^ M<4tlfd it spreads. 


Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. 

661. As already remarked there are two Padas in Sans- 
krit, the Parasmaipada and the Almanepada. The Parasm. 
denotes that the fruit of the action accrues to some one differnt 
from the agent, as q-^fff 'he cooks for another/ frM-ufi *' makes 
soma one do something for another, &c.' The Atm. denotes 
that the fruit of the action is (fcjmffi '. 0. it accrues to the agent, 
cpqrt <he cooks for himself,' ifeK^rt 'he makes another do some- 
hing for himself,* &c. 

( a ) If, however, there be a word showing the accrual of the 
fruit of the action to the agent, the Atm. is optionally used, as 
*nnT or ^nrfff ' he off era his own sacrifice/ ^ ^r ^^ O r 
'he weaves his own mat/ ^ ir^ q5T^fer% &c. 

^b) When the causal form of a transitive verb is used re- 
flexively, or when the object in the primitive sense becomes 

* This distinction, however, seems to be very little observed 
in practice. Even the best Sanskrit writers are found using 
both the Padas promiscuously. It cannot even be supposed 
that this distinction is meant to be observed where a root 
admits of both the Padas. The Dashaknmaraohafita and the 
Kadambari afford several instances in which the two Padas are 
used exactly in the same sense. 

400 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 661-662 

the agent in the causal, the Atm. is used except in the sense of 
'remembering with eagerness, &c./ *nur *4 mqPd Devotees see 
Bhava/ WT WH; %$ifa 'Bhava *hows himself to his devotees/ 
bat f HTfcT 

**<ftc*ro: (Sid, Kau.). Vide Sid Kau. on Pan. 1. 3. 67. 

(e) When the agent of the action denoted by a verb cannot 
be other than an animal, the causal of the verb takes the Par. 
even when the action refers to the agent as frog: $T?T 'Krishna 
sleeps/ iftfr spot 3TT<nrft 'the cowherdess lulls Krishna to sleep/ 
but qrw qanr <tne fruit falls down.' *rg: qj# vmm 'the wind 
causes the fruit to fall down/ &c. 

( d ) In the case of verbs meaning <to eat/ except 3^ t and 
'to move,' their causals take the Parasm. even when the f rait of 
the action refers to the agent ; HUKqui, 3TT9Q1W 'makes another 
eat/ ^RSWrft, ^Pnrft, 'he shakes' &c. 

Exceptions to ( c ) and ( d) to ( c ) ^ ' to pacify, ' qrjj with 
3Tf ' to draw in ' q^ with 3fT * to endeavour, ' qf?JJ^ ' to faint ? 
^^ ( to shine, ' 9^ ' to apeak, 7 ^w ' to dwell ', and ^ < to 
drink; ' to ( d ) qr ( to drink, ' ^ ' to dance; ' in the case 
of these roots the usual rule holds good; 

662. When the notion of gafctrfrtfTl t. e. doing wbat is not 
proper for one to do, or the exchange of duties is to be implied. 
the Mm. is used, 3T5HJT: ^^TTR clffcf^fth ' the Brahmana reaps 
corn 7 ( which is the work of a Sudra and not his ). vrjj: ?n^ar 
' the religious duty is changed' ( as when a S'ndra discharges 
the duties enjoined upon a Vaisya, &c. ^rgT^rV n^lrf: 'tho kings 
exchange blows. 

(a) But verbs implying motion, or meaning to kill, the 
roots 3[ and other similar roots do not take the Atm. even 
when an exchange of action is implied, 


663. The Oausals of the roots 5^ , g^, 5T^, f with 3ft, J , 

are P*** 8111 ? ^lM<rQ <nrn, 'JfawrtS ^nrrfo fisiufB 

: (Bid. 

Kau. ); arwift fldim^wfr ( Sid. Kau. ). 
( Sid. Kan. ). 

664. The following is an alphabetical list of the roots that 
change their proper Fada after certain prepositions under tine 
circumstances given in each case. 

g^g-. when preceded by a preposition is conjugated in either 
Pada ; ^r\f ^rorf*t%. 
f with smj-in tbe causal takes the Parasm. ^UH 

when preceded by a preposition is conjugated in either 
Pada ; qr^r arf^ft-^i 'he destroys sin ;' ftTftfft 'discards / fr^r 
gfa"-^ 'he gathers together.' 

^ with 5^ is Atm.; qim*l TOnfhCT: Bh. VIII. 16; <aJI 
my desires have come to me '. e: are gratified/ 

3|f^^with ^ns[ is Par. when used transitively, and Atm. 
when used intransitively; ^x^ffi 'he collects ;' ti^^^ *ii 

fT without a preposition admits of either Pada. It i 
Parasm. with 315 and qrj*j 3Tg*ftfS ?HWat STRWORir I (Kd.>, 
?ft ^^M<lt^< & c - ( Bhatti. VIII. 50. ) ; it is Atm. with 
preposition in following senses: (1 ) f or 'hurting/ 'kill- 
ing/ as 3r^^?t ' informs against ( with a view to injure );' 
( 2 ) 3T*TO or 'censuring, overcoming / 

'the hawk reproves the snail/ ( 8 ) ^rT or -serving, attending 

. 3. 79. 

t *I 

H. 8. O. 26 


upon}' as 5Kgf *& 'he serves Hari/ ( 4 ) ;&Tf finFT or 'acting 
violently/ 'outraging/ as trf^rn^ JT$^ 'outrages another's 
;' ( 5 ) qfefo^ or 'imparting an additional quality' ( ^fr 
T Kashika \ as <T\T: a^tfctU ST^ar 'fnel imparts 

heat to water / ( 6 ) sn^qR or reciting.,' as TTOT: U&*ft 'recite* 
stories from the Vedas ;' ( 7 ) 3"<rot*T or 'applying to use ;' at ^nf 
*Tf^ ( ^I?T 5RT l^fogTF ??W ) Devotes a hundred ( Rupees, 
&c.) to holy purposes-/ cf. also Bhatti. VIII. 18. with grrq-* 
it is Atm. in the sense of ' forgiving or overpowering / 51? 
srf^^^ff ^forgives or overpowers bis enemy./ bat CTgqrMfvifrOfff 
^y^- 'the S*astra authorises men/ With fq-f it ia Atm. when 
used transitively. ^T*T \^W^ 'P^P^ 3 study/ 
*THT^: M he musician varies the tones/ but r%?f 
<Love affects the mind/ fiif$ qrift ;^r Bh. VIII. 21. ^ with 
grq- in the sense of ' helping or doing good to ' is used in both 
the Padas; ^ ffc sr^i<ft <TmT**T ^Tf^rT: ( Shar. Bha. ) 'two 
strong lights do not indeed help ( t. e. serve to intesify ) each 
other / ^Tf 5J^(^T^ff ^Tf <T^HT 'that is wealth by means of 
which one obliges another' ( Kir. VIL 28. ). 

The Oausal of 5 is Atm. when ffnOT is prefixed to it ; q^ 
'mispronounces the accent on the syllable.' 

?37 <to scatter' with stTt ^ s Atm. in the sense of 'turning up 
or scratching with joy/ or turning up with the intention of 
making an abode or for maintenance ( by quadrupeds or birds )/ 
in this sense ^ is prefixed to ap, 3TTf?C?lt yft %& 'the bull turns 
up the ground in joy/ similarly 3jtrr%^ $cr$4l 
a hole for lying in) *qr STOCTTraf; ^ 
. 9). 

Pan. 1. 3. 33. 

: I STCT^g- 1 Pan. 1. 3. 34-35. 
P& Q - VI. 3. 142. 


664 ] 



When the root has its original sanee, the Far. is used and 
^ is not inserted: ^fjmf^ aTTfo'rfa' ^fir 'the woman scatters 
flowery 3rtTT%tfff T^t '<jf^ I 

f^H* when not preceded by a preposition is conjugated hi both 
the Padas. But it is used in Atm. by itself when the meaning ii 
'free movement, energy, development or increase, '&c;. ^ Rj 5TO7t 

: 'his intellect moves freely in (i.e. proves very powerful in 
mastering) the Rigveda ; 'tfriji4iuftRqV^ 'moving unobstructed in 
the assembly of the enemy' (Bh. VIII. 22); ^vmjJTW *RTOt 'shows 
ability or energy for studying;' * T^Rnr i&ft >H^MIH I Vikra.1.16 

'the Sh&stras find enlargement in him or are 
satisfactorily mastered by him.' In the same senses it is Atm. 
when preceded by CT nnd qrr only (t. e. is Par. if preceded by any 
other prep. ) siaRW*, <m**ra cf. ffg^^f ^ mt&B ( showed his 
might ) ; T#ft3g7nKfjff ( made bold ) wpft TW AffilUC I Bh. 
VIII. 22-23; but *tamf7r ( *rr%S f%: ) When preceded by 3TT it 

is Atm. in tne sense of 'the ascending or the rising of a heavenly 
body;' annsufr *& 'the sun rises,' but 3TOUmft OTt f^ftmT^ 'the 

smoke issues forth from the upper terrace;' Also when preceded by 
ft, in the sense of 'a graceful movement of the feet, or ascending,' 
*T>J ft*Flfit wnft 'the horse movei gracefully;' tortfforiTrTf *&*' 
'the joint splits;' and by sr and ^r in the sense of 'beginning/ 
as in ^ T: M I Kum. III. ^. 'thus began to 

talk with him in private;' but sn&mffl 'goes 

'to buy' is Atm. when the prepositions 3T, <rR and 
are prefixed to it (with f^ it means 'to sell 1 ), 
e/. Bh. VIII. 8. 

Vart. % 



. 1.2.38-43. 

: Pan. 1. 3. 18. 


aft** '*o play 1 IB Atm. after the prepositions g^, 3fT, 
and ^, 3l3-3TT-<TfT-tf-3frgit> bnt not when *$ governs a noun, 
fa > t. . 'plays with Manavaka. 


Par. when it means 'to creak as a wheel/ as 

throw* is Par when preceded by the preposition* 
3rf*r, q% and rra ; ^rprf^Rr 'throws up/ ^MI^Mf^ 'throws 
'throws back.' 

TO with ^ is Atm; ^^ 5^ ' whets or sharpens his 
weaponj ' safest ^^ < dispels anxiety.' 

with^isAtro. in the sense of 'to be proper, unite 
with, join'; *r^f d*l**a, ^TTH: ^firss^, &c., but 

goes to a village.' In the Causal it takes the Atm. in the sense of 
< having patience or waiting/^ |m*w ?mr^ ' have patience first'. 

3J\ar 'to be greedy' is Atm in the Can. when the sense is 'to 
deceive/ monns riNr?* ' he deceives MAnavaka-' but *$& <|^fd 
'he makes the dog greedy. ' 

tr with ^ro is Atm. when the meaning is 'to pledge one's 
word, to promise, to proclaim;' ^filf?T ^T^ 'he pledges his word; 
S& ^fiRW ^e promises 100 (Rupees, &c.)/ ^m^ **MftHl 5^0^ 
* proclaims Hie merits of his master/ but ^rTrrm 2TO *he swallows 
down a mouthful.' If it ( t. e ij 6 Oon. ) be preceded by 3ft-, it 
is Atm. srefttTO ^TTftnf R5Trr: * the fiend drinks blood. ' 

'to walk' with 35 is Atm. when used transitively- 

* *?ter3*<n?wr*rPan,. 1. 3. 21. 3^: ^fjTf^RPTmi Sid.Kau. 

t 3TWT??rmwr: f|nr: I Pan. 1. 3. 80. 

t ^Tt ^^f^WTT^ I Pan- * . 3. 29. 

S 5R^T^?: fTH: Jn%5TT^ I P^. 1. 3. 51-52. 

$ 3n[W ^T^S*i^ I ^'fl^dV^T^Tfj^ I ^MW fTF 
Pan. 1. 3. 63-79. 


' ne transgresses his duty.' MM$lWi: 
\ Bhatf. VIII. 31j but Hmm<ft ' vapour rises up.' 

With fro or ^HH^l it is Atm. when used with the instrumental 
of a vehicle; T^T H^(<\ 'he moves In a chariot' ( See Bh. 
VIII. 32 ); arf%*ror 3^Rfc Smt Bag. XIU. 19. now passes 
through the path of gods/ 

3T3 in the Causal takes the Parasm. 

T%* when preceded by fi and qn in the sense of ' to con- 
quer/ and <to defeat' or <to find unbearable/ respectively, is 
Atm. fasro%, 3Tf^ UlsHqe*, ~3renHldl WWlfr 'gets tired of 
study/ ^ q<MqHMl^r 'filling up the sky, &c .' ?ft 

'her who was getting disgusted with/ &c. Bhatt. 
VIII. 9. 71. 

< to know' used intransitively by itself is Atm. 
( ^rmi ^^l^r snrS?T Sid. Kau. i. e. ^proceeds to perform 
a sacrifice having obtained ghee for it ); with the preposition 
3W it is Atm. in the sense of 'denying/ as ^nf 3pr*TRnt denies 
hundred-/ with srfft in the sense of * acknowledging or 
promising/ and with ^nc in the sense of 'expecting/ it is also 
Atm. ; snr STKftTTsfift * acknowledges a hundred/ 

promises the hand of his daughter by ( t. e. 

on the condition of ) the drawing of Hara's bow/ $Ttt 
'looks for a hundred/ *n?rft nprf ^nsmff 'thinks of his 
mother/ When this is used without a preposition and when 
the fruit accrues to the agent it takes the Atm. irf *rr4ft; 
when a preposition is prefixed to it and it is used transitively, 
it takes the Par. *rict$ * iMMtft *g? :. In the Desiderative 
this root takes the Atm. 

<TtrJ ' to heat' with ft or ^ , when used intransitively, is 

I Pan. 1. 3. 19. 
4tqaHDi^ I ^^yf^lWJIHHIWI^ I P&n. 1. 3. 44 46j 

I Pan- I- 3 - 27. m^rf^iiffi Irfcm I Vart. 


Aim. ^rfqit or QdMH TJ$:} when used transitively it ia Atm. 

if it has a limb of the body of the agent for its object; 

or ftw&l ITfifT * he warms his hand, but STTTllr 5*o 

<a goldsmith heats gold', 4bft JtsRT ^TfoTSrTTm; when it means 

'to practise penance 7 it is Atm. and is conjugated like a root 

of the fourth class. 

According to some cT<r with 3jg is Atm; 3*3cfq?t -repents/ 

^ T #<to give ' ( 3 cl. ) by itself takes either pada; but when 
preceded by 3H it is Atm. in any other sense than opening ( the 
mouth, &c. ) ; \CT 3ir3% 'accepts money ;' fifaf 3JT^% 'acquires 
knowledge-/ ^r^% ^r^at *Wf*T W Tg4 ( Sak. ) * does not pluck 
your foliage through affection-,' but g^- cqjTTTfff 'opens his 
mouth-/ l^qiT^t c?rr53Tf?T S^T 1 ' tDe doctor opens the tumour on 
the root/ f^t$9 eTT^fffT ' breaks open the bank of a river;' 
but if the mouth belongs to another the exception is removed; 
sUTSTJT mifW gtf frftf^r: 'ants break open the mouth of a 
moth' ( M&h. Bhar. ). 

^T <to give' ( I. cl. ) when preceded by the preposition ^m 
singly or coupled with any other preposition takes the Atm. 
provided it is used with the Instrumental in the sense of the 
Dative; ^TWT tta-ogci or tfsnTx^ ' gives ( something ) to the 
maid-sei vant/ but ^TTOT ^CT ^9*T^*n% f%?R ' gives wealth to a 
BrahmaDa through Ma maid-servant.' 

S^ 'to see preceded by ^q 1 and used intransitively takes the 
Atm.; ^rowi 'sees ( thinks ) well;' this root takes the Atm. in 
the Desiderative; f^frld 'wishes to see.' 

y <to run' is Par. in the Oau. 

3 with ^r^ is Atm. in the sepse of 'preparing, being ready 

rf^dt I Pan. 1. 3, 20. 
Sid. Kau. qTT^I^ R^f: I V&r.. 


' prepares for battle- ef. 

'to beg or solicit for any thing ' is used in the Par. in 
the sense of ' to hope for', 'to wish well' or <to give blessings to/ 
it ia exclusively Atm. *rf<Nt TTO 
Sid. Kau. ifrgm ;mn* 51%: ( Bhop, ) 

In " *rO% T%g <rfff * W* 1 * " Kir. XIII. 9. the root is 
used in the Atroanep&da. Bat Bhattoji Dikshit supposes that 
the reading here should be <?ro% and not JTTO^T. Mammata also 
in his KavyapraKasha finds fault with the Atm. use of this root 
when critising the verse ^ fSTm^TSW ^^\ ^STT^t HT $*tt: 
&c. and says that n$rrf should be ^i^rfar, 

^Tj < to lead or carry ' with a preposition or with the pre- 
positions 3*3*. g'q- or {$ is Atm. in the following senses: 

( 1 ) ^T^T^^ or < showing regard for; ' ^i^- ^^r * gives in- 
struction in the COD elusions of the S Astra ' ( 

Sid. Kau. ), ( 2 ) ^^r^^ or * raising up; ' 

:; ( 3 ) Stt^T&ROT or l initiating into sacred rites, ' 
ftR[?fT ^PRCmfM sn^cft^^: I 3<ra*Ri<feaTmTT- 
f| 3<Ffan an^'tef &H^ ( Sid. Kan. ); ( 4 ) ^f or 4 ascer- 
taining the real nature of; ' 3r4r ^Tff RfsTJUtfTHr^: ; ( 5 ) *fa 
or ' employing on wages; ' ^Hch'<|(T?RT?V * employs labourers on 
wage*. ( 6 ) RTn^T or ' paying off aa a debt, taxes ' &o ; ^ 
f^Wff *r|r$tf wm ^%A^ViAn(!^ and ( 7 ) &m or < spending 
or applying to good use; ' ^Tcf f%T7% vrrf^ ltm3% ?r?r^: ( Sid. 

* 3TTf$[ft ^T^ . Vartika. 
t B^ 

^dfBT I PAn. I. 3. 3G-37 

q;^ ^115 ' 
i tn? Q*i 

I Sid. Kau. 


Kan. ). sft with ft is Aim. when the object is something other 
than a limb of the body but exists in the agent; as q?ft frnrit; 
trat sfr ifrvf f*=wf> fSpar: , irrrt ftsnrft ( turns aside ). 

9 with n* is Atm. sn^tt 'he praises. ' 

srs^* with 3RT is Atm. in the sense of ( taking leave of 
3nT*9K* ffcrereWS*" Meg. 10. take leave of this thy dear 
friend, ' also with the preposition gr$ when nsed intransitively, 
'he ascertains. ' 

Atm. except in the sense of ' protecting, ' 3Jt3f 
eats food/ 553* sfirflW sftrfftr* **3T* ' th protector of 
the earth enjoyed ( experienced the pleasure from the possession 
of ) the earth alone;' f ^ 3f4t f :*rOTTftr ^F ' old people suffer 
hundreds of miseries; ' JTff ^Rfe ' protects the world. ' 

^r; with qft is Par.; sR^tqQ < endures; ' but gfr^sirfr he 
touches. ' 

inc J with 3rf is Atm. either when used intransitively or has 
a limb of the body of the agent for its object; auq-cgfo ^: ' the 
tree spreads; ' <^N-o^ Trftr^' stretches forth the hand; ' but 
arnrsgriR ^mgvr^ t draws up the rope from the well 7 ; preceded 

by JETCL, ^X and ^ ifc is Atm< exce P f - ^ en ifc has a literary 
work for its object; v^f ^N^$S 'puts on a garment jj 7 
'lifts up a load;' rf^ 3*4^ ( gathers rice;' but 

* tries hard to learn the Veda '. qg; with 77 is Atm. in the 
of 'accepting, or espousing a girl;'^rT dM^Wfr Accepts the 

: iVartika. 
t S^t^TO I P*n. 1. 3. 65. 

*1 IH 

t H#t mf5T: I Pn. 1. 3. 28. mKUfcufr TOT 3F$r I Pan. 1. 3. 
75. mm; ^f^^ Pan. 1. 3. 2. 56. ftjfrtfwtf I Pan. 1. 2. 16. 


gift given;' CTira&Tt ^7VT 'marries a girl'; in the Aoriat this 
drops its nasal optionally; TT*T: ^Tmt a*4Nd (See TJttar. III. 112), 
; but <r^q- *TT*rf ^nrs^ 'makes another's wife his own.' 

pjeceded by sr or ^rr, or generally by a prep, beginning 
or ending with a vowel, and does not refer to sacrificial vessels, 
is Atm. ST5%, T^%, *3OTT: fOTT *ro ( Bh. VIII. 39): but 
'arranges the sacrificial vessels ;> q- f*rf 3mm- 

"srS ftifrk (S'ak.) 'who appoints her to the duties of the hermitage'; 
sfl^JTi, S^rftW fWfc Rag. XI 62. 'the lord of the earth asked 
his preceptor ;' <TUHrH3mmnMa: ^IT^ 'Aja employed the 
six expedients beginning with peace.' Bag. VIII. 21. 

zpj[~-in the Cau. takes the Par. 

^jrj- to sport' changes its Pada when preceded by the pre- 
positions ft, ?RT and qft; *??TflTriff*JT * cease, oh child, from 
this( Uttar. I. 33.). nft>* arfcfh* Ibid. I. 27. 
Manu. II 79. 

4 was for a moment delighted with his sight.' With grrr it is 
Par.; ^^ ^mrm fJW?ft??nJ: ( Sid. Kau. ) When intran- 
sitively used it takes either Pada ; ^MiHI^-l. Sports'; cf . 

, &c. Bhatt. VIII. 54. 55. 

# 'to melt, to embrace' is Atm. in the cau. in the tense of 
Adoring, defeating or deceiving. ' vHdlftgsFM^ 'is adorable on 
account of his matted hairV Zp^* &W*1<\ *3\ 'the dog is defeated 
by means of a stick ;' 5*5^ gffolggimm ^i^Rl^: ( over- 
powers ) ; m^ir ^rqu^r WT^rnr.* ' the Brahmana is deceived by 
reason of his folly.' 

in the can. is Atm. in the sense of 'deceiving;' 
'deceives Minavaka;' but stfjf TOTTff 'avoids a serpent.' 

- 3- 64. 
\ Vartika. 

t II<MR>Wt TR: I ^re I f^TTT^^^T^ I Pan- I. 3. 83-85. 
t ^fiq=*ft: TOwnT Pan. 1. 3. 69. 


^ f'to apeak' is Atm. in the following senses: ( 1 ; 
or 'showing brightness ( pioficiency in )j f ^n% sr^T 'is adept in 
the Sastra ; ' ( 2 ) ^q^iVTTT or 'conciliating or coaxing' (generally 
preceded by ^q- ); Wfirr?^^^ mc^rrftaw-, ( 3 ) =TR or 'know- 
ledge' srrer 1& 'knows the Sastra/ ( 4 ) trgr or 'effort, toil;' 
^ ^^% 'labours in the field-' (5)frof*f or 'disagreement, 
quarrel,' ( generally preceded by f% in this sense ); N<4^rd; q^Qft 
HHr*i 'of mutually conflicting Saatras / and 

( 6 ) ^mrsror or 'coaxing, requesting / ^r^rf ^<T^T 'praises the 
donour,' &c with ^fsr it is Atm. in the sense of 'distinct and 
loud speech (as that of men gathered together )' ^ 

'the Brahmanas are speaking aloud together .' bat 
7%orJj TTr!3 ^OT^f^cT <?F^T: 'oh beautiful one, the cocks are 
crowingj' with 3^5 it is Atm. when used intrasitively; atffi^fr 
tt> 3ttmW -the Katha BrabniaDa imitates ( speaks on the side 
of : or recites like ) the Kalapa Brahmana; 7 but 337 3f|3$lff 
'reproduces what is said j' '^g^m snoTf 'the lute imitates the 
notes (indistinctly );' with f%sr it is optionally Atm. in the sense 
of 'disagreeing or disputing -' |%ST^7^T-^ %?TT: the physicians 
disagree; with grq- it is Atm. in the sense of 'reviling, reproach- 
ing, refusing/ when the fruit of the action refers to the agent 
^T? 'greedy of we&lth reviles others unjustly- 7 
'refuses justice ;' but ^M^^lff 'reproaches' ( when 

the result does not refer to the agent ) ; cf. 
Manu. IV. 236; when the fruit of the action is indicated as 
referring to the agent the Atm. is optional ; ^3^ STT^r^m-'cr ^f 
( Sid. Kau. on Pan. 1. 3. 77 ); ^ with ^qr in the sense of 'advis- 
ing or speaking stealthily/ when used transitively, is Atm. 
ftt 3<nr^T 'gives advice to his pupil;' M^KK sq-^ ' speaks 
stealthily with another's wife. 


: I Pan. 1. 3. 47-50, 73. 


rc is both Par. and Atm. but with % is restricted to the 

f%^* ' to know ' ( 2nd cl. ) with *fij is Atm. when used 
intransitively in the sense of ' knowing of, being aware of/ and 
adds j; to ^ optionally in the 3rd per. plural; ^ft^r or tff^r 
they know well;' cf. % * fiN^d srtfr&n^rftTOT^RjaTT Bh. VIII. 
17.; * who do not know that the mountain Mainaka ia the friend 
of Vayu ?.' but *n%rf: FSH^jft <T^fif> ^TOT Bhatt. V. 37, 
aa it is used transitively. It is also Atm. with ^f^ in the sense 
of ' recognising-,' as tfnNf. 

f^tf with ft is Atm. fti$^?t; %pq;;qrf} rgfc$l(T &o, Bhatt 
VI. 143. Alao when ^ft is prefixed to f%, 3TmRR5Tff ^JTHT 
( Sid. Kan. ) 'takes to a good path-/ see Bh. VIII. 80. 

3T<jJ- meaning <to reproach or to abuse' takes the Atm. 
even when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent; 

S takes the Atm. in the sense of * wishing to study;' 
f%$T<T * wishes to study archery.' 
3 ft <to ^ ear ' w i tn ^f^ i fl Atm. when used intransitively; 
frsjqj^r ' hears well-/ ^5jnj^ 3W ( Bhat. VII. 16. ) < Listen with 
heed, oh monkey/ cf. f%ar5T T: ^oyff ^T fip SJS: Kir. 1. 5 ; but 
' he hears the sound/ This root takes the Atm. in 

the Deaiderative, except when 3TT or srf?T precedes it, ^^It; but 
3*T TOT S^fpT- 

with ^F, 3??r, sr and ft is 


Vartika. %wf3rHP?r Pan. 

t %ft^T: Pan. I. o. 17. J ^rq" STToJ*^ I Vartika. 

i Vartika. 

: | Pan. 1.3.22 3^ srfd^l^ligTO^TR^ Vartika 
| Pan. 1, 323. 24 

Vartikas. ^TT^H^^ot I Pan. 1. 3. 25. 

1. 3. ^6. 


. 1. 36. ) 'fearing an outrage does not abide by 
one who is mild, ' Bee Mrch. 1. 36. ( In the sense of standing 
till, &c. it is used in the Par. grot * qfiteld sfn^N 

| Hariv. ); ^RtTO?^ 1*^(3^3: ) ' if * 'being 
remains breathing though only for a moment; ' 

I Sis. 11. 34. srfifff?* SeeRagh. IV. 6; Kum. 
22. f*filH%; *)$* WTCtr fttfisriTR Sis. IV. 4; with HT it is 
Atm. in the sense of ' laying down a proposition, asserting 
solemnly;' ^rs^ f*ftf 3*Tm&^ ' Affirms that sound is eternal; ' 
H* ft* WT W CTTOHIWKft ( Mah. Bh&. ) ' for thy sake I will 
drink water or poison; 7 in the sense of ' observing' it takes the 
Par. when used transitively; ftfimrf^BrfS ' observes the vow.' 
TOT is Atm. by itself in the sense of ' disclosing one's intention 
or abiding by;' iftcfjr $nw faerfr, 3H^nf ST*HHIlft ffq*p I 
Kir. IIL 14; 'who, when in doubt, takes 

recourse to Karna and others ( as the deciders of the matter in 
'hand ).' With 3^ it is Atm. except in the sense of 'getting up 
or getting by right.' Htfcl^frlB^ 'earnestly thinks of (aspires to) 
absolution-/ ( See Kir. XI. 13. and Sis. XIV. 17. >, but <ffor- 

a hundred is yielded to him by a 

village ( as tax, &c. ).' With 37 it is Atm. in the sense of: 
( 1 ) * worshipping with the recital of holy texts,' s?rjJ 

' worships the Agnidhra fire with the recital of Vedic 
texts,' * ^Jgrrr^T% ***- Bh. VIII. 13, but H 

5* C or qft^ftBft ;nfr Vop. ) where the meaning is to appro- 
ach for intercourse, to serve,' See Bhatt. V. 68, ( 2 ) < waiting 
upon, worshipping ( a divine being )' am^rg^fflTSHj ( the Atm. 
use of the root in ^5?^ fgftffrreqrf^aw STTWft' Rag. VI. 6. 
is to be explained, thinks Bhattoji Df kshita, by the fact that the 
king is considered to be a divine being ), (3) 'uniting or joining; 
d; ( 4 ) ' forming iriendship with ' 
^: (Sid. Kau.); and (5) 'to lead to' 
rf%B% 'this way leads to Srughna.' When a desire to get something 
i implied &n with &t takes either Pada; Age: 


<a beggar waits on a lord ( with desire of getting something ). 
When it is used intransitively it takes the Atm; 
ftfgft 'comes at the dinner time.' 

*3 is Atm. in the Desideratiye; 3fq$t 

fis Par. in the causal; 

^r with fr^ and 3TT is Atm.j ^fosrfr 'roars so as to lerrifj}' 
Bhatt. IX. 28. ww* 'utters a loud sound.' 

fjj* with an* when used intransitively or when it has a limb 
of the body of the agent for its object is Atm.; 3TT$^ 'kills or 
dashes down-/ **%T 3TTfrf Strikes his own head;' but 
( Bid. Kau. ) 

ft with 3f3 is Atm. in the senses of 'following the habits 
of, acquiring the natural Quality of;' ^[CTrar 3HS<fr 'hones 
always follow the gait of their progenitors;' so mcTf Tnc~ 
3*357%; in the sense of ' acquiring a new quality by imitation ' 
it takes the Par. fMtUHi5<fd ' imitates his father. ' 

|rj ^q } preceded by ^q, ft, f%, and ^p^ and used intransiti- 
vely is Atm. ^r ftT^ ^ gT%; with 3r it is Atm. in the 
sense of ' challenging;' $>MJl84im^H!y^ < Krishna challenges 
Oh&nura to battle;' ^rgff ^K<IU^<fR Sis. XXI. 1. but 

The following Kansas, extracted from the A'khy&tachan- 
drika are subjoined here, with some alterations herb and there, 
as a help to the student in remembering much of what is given 
in the present chapter. 

fffc WRW I HT5* WT 

STT I Sid. Kau. f gTff^fffffl^1<^ Vartika. 

t ftWiMftgft 5: 5 wfrmT!?F: Pan. 1. 3. 30, 31 


ii * it 

: II 

: II v H 

u x u 

: U 

1%: ^q: u $ u 

U vs !| 

n u 


3 ^^Mft II n II 
: II 

IMV u 


w. sr?: IM^ u 




u i* n 
: u 

^ || 


: IM% U 

: u 

II *o n 

: ^^ II 
: U 

u ^^ n 

416 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 664-666 


: U 




Derived by means of the Krt Affixes. 

665. The Krt affixes (Vide 337) are added to roots or 
to their modified forms to form nouns, adjectives, and indecli- 

<fe^H &c. These are called Krdantas or Primary Nominal Base* 
as distinguished from the Secondary Derivatives formed with, 
the Taddhita affixes. 

666. There is a peculiar class of Krt or Primary affixes 
technically designated by Sanskrit grammarians Vnadi or 
those beginning with the affix sqr i. 0. the affix 3* with the 
mute or indicatory letter cj , go called from the words gap 
9T5. &c. in the first Sutra being derived with the affix. These 
TJjQadi affixes form primary nouns, like other Krt affixes forirt 
verbal roots, but are classed separately because their applica- 
tion is limited, because the nouns derived by their means are* 
either formed irregularly, or the connection between their 
senses and the meanings of roots from which they are- 
supposed to be derived is not BO clearly discernible as in the 
case of other primary derivatives; . g. arsg^ 3*c*R 7TRtmi 
9T 3T^: "a horse 7 which is derived either from 3^ 'to pervade/ 
or from 3TO3( ' road;' and 3TTT with f%, &c- OT^ ' an artisan 
from & 'to do,' &c. 




PARTICIPLES ( Declinable and Indeclinable ). 

1. Participles ( DacUnable ) 
( a ) Participles of the Present Tense. 

667. The participle of the present Purasm. is formed by 
the addition of the affix g^ to that form of a root, primitive 
or derivative, which it assumes before the third person plural 
termination of the Present Tense. If the base ends in *r, the 3T 
is dropped; e. g. 

T%( 1 cl. ) *T^4- 3Tfr?r Pro. 3rd pi. TO+ 3T^=? *Rcl Pre. P. being. 


( 1 cl. ) 

similarly from 

3R[ ( 2 cl. ) 3Tf^ eating. ^( 7 cl. ) ^v^ preventing. 

qT ( 2 el. ) qj<j going. 3, ( 8 cl. ) $% doing. 

( 3 cl. ) ^^ sacrificing ^ ( 8 cl. ) <Tr^ stretching, &c. 

4 cl. ) frars playing. gpr (0 cl. ) fftn* buying. 

( 5 cl. ) ^?^ extracting. g^ ( 9 cl. ) gor^ stealing, &c. 

^ ( 6 1. ) 3^. gi vin g P ain - 5JT ( 10 cj - ) ^""^ stesHng. 
lu. of VT , ^NHfl causing to know, 
desid. of ^vj , ^tm^^ desiring to know, 
desid. of ^ f%cWX desiring to give. 

[. of f^T^, %f^nr^ throwing again and again. 
&c. &c. &c. &c. &c. 

( a ) The term. 3^ is optionally changed to ^ when added 
to the root fa^; ft[^ or Rl^ ' knowing. ' 

( b ) The affix ar^ when added to fi^ and ^ ' to extract Soma 
juice in a sacrifice 7 has the sense of an agent; agf^^OT. 'an enemy.' 
Tfl' ^rS ti^^'d- 'all are the extractors of Soma juice in a sacrifice. 
H. S. G. 27 

418 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [ 667-671 

re) When affixed to 3* it has the sense of < fitness, respect;' 

one deserving respect, respectable/ 

' ( d ) f 2 P. and ^ can. take the affix 3^ when the idea of di- 
fficulty is not present^ 3TOT*T5t'stu lying without experiencing any 
difficulty/ VTIT^^ 'holding or bearing with ease-,' but 

668. The declension of the Participles in stfj has been 
treated of in 116. 

669. The participles of the Present Aim. is formed by 
adding sfffi to the root which undergoes the same changes 
Before it, as before the termination 3^ or gr% of the 3rd pi. 
pre. 3JT5T is changed to OTT, in the caw of roots of the 1st, 4th, 
6th and 10th. classes, and all derived roots, or rather when the 
base ends in 3T> before which the 3T of the base remains un- 
changed- 9. g, iryr ( 1. cl. ) l^NTR < growing;' ^ ( 1 cl. ) 
< saluting'; tfV ( 2. cl. ) ^TR 'lying down./ fift ( 2. cl. ) 
tt with STT ( 2. cl. ) armT* ' killing.' ^ ( 3. cl. ) ^VTR folding; 
f ( 3. cl.) ^^T; f^( fTSTOR 'playing./ 5(6. cl. ) ^reTR 
extracting;' 5^ ( 6. ol. ) g^TTR * giving pain/ ^ ( 7. cJ. ) 
^v\|M 'obstructing; 7 ff ( 8. cl ) $sftor 'doing;' ^ ( 8. cl. ) 
'stretching- 7 nft ( 9. cl. ) *froF?T ' buying/ ^r (10, cl.) 

'stealing/ &c. 5^ ( 1. ol. ) cau, ^r^snrwr-^r^iTRTSf 'causing 
to know/ desideratlve f Jftf^W-^tRl^RniT 'being desirous 
to know/ &c. 

670. ( ) The an of ^TR is changed to | in the case of 
the root sn^ ( 2. cl. ) 'to eit/ Pre. P. 3TRft5r. 

f 6 ) 3TR added to the roots ^ and q^; forms nouns; e. g, 
q^HRR: ' that which purifies, hence, the wind 7 (c/. Rag. VIII. 9.) 
abo, 'one of the saored fires;' IMHH- 'one who sacrifices. 

671. * The termination an* may be added to any root 

-^TH^t 1 Pan. III. 2. 126. 



in the sense of ' in the habit of ' or ' to show a particular 
standard of age, or capacity to do a thing; *. g. ^frij $*iw. 
* one habituated to enjoy pleasures:' ^^ I%flTOT: * of a sufficient 
ago i. e. young enough to bear armour;' 37^ TOffR: ' able to kill 
the enemy, ' &o. 

672. The participle of the Pre. Passive is formed by adding 
HPT to the Passive base in q-. e. g. gui^M ' who or what is 
known, ' 3rcrflTT ' what is eaten, ' gfiqin* who or what is given, 
who or what is gathered. * famjim * what is done, ' 
' what is scattered, ' -cOJmm ' who or what is 
stolen ' gj^T; cau. Pass. ^rctntttT < who or what is caused to 
know, ' De9. Pass. ^rf^7RTOT ' who or what is debired 
to know, ' $c. 

673. The participles formed according to 669 are de- 
clined like nouns ending in gf ni.f. and n. 

( b ) Participles of the Perfect. 

674 The termtea*kms of the Perf. and the Past parti- 
oiples are weak, and therefore the radical vowel does not take 
its Guna substitute before toese. The penultimate nasal is 
generally dropped ( see 584 ). 

675. The participle of the Perf . Par. and Aim. is formed 
by adding m^ and an*T generally to that form of the root which 
it assumes before the termination of the 3rd per. plural. If this 
form consists of one syllable only or when the root ends in sn, 
1^ has the intermediate f added to it. f is optionally prefixed 
to ^ in the case of the roots ipj; , f 5*, 5r*> fi& and f^ ( 6 cl. ); 
5T3 and ^r^ , and trq[ and ^ when tbey do not take 5, form this 
participle from that base which they would asiume before the 
2nd per. sing, termination, *. g. 

Root Perf. Base ( 3rd pi ) Pers. Ptc. 

f to go ??i ift*^t w ^ Of 




Boots Perf. Base ( 3rd pi. ) 
sfr to carry fifcft 

to cook 
to speak 
to sacrifice 
to break 
to throw 
to praise 
to do 
to split 
to give 
to eat 
to see 

to know,&c. 
to enter 

r has 




( 1 ) In the cage of roots beginning with 
as it is in the Perfect; 

Perf. ptc. 
who or what 
>, cooked. 
,, sacrificed. 
,> broke. 




, and 

is not inserted 

( a ) For the declension of these participles see 124. 


f to carry 

r to give 

7 to cook 

to sacrifice 
3? to do 
q^to speak 
?5 to praise 
sg to hear 
&c. &c. &c. 



( h ) These are declined like nouns ending in 3^ m.f. n. 

676. Boots ending in ^ ( fj and 3? ineladed ) form their 
Perf. P. irregularly; ^ is added to the root, which then 
undergoes the changes mentioned in 394, and is finally redu- 
plicated: when a root is Atm. it is first reduplicated and 
afterwards added, the final *% changing aa before; 0. g. F + 
, by reduplication j%r!^; |r by reduplication ^Tjf + 

similarly < 

C77. The Perfect participle is not frequently used. The 
only participles that are most commonly to be met with are 
those formed from the roots , q f%rr and g. 

678. The participles of the Periphrastic Perfect Par. and 
Atm. are formed by the addition of the Perf. Participal forms 
of the auxiliary verbs 3?, 3^ or ^ to the base in 3TPA[ 8 - </ 

(c) Past^Passive Partioiplea. 

679. The Past Passive Participle is formed by the addition 
of the affix r to the root- e. g. ^T-^fcf ' bathed, ' fsr-^fcT l con- 
quered, ' rff-^tff ' carried/ ^-^rT 'heard,' ^-^ t become/ 5-5^ 
* taken away/ fiT^-^TT^ 'abandoned/ T%5-f%TT/ 'thought or me- 
ditated upon/ &c. 

680. Roots capable of taking Sampras&rana take it before 
she affix ft. 

jj 681. The affix ft is weak. 


(a) The roots ^ft, ft*^ 1 ol., m^, fklfy W and W adaiit of 
the Qaoa change bafore ft when f is prefixed to it; ^1 A. also 
loes the same when it takes f ( see 6866 ). 

422. SANSKRIT QBAMMAE. [ 681-684 

Such of the roots 01 tte 1st class as have ? for their 
penultimate change their vowel to Gtina optionally, when the 
affix a- is added with the intermediate f , and the P. P. Parti- 
ciple is used impersonally, or when it conveys tho sense of 
beginning to perform the action or undergoing the condition 
expressed by the root; g^ Ho delight' gf^r<T, but < to begin to 
delight ' JTg% or STRtf^TJ srg%t or U]Rtf%?t *TW *gTt<T-' or 
snrri%<P SrgJJ similarly, ^-XT^firtf or ^rfc* &c. 

682. The Penultimate radical nasal is generally dropped, 
( See 674 ). 

683. The augment f ia prefixed to this & in the case of 
certain roots, optionally in the caae of some and not at all in 
the case of others. 

684. As a general rule, all roots ending in a vowel, and 
guch as take the f optionally before any termination, and AnU 
roots ending in consonants generally, do not take % the rules 
of Sardhi given in the foregoing chapters that are applicable in 
particular cases ought to be observed. 

Roots. P. P. Ptc. Boots. P. P. Ptc. 

<TT TKT protected ?^ m?G abandoned. 

fT fr?T resorted ta W^~ W fried, 

carried. ^ ? ^ sacrificed. 

heard. 1^1^ awakened. 

become. Sjrvj-.f^ pierced. 

done. ^r QTT slept. 

covered. cJ^Q 5Jsr obtained. 

T woven. ^p^ ^5 bound. 

covered. ff^ ^ seen. 

%* g<T called &c., ^^^^ cri d out &c. 

*% substitutes gr for its 


Boots. P. P. Ptc. Rooti. P. P. Ptc. 

spoken ?j^ ^ bitten 

concealed fjft f^j hated, &c. 

pe d off > &- srraf rite governed 

accomplished, &o. ^j ^rq- bnrot 

Tfc-J* satiified ^53^ borne 

*? <T? perished, &c. ^ FTT endured 

^>J ^1 grown f^ WW destroyed 

happened, completed, f^JJ *ftf licked 

&c. gg- gr? or ^f fainted 

able ^^9* bound 

[ T%T! sprinkled tf^ ^TT diopped 
--^r asked 

( a ) $ft, grig, ^TT *nd 3[flffT take f , the final yowel of the 

first two takes Gnna substitute, and the last two drop their 
final; ^rRffr, sfnrffa; f^qn?r , 

( b ) q^ takes f though it admits of f optionally in the 


( e ) The A nit roots *^ and gy^ admit f before ft and 

685. Set roots ( subject to 684 ), and all derived roots 
admit of f roots of the Tenth Glass and causals reject their 
leal sw, Par. Frequent a tivea their final 3?, and Atm. 

Frequent at ives their q*: 

Roots P. P. Ptc. Boots. P. P. Ptc. 

'inspected.' ^[ ^RlfT 'told. 1 

'spoken.' TO STfoRT Spread.' 

*Vide 437. 

424 SANSKBIT GBAMMAE. [ 685-686 

Booto. P. P. Pto. Roots. P. P. Ptc. 

tT* <*Rnr 'increased ^r^ oau. Base of gv 

'made to know. 7 
'shaken. 1 f%pH[ des. b. of 3? 

'desired to do/ 

Stolen} deceived.' ^tfW Atm. Fre. Base of f>r 
sfrgftcT ' frequently known/ 
'taken.' f|iir Par. Fre. Base of 

Exceptions: f?r, ^[, 'to go, to kill,' &c., f%g^ 'to know, 
to observe,' &c.,^j(,*s, ,*, and 

JV. -B. There are many Set roots which reject the intermediate 
f but as some of them form their P. P. participles in f and 
others irregular ly, they will be given in their proper places. 

686. The following roots insert f optionally: 

with 3TT, and ^'4. 1. Par. when used with 5^*73 'the 
hair/ or when it means Ho be surprised or disappointed;' 
?ftW; ( see 696 a. ), sTfrff, ^filrT; ipr ( see G88 ), 
'wasted, perished/ qiftRtt VW, ftw>. ITST, 
See 696 a ), 3ifHcTj ^3; 

* horripilated with joy/ 
a ?TT^ 

) fi^t and ^ take ? optionally oefore ?f and 
Icf > 

( c ) The following roots admit of f optionally before 3 when 
the P. P. Participle is used impersonally or conveys the sense 
of beginning to perform the action or to undergo the state 
expressed by the root; i;,n;, TC, q>, 1%> *&$ 
4, cl. ^r ^. % and % 1. 4. P. 1. A.; 


'- or srf?ro: $?: 'Chaitra has begun to perspire;' ST^f^cT or 
he has perspired/ &o. ; f^r^ 4 cl. has f^rf^r also. 

N. B. When the participle is not need in the sense given 
above these roots reject ^. \&~$ f^oruur; 'perspired, sounded 
inarticulately/ &c. 

687. (a) 3f>^[ in the sense of 'to worship 7 takes f ; arfsjrT 
'worshipped / but 3^: 'gone'; with ^-^3, ( WrM 3H"f% <TT?t) 

(b) ^ and ^r^ reject % when they express the idea of 'immo- 
desty or rudeness / TJE <rucle/ fifSTW 'ill- mannered';' but qffa 
overpowered, trifled with/ &c., ft^TKffT 'tormented or ill-treated' 

688. ;f* is substituted for 3 when it immediately follows a 
final ^ or ^r ; this final ^ is also changed to ^: f*R[-f3n5r, ST- 

Exceptions : 

(a) fvr^ has fiTf when it means 'a party a portion;' pro in 
other senses. 

(b) f%^ P. A. takes <T i Q the serse of 'fit for enjoyment or 
famous;' ffi^r 'wealth, property/ (%TT: 'famous' ;f%5T in other cases. 

( c ) W^, 5T and ^^J ^Tf, rf 'filled/ (alsov^pf when it means 
the same as ^ ), ^. 

689. Roots ending in ajr* ( q-, cr and sfiT cnacgeable to snr ) 
and beginuing with a conjunct consonant containing a semi- 
vowel also substitute r for cT 5 JfT ' to run, to sleep/ groT} y < to 
fade/ T$yT5Ti v3'-?wnT 'collected to a mass/ &o. 

Exceptions : ^^r 'to name/ &c. ^ 'to contemplate/ sq- and 
-, ^Tcf, VTTTff , ^HT and g?r. 
690. *The roots given at 414 and *m substitute f for ?f. 

* ?5TOT RBTrfl *f J 
Pan VIII. 2. 42-44. 



[ 690-692 


Boots. P. P. Ptc. Boots 

fr to flow, to move 

$T to melt, etc. 

Scft to go, to hold 

$V to go, to move 

T to shake 

^ to destroy 

<g to out 

^t to go 

^ to scatter 

IT to utter a sound, 

to praise, etc. ifurr 

691. 3 and 'Q Ho sound indistinctly/ substitute 
lengthen their vowels } ^ 'gone/ ijtf. 

$ 692. The following roots substitute ^ for ff: 

P. P. Ptc. 

3} tO 

I to tear 
^ to load 
T to fill, to gratify 
w to bear, to nourish 
jj to hurt, to kill 
^ to choose 
jq to tear asunder 
^H to scatter 
to grow old 





^ft 4 A. to fly 
to torment 
^ to hold, to 


&T 4* A. 

ifV^ A. to give 

flr to perish, 

to waste 

r hurfc 

fTto go 

CT to abandon 

P. P. Ptc. 


P. P. Ptc. 

% to dry, to be languid 
?ft 4 A. to move, to cover 
ft 1. P, to grow, to swell 
$4. A. to bring forth. 
to produce 


6. P. 

,, to break 
6. A. 

to be ashamed 

with {> 
with qft 
4. A. 



693. ( a ) 5R-* when it means ' to incur debt ' substitutes ;?> 
' debt} but 379, ' gone. ' 

( * ) fT, when the P. P. Participle has an active sense, substi- 
tutes ^r and lengthens its f ; ^fi^T; reduced, emaciated; but when 
a curse is implied, or pity expressed, the change is optional; 
$fiorTS: or %mg: HW t. . ' die;' gfiar: or fiftf-* a^tf H<TC$T ' oh, 
the poor ascetic has grown thin ' but 

( c ) f ff ^ takes ^ when it does not mean < to gamble-, ' 
( a sport in which nothing is staked. ' but qtf ' gambling. ' 

( cJ ) t err with f%^ takes ^ except when it has *n* for its 
subject; fjfcfofrsflr: <fche fire is extinguished; ft^Wfr gfti the 
age is absolved- but 

) ^ takes ;T when the notion of touch is not pretenlf 
: '& scorpion contracted through cold;' when it 
means 'to be coagulated or cold' it* 3 takes qnm<m (f ); ^fpt ^?t, 
but ^ffct T^F &^d not ^ftf as the idea of touch is present here; 
also when preceded by srfirj mTl^T fff, &c.; with g^fir and an* 
the change if optional; 3?nr^n4 or arfi^fW ^ff, a^VHft or a^r- 

:; but 

694. The roots 3^ , ft^, 6. A., ^^, t, WT and ft take * or 
IT; 35T olr 3W> f*W or ft^r, 3rroror^T?(,irroror OTf and ftor or^H. 

695. ccrrar has ^frsr when it is used with 'one's own limbs/ 
<ffa 9^, aud c*n;f or cffa in other cases, as cqrqr: or <fhr: ^y:; 
when it is preceded by a preposition, f is not substituted for its 
vowel; srcqro:; but when it is used with 3*73 or 37^ with the 
preposition STT, f in necessarily substituted; arm^: 3?^, nf fH 

Pan. VIII. 2. 60. f 

I Pan. VIII. 2. 49-50 

428 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. [ 696-699 

696. ( a ) Roots ending in a nasal long then their penulti- 
mate vowel before a weak termination beginning with any 
consonant except a nasal or a semivowel, or before the affix 

( b ) Anit roots ending in a nasal, the root sr^ 1. P. and the 
eight roots of the 8th class-^ and others ( seo p. 355 ) drop 
their nasal before a weak termination beginning with any 
consonant except a nasal or a semivowel: 

Roots. P. P. Ptc. Roots P. P. Ptc. 

Trq( 'to. think', &c. $nT ^ 'to bow' fef 

53 * to strike/ f fT *rq( 'to restrain ' *j?T 

r^ 'to sport 1 f?f ^ 1. P. 'to sound, 

*TH 'to go ' TO to serve,' &<?. ^ 

<TO cTcf ^ 'to shine'' ^ 

^TT gpr 'to graze' ^ 

697. The roots 373, ^ and ^[, drop their nasal and at 
the S3 mo time lengthen their vowel; ^fcT, SffiT, 

698. A radical ^ preceding or following a vowel is some- 
times changed to 37 before cT or *T; when it is preceded by ^ it is 
dropped; ^^3701, ^gtiT, 5$ gtft, % ^^T, R^ ^ or 
^T ( See 693, o. ). 

699. The following roots (some forming their P. P. P. 
irregularly ) reject 5 in the limited sense attached to each: 

'a churning handle.' f^^ftfts^T *a note.' 
Uhe mind.' ^Ipa^ TOTC) <a decoction easily 

'darkness.' prepared.' ( 

'attached.' OTrafi^fr Sid. Kau. ) 

'indistinct.' ^r^^ ' much/ 



In their usual senses they have gf*r?r, 

700. <rf 'to give/ and %, form their P. P. Ptc. as ^T; the 
3* of ^rf is dropped after a preposition ending in a vowel ; srrf- 
3t3rT &c.; in this latter case the preceding 5 or & is lengthened; 
*fhf, ^rf, &c.j ^ may optionally be retained also ; j^rf, 3T3RTW, 
5T* * &c. 

701. The following roots form their P. P. Participle? 


to eat. 


P. P. Ptc. 


in the sense 
of 'being near.' 
in other cases 

1. A . to weave. 
^ to be diffi- 
cult or pain- fe<m^. The 
ful. study of gram- 

mar is very diffi- 

' gold rubbed on 

the touchstone.' 

he lean. 

be intoxicated. 

to stink. 

to shake 

to be thin 

to sing 

to split 

Roots. P. P. Ptc. 

to instruct. 
ft to cut. 

|j > to be bulky or strong, 
g^ 5 otherwise 
MTT to put. 

q7c[ to cleanse. vfrff or 
vf to suck 
q^r to cook. 
qr to drink. 
ifQ to stink, to putrify. 

^ to bind. 
C to measure, 
to barter, 



3 (f) ? or ? (t) 5 <fftW a master, 

(ff)f5cT 4c. 'grown, increased']. 
^Tt 'to sharpen,' ^TTcT or 



[ 701-705 

Boots. P. P. Ptc. 

go, to become dry.' & 

to delight' 
to cook (also CTCT 'boiled' 
cau. of SIT ) (when it quali- 

- with sr 


P. P. Ptc. 

with srfifr srfff*|3r, 
and ft ivr ( here the ^ 

is not changed 



* skilful, 
experienced, cle- 
ver.' ( lit. one 
who knows the 
dangerous spots 
in a river ) but 

in other cases. 

702. ( a ) The roots 3 and q^ take the affix q-gr like ft 
in an active sense; Q*93 'one who extracted Soma juice/ 
*nCT3( 'one who has offered a sacrifice*/ 3^; is added to sr 
optionally in the same sense; gfto? or 5f^ ' one who has 
become old 7 ( also gfjuiclfl )> 

703. The participles in ft or ft follow the Declension of 
nouns in 3?. 

The P. P. participles have not always a passive force: 
704. * The affix ft added to roots having the sense of 
'sitting or going, or eating' shows the place where the action 
takes place; 53- H$^H1 3TT%ft 'this is the place where Mukunda 
to sit, ' | $ qift ronrft: ' this is the path by which the husband 
of Kam& used to pass, ' *p q^ BTtfrTOT 'this is the place where 
Ananta took his food, ' &c. 

705. The P. P. Participles of roots implying motion, of 
intransitive roots, and of the roots fsr^, $ft,W,3Tr% ^ *' dwell/ 
5FH , ^T, and ^ 4. cl. have an active sense; irftts? W5TSTO 'I went to 
Madras/ v&rtft 9R9F*' 'the boy has become languid; ' g^flHlf%gtgft* 
' Hari embraced Lakshmi: ' ^rTHT^rraiT: ' slept on Besha; ' 

. III. 4, 48. 


: ' dwelt in Vaikuntha/ f5T*g<Tf%<T: k served Shiva/ ^R 
' observed a fast on the day sacred to Hari/ 

: ' was born after Rama;' n>3H|fr$t sat on Garuda; 
: ' grew old after the world.' 

706 P. P. Participles have sometimes the sense of neuter 
abstract nouns; as 5TT5TO 'speech', $rftr<T 'sleep*, 5%rT 'laughing/ 
similarly fcnt, TK, etc.; Bee Bhati. VII. 125. 

707. The P. P. Participles of roots meaning <to think or to 
wish/ 'to know,' ' to adore/ and of the roots r*j, *fr etc. have 
tfie sense of the present Tense; TT^T- RcT; ' he w honoured by the 
king/ TOrf ^1%^: f^: 3U%: ^he fire is kindled/ so *rm: etc. 

(d) Past Active Participles. 

708 Past Active participles are derived from the P. 
Passive Participles in 3 or tf by adding to them the affix *?r ; e.g. 

Roots. P. P. Pto. P. Ac. Pto. 

13- to be *j?T "^Wl^ one or *hat has been 

5 to do ^!T 3ff*g; ;j done 

^ to scatter qftof ^of^g; scattered 

T%^ to cut %*r fi^ST^ , cufc 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

( e ) Participle of the Future Tense. 

709. The Participle of the Simple Future, Active as well 
as Passive, is formed from the third person singular form of 
the Second Future of a root. The Pararsm. Ptc. is formed 
simply by dropping the final f , and the Atm. and the Passive 
one by substituting *nT for the final ft; e. g. 

Roots. Par. Atm. Passive. 



432 SANSKRIT GBAMMAR. [ 709-712 

Roots. Par. Atm. Passive. 



Similarly fqTft^ Veal. Base of q^ 

&c.: off iff Fre. B of ^sTPTf^l^J^ , TiH(3^m FT, &c. 

710. These Participles are declined like words ending in 
<T and 3T. 

( / ) Potential Participles ( and Verbal Adjectives ). 

711. The Potential Participle is formed by means of the 
affixes *<&?> 3RT*T, ?T and rarely rf^r, added to a root or deriva- 
tive verb. This is Passive when the verb is transitive and 
impersonal when the verb is intransitive. It is also used like 
an adjective when denoting fitness, &c. 

( 1 ) Participles in 357 and 3tfhr 

712. The affixes <T3r or 3T*fi*T are added to roots or 
derivative bases in the sense of 'must be fit to be/ &c. Before 
these the ending vowel and the penultimate short of a root 
take their Guna substitute. Before ftzq Set roots take f , Anit 
roots do not, and Wet roots take it optionally. Before srfhr 
penultimate eg* is always changed to 3ftr and not to ^ ( as it 
sometimes does ) e. g. 

T: | P&n.'HI. 1. 96. arfsrax ^rmanair I Vdrtika, 





Pot. Ptc. 

what must or ought to be given, 
what must or ought to be searched into, &c. 






,, ,, released. 





713. The final 3T&; of root 8 of the tenth class and of can- 
sals, the final 3? of Atm. Freq. Bases, when the q- is preceded 
by a vowel and the whole q- when it is preceded by a consonant, 
are dropped before SRiq". To Deeiderative bases it is added 
without any change e. g. 

what must, or ought to be told. 

,, ,, made to know. 

Freq. Base of arftTHT*! 5 > known frequently 

* The %- of ^53; is changed to gn^r against 712. 
f The 7 of Q^ is lengthened instead of being Gupated before 
a strong; termination beginning with a vowel. 

H. 8. G. 28. 

484 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 713-717 

r Atm. freq. 

Base of *% ^pg-qsftq' what must or ought to be frequently. 

Besi. Base 
of fvj; fJlfvUuftir desired to know. 

(2) Participles in q- ( q^, ^q<i and uq^ ). 
By means of qq^ ( q ). 

714. The affix q (q^)* is added on to roots ending in a 
vowel in the sense of 'fit for, or fit to be, or ought to be.' Before 
this q the radical vowel undergoes Gupa substitute and final 
3CT (<,< and aft changeable to gn ) is changed to tr. 

^f %q* what is fit or ought to be given. 
% %r ,, sucked. 

STf IN" ,, cut. 

f% %q- collected. 

^ sfrr led or carried. 

715. Roots having $r for their penultimate and ending in 
a consonant of the labial class take the affix q* 

(a) When &* is preceded by 3TT, ^ ( changed to ^ ) is inserted 
between 5 and )^; 3TT?M SlRtfvq 'what ought or is fit to be 
killed / 3( is also inserted when ^p^ is preceded by 97 if the 
meaning be <to prise / ^q^yq: ^ig: 'a Sadhn onght to be 
praised / but ^q^ni ^ 'wealth ought to be acquired.' 

716. The roots ff^ 'to laugh at/ 5^ 'to kill/ ^r^ to 
'look for, to ask/ q^ao strive/ ^r^, ^T^ and frg take the 
affix q-; rT^T 'what is fit to be laughed at/ ^q 'what ought to 
be killed;' &c. 

717. The roots ^ , ^ , ^ and q^ , take the affix q when 
not preceded by a preposition ; ZI^-ITO 'what ought to be spoken 

[II. 1. 97. 


or told/ JTCT, ^, 1WT ^with 3tt may take this affix, if it does 
not mean 'a preceptor;' in which case it takes the affix crq-g- ( if ) 
- <a country fit to be gone to, but arixTTq': 'a preceptor.' 

718. The roots 3^ implying reproach, qur x meaning ' to 
traneact business/ and ^ 9. Atm. not denoting limit or restraint, 
take the suffix q- ; as STTC ^T<T ^in is reprehensible or merits con. 
dentation/ but 3*9^ ( 3^+ST^+^n> T ) Q*FWt 'the name 
of a preceptor ought not to be tittered ( out of respect )/ qtnrr 
ift: 4 a cow is saleable-/ but <nuir: ( qor+inr^i'. *T ) aTgW * a 
BrahmaDa deserving praise/ q$ ' that can be chosen or Bought 
after/ as ^5T **A ^TT ' hundred men ( t. e. any one ) can seek 
the hand of a girl/ but 3737 ( f +W*^ '. T ) ^TT ' to be married 
by a particular man. 

719. The root ^5 not denoting an instrument for carrying, 
and 3t in the sense of ' a master ora Vaishya' take q- ; qngj* ' a 
carriage or a vehicle/ but ^rr$T ( ^-FTO^ ) 'wrhat can be borne/ 
grf: c a master or a Vaishya; r but anq ('K' + WT^) 'fit to be 
approached or adored.' 

720. ^ with ^q in the sense of 'being conceived' takes the 
affix *rj as ^tTCPIT ifr: irvfnrr^ ^TOT gr^T?g ^P^?gu: ( Bid. 
Kau. ) but 3<rennT ( 3-T^ + tni^) ^r^ff snw^T fq^: (Sid. Kau.). 

721 3| takes this affix with the negative particle prefixed 
to it and forms snrq* 'what cannot grow old' but this must 
qualify ^fl 'friendship/ c/. 
Bhatti. VI. 53. In 

XV3II. 7, the word ^qcT must be considered as understood. If it 
does not qualify ^JTJT, it will take the affix $ ; as 3T3rftTT ^^^-- 

722. 5^ takos the affix qr^ optionally, before which ^J is 
substituted for it; 5^ + q > =^T = < what ought to be killed/ 
it optionally takes inr^, in which case *rr^ is substituted 
for it: 

436" SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 723-728 

By means of the affix ^mrj *r ) 

| 723. The roots f 1 . 2. P. 'to go/ ^ ^ , * 5. P. A. 
^q(, and roots haying SR- short for their penultimate, except 
and ^^t take the affix cpq^r ( r) in th name sense as q-^ . When 
a root ends -in a short vowel, ^ is inserted between the final 
vowel and the affix ? t. g. f-fRT 'worthy of being approached./ 
^T 'deserving praise:' 5THJ fSr^T 'fit to be instructed j 
f BTTSfir; 35* sjsq 1 'worthy of Doing served/ ^- 
<fit to be increased as wealth, &c. ' but ^cq- ( opr^+q^ ) 'able/ 
^g- ^rrif ( =3Tj;-ftnT^ ) 'that ought to be teased or hurt.' 

724. According to V&mana, the roots ^f^, ^ and aj take 
^M n1x opttonally; ^-^TW 'praiseworthy/ f^ pr 5^ 
optionally they take the affix inn]; ( to be given hereafter ); 

725. ^g[ also takes this affix optionally; 359 'what is fit 
or ought to be cleansed ^ optionally it takes uq^ before which 
the final ^ is changed to IT *, ITR^. 

726. ( a ) ^ when it has a Subanta prefixed to it and is 
without a preposition takes the attix ^rq^impersonallyj srgnnr 
*fl^: *{&>%$ * identity with Brahncan.' When no Habanta is uaed 
prepositionally with it, it takes the affix q^> *r^T or sr^oq*. 

( a ) g^ under similar circsmstances takes either cfq-q: or 17*73; 
in a passive sense or impersonally; sr^i^ or ^^<4<| ' expounding 
the Veda' ( *3T %^ X*t ^f Sid. Kan. % 

727. ^ t^kes this affix, but drops its ^ and adds f to its 
penultimate vowel g^+q-rr^r+^s^r+f-l-q-s^ir * what is fit 
or ought to be dng or excavated.' 

728. 1 ol. takes this affix when the participle so derived 
does not form, a name, *pqr:'tnose who ought to be nourished 
or maintained, her ce servants/ &c.; bu^, ^[q^: (if+oqjO a 
class of Kshatriyaa'; when ^q precedes >r, gpq^ acd <nr^ are 
added optionally $&qi; or 


N. B, The word war meirinj; < a wife ' ought to be derived 
from JT of the 3rd class and affix rjq^. 

729. *The following seven words are irregularly formed 
with the affix ^q-gr in the sense given in each case: 

or * 6. P. 'to incite/ 'to im- 

falsehood ' 

( from OTT + *3[+ ^^ ); H^af ffff ^^T: ^f (any base metal) fr. 
OT + WU 5TTT^: &* ^ TOH7T^ I ^^^(Tf^ST *T* ^T^ W 
Kir. I. 35. Manu. VII. 96. sjcKn other cases take* the affix inr^; 
what ought to be concealed ' $g ^ir^^ q^*^ ^^q^|: 
3 ^^ ^oi'H^FTT: I ' growing in cnltiv*td 
: 'not feeling pain. ' 

730. ( a ) The following two words which are the names of 
two rivers are derived by means of this nfiix; fRf?T ^9 fw : 

; see Rag XI. 8. 

In other cases these roots take the affix 

( i ) Similarly the words 3tr: and fcr^Vo both the names of 
the constellation Pushya, are derived from 5^ and far respecti- 
vely with the affix sprr ; 5ir5^f|eniraf: S^v f^W^WRR^C %W.\ 

731. The roots ^ , sft and fo, preceded by f%, take tnis 
affix, when they are connected with the words fpr, ^?^ and f^ 
respectively; f^^Efl 1 553:' The Munja grass to be prepared for 
weaving into a rope 7 ( fpsrif^jTornr sfrefqW'l' fwnf: Sid. 
Kau. ) ; f^fm: <5&6: 'in which ought to be destroyed-,' ftrerafr 

i I Pan. 111. I. 114. V ide 

Sid. Kau. 'on the same. 

t C/. finft ^Hl^ld^ft ^nrrV, &c. Rig. III. 59. 1. 

438 SANSKRIT GB AMMAR . [731-736 

f: 'The plough to be pulled with great force/ 3%r *hjcq:, in 
other cases thesd take the affix q^; iqirrq, fiJRq, ^q\ 

732. The following words are derived from the root 52- 
with the affix ^qtr: 3?3q$f, SPJ5J, <Tf <two technical terms in 
grammar/ qjp^r: 'birds restrained from free motion, euch as- 
parrots,, &o.; ' T^TII^T%f ^(T^sfr^TcTr ??q^T I Sid Kau. 
mmign %rff * an army stationed outside a village'; HTq^^T^' 
3n*fa|i: a?<I$nmcT farf: ( Sid. Kau. ) < siding *ith the noble. ' 
See Bag. II. 43. 

733. The roots 3? and 3 take both cpr<r and irq^; ^?qv 
^rf; 3~<*X> wi 'what ought to be chosen, best/ &c. 

734. 5^; in the sense of 'to be harnessed' takes the affix 
3*n and changes its final to ITJ *rrq: iff: ' a bull to ba harnessed 
to the yoke;' in other senses it takes the affix o > q^-tfr5q > . 

By means of the affix aq^. 

735. Roots ending in ^, and those ending in a consonant 
take the affix uqq; (q 1 ) in the same sense as q^. Before this affix 
the ending ^ and ^f of a root are changed to ^ and rr respecti- 
vely and the final vowel and the penultimate 37 take Vriddhi 
substitute;; any other penultimate vowel generally takes Gupa. 

3> qn*$ 'what ought to be done/ \% vff^f * what ought to be 
worn/ &c.j jr^ 1W&, SK^IVJ 'what ought to be impelled/ &c.j 
W^MUcMfr 'what is. arranged, a sentence/ T^ qn^q 1 'what is to 
be cooked/ ^^ wti} ' what is to be purified/ &c. 

736. The root sr^[ when preceded by 3?m 'with' takes the 
affix uu^ before which the penultimate 3^ is optionlly changed 
to Vriddhi; 3jqr ^ff q^TJTiTifqT ^"^anpf swranrr <> r 3TWr 'the day 
on which the sun and the moon are with each other t. 0. tre in 

(a) igs^ when preceded by <rrfor or the preposition wm takes 
the affix rnr^; as <nf&ivqf ^q% ^rftRrnrf ^3:5 similarly ^jrq^niT- 

737-740 ] Pr.iMABY NOMINAL BASES 439 

737. ( a ) The roots ^ , ?n^, ^[ , ST^[, W^, and <r 
do not change their ^or^to^orjj before 

qr^ra; ; ft^nj; t srar^r^, ( a^H^iq 1 : ), 3*^?, rm*q, 

( i ) 7^ does not change its w to ^> before gq^g; when the 
meaning i3 'what ought to bespoken out, speech/ *rq-; but 
*: a sentence.' 

( c ) ^5^ when it means 'to go' does not change ^r its to 
; 35^73. ; when it means ' to bend' the ^ is changed to 

^ ) 5^ when it is preceded by sr and nr, takes the affix 
the sense of 'what is possible or capable of ; ' and does 
not change its ^ to IT; 

( ) 3TC has ^7 meaning ' food, ' and ifr^ 'what is fit 
to be enjoyed.' 

738. Boots ending in 7, short or long, take the affix <nrq[ 
in the sense of 'what ought or must necessarily be done;*' 
5> 3T&T 'what must necessarily be cu'^ off;' <n3* 'what 
must necessarily be purified; g; with 3H aiimai, 3 'to 

( a ) The roots ^, ^, w$, w^ and ^q; also do the same- 
*what must necessarily be sown.' fT^, 'what must be 
spoken of distinctly;' 3JTc<rs[ , rrr^ , ^fc^. 

739. The following woids are irregularly derived by 
means of the affix uq^; 3TRTW 'what ought to be brought from 
the G&rhapatya t. e. the Dakshinagni;' ( fr. ;ft with aur ) 

( Sid. Kau.. ) but Sffffq- in other cases; as 'ajar;' 

( fr. ;ft with q- ) 4frT- sftT3r ?W ( Sid. Kau. ) 5 < disgusted 

with worldly pleasures;' as sron^'^^T^T f%*tE" S*W I but 

in other cases. 
740 jfnTit 3*%T ffcT JT^ ' a measure ' ( fr. ITT )} ^T*T^ nqfr 

^jumfffff xrm fft ^nfr ( from - 'rir with ^^ ) fffarttsiT: 'a 

kind of offering ( See Sis XI. 41. )'; 

440 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 740-745 

r:(fr. T % with ft); 


: ( a sacrifice); <rfigpar:, 
( particular place? for depositing the sacrificial fire); 
other cases 

741. The roota >g; and ^ take the affix 

nd^r^,^ and <r< take inr^, in an active sense; 


^: ( also HOTW^H )j nni^ff^ *fa: * one who sings' 
/ also ?ft ^TIT 3R5T )> ST^RHT: 4 one who speaks' 3<rwfar: <one 
who stands by'. ST^p, 5JTT:, qr^T'- 

( 3 ) By means of %fam; ( ^%W ) 

742. A few transitive roots take the affix frf^nr having 
the same force as the affix *r : q%m*r fr. ^, fit to ripen or to 
be cooked- as q%fiTT *m:; fi^TOP ( if. f^[ ) <&TOT: ' the pine 
trees ought to be felled-' &o. 

743. The declension of these Participles follows that of 
nouns ending in 3*. 

( a ) Indeclinable Past Participles. 

744. The Indeclinable Past Participles are of the nature 
of gerunds. They fall under two heads: ( 1 ) Those derived 
by affixing HTT tc the simple root) and ( 2 ) Those derived by 
means of q- affixed to tho root compounded with prepositions or 
words used prepositionally. pj *WT 'having gone;' ig; with 
3?3 3l31*r ' having experienced;' &c. 

I. Indeclinable Participles formed with ?^rr. 

745. The indeclinable Past Participle or gerund in CT is 
formed of all roots or derivative verbal bases to which no pre- 
position ( nor a prepositional word ) is prefixed. The affix aw is 
of the same nature as the 3 of the Past Passive Participle, so 


that all the changes that take place before ft generally also take 
place before ?ST. In other wojds from the P. P. Ptc. of a root, 
separate the ft or ^ from it, add ?9T instead, and this will be the 
form of the gerund in rctf e. g. 

Roots. P. P. Ptc. Ind. P. Ptc. 

to know 

to give 

to stand 
5 T to go 
fT to abandon 
W to place 
nr to conquer 

^ to purify qf%ft or 

^ to be ift 

^ to do ffft 

^ to cross rfW 

I to fill <iat 

3* to protect 
gxf to release 
31^ to eat 
^jt to out 
f^ to see 

to be hungry 

: to dwell 

to speak 

to carry 

r to sacrifice 


to bind 
to know 
to rule ?%y 


* See 684 ( e ) ; $ 750 

442 SANBKBIT GRAMMAR. [ 746-747 

746. When the intermediate f is inserted, the preceding 
vowel takes its Guna substitute 

( a ) The roots 33, 33, $* and ^ take Gu] ? a optionally 
or JTffoT, ^ftr^T or jrffor, ^fo*IT or ^fforT, 5^ 
or affifalT- 

( b ) But the roots ^,^r, g>,$*,g*> and r%^, the roots 
mentioned at 463 and f$*r , 7 cl. do not take Gnna ; ?3^?[%(3T 
' having rejoiced;' ^f^T, S*J-H3W*T ' having covered j r 


747. Wet roots, except g^^ which takes f necessarily, and 
^, ^ and ^ which reject $*, the five roots given under 472 and 
the roots marked with an indicatory 7* admit of f optionally 
before ??rr . g. 

Roots. Ind. P. Ptc. or Ger. 

to cleanse WTrir?*T, ^T 

to enter TlfSfTT, TT|T 

The following are the more important of the roots marked 

with TJ BT^ 1 P. A. 3T5^1. 10. P. A. 3T^ 4 P. SR^, ^U( 5. P. 
1. A. $^, ^ I- P. ff* 4. P. ^ 8. P. A. f^ 8. P. A. 
1.4. P.^l.P.^1- P. *P* 1. P. A. ^4. P. ir^ 
?T5r 1. P. x^^ 1. P. rgs^ 1. P. fur 8. P. A. ^ 1. P. 
T. P. ^r* 1. 5. P. q^; 7. 5. A. ar* 1. P. 5T^ 4. P. 10. P. A. 
1. P. a^ 8. P. A. 1. P. A. 10, P. 3^8. P. A <^5. P. 
4. P. f%^4. P. 10. A. *rr^ I. P. A. ft( 1. A. ^ 1. P. 

fl. P. ^ 4. P. ^ 4. P. ^[1. 4. P. <Kl. A. 4. P. *$ 
A. n^8. A. ^l.P. f^, i^,^^,^5^,l.P.^ 5^, 
5^, all of the 4th cl. P. ^>^, 1. P. A. cp* 8. P. sr^. 4 P. 
1. P. ^ 1. 4. A. 10. P: A. ^ 1. A. 10. P. A. ^ar 1. P. 
4. P. A. ^ 1. P. ^ 1. P. 5TF^ 1. P. 2. P. A. ^ 1. P. A. 
. P. 4. P. r^ 1. 4. P. %i 1. P. ** I- P. 8. P. A. 
1. 4. P. ftr^ 1. 4. P. *p^, ^cfw, 4. 9. P. *m I- 


Root*. Ind. P. Ptc. or Ger. 

- to conceal nfzt*r nrcWr JJTT 

to protect 

to desire ^Tf^f^r or 

to endure *ri%f3T or 

to covet 3tPt?3T or 

to go, to worship 3f7?3T having gone, srHiPIT having 

to kill 
to dig 
to stretch 
to tame 
to pacify 
to go &c. 

4 P. to be straight, &o. 
1 A. to be rffrftrr or a^Tr &c> &o. 

But jr^^- 

748. The roots fa, ^r, ^fr, ^and ?r, Set roots ending ID 
consonants, roots of the 10th class and all derivative verbs, 
admit f before rqr; roots of the 10th cl. preserve their aw be- 

fore f^r fa-^rc^T ^f-s-fir^T -orf(frT or 

desi. f^tT%%^r } Atm. fre. 
749. (a) The roots ^^ and m do not drop their nasal} 

(b) The penultimate nasal of roots ending in si or <$ and 
that of ^5^ 'to roam abroad,' ^to deceive' and g3^[ *to tear out/ 
are optionally dropped; 

The 3T is lengthened optionally btfore 

444 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 749-752 

(c) Roots ending in sj such as *pa , jsf , ^na , ^^ &c. and 

x s *x x 

the root tf^rf optionally drop their nasal before f^f; *rr 
tsRTT or ?[^T$ 3T3T BTf%!r*r, ST^rST or 
and ^^ insert a nasal optionally. R^r or 

or 5|T. 

750. Gnpa is optionally substituted for the penultimate 
f and 3-, roots beginning with any consonant and ending in 
any except sr or a^when ?^r has f prefixed to it, 
or Sr%??rr; ffe[-T%ftr^T or fer^r ( also ffer^r ); 

or ^rf*r?5r 
so ^ , &c., 

2. Indeclinable Participles formed with q-. 

751. When a root is compounded with ons or more pre- 
positions or words prefixed to verbs like prepositions, the 
indeclinable participle is formed by affixing q- immediately to 
it the q- is changed to r7 after a short radical vowel ( even 
when it combines with the final vowel of a preposition to a 
Jong vowel ) e. y. 

%[ with an 3*T^FT * with ST 5^T 

f%" with R^-f^fW?^ ^ with ^n3[ 

fif with qrr ^mBffq 1 & with 

;ft with f% f^^rq- ft^ with 

^ with ^3 3Tgij*r ^^ with 3- 

f with 3ifvT ^^fTrq' &c. &c. &c t 

752. The rules given at 394, 39^459, 502 and 587 
apply to Che roots also in the gerund in *r: 

g MJry with q- 

with 3 

with OTzn? ?r with f% 


% with 

m,Tt, *TT and ^ with g-<r ^Tf TT 

H* with 3*3 3T3*rnr <ft with ft-f^ftq- or 

i|r with <rft qfr^rq" &c. &c. &c. 

^ with 3TT 3flT^TT 

753. Roots of the 8th class ending in a nasal, except 9^ 
and the roots rr^, 3^ and ^ , drop their nasal necessarily. ?jjy ? 
SfH, q-iy and ^ do it optionally; ^ with T%-f%cTf^; ^[ with 
3T*-3TcTJTrTT; ?TH- with ^ Rq^q- or \7ftzr, ** with |^ f^^y or 

or xrorfq", &c. 
754. The roots ^, 5T^ and frq( have respectively R^?q-- 

755. r% lengthens its ^ before the affix q- and srrq changes 
its final vowel to Qupa; sr$fnT; snrrn^. 

756. %, ^qr and ^ do not take Samprasarapa- STTHT; 
sr^qiq" 'having become old;' xiMmnr 'having covered-/ but ^r 
with qfr or ^r^ , takes Samprasarapa optionally; qn^rrq- or 
'Tft^PT; ti<^i*i or ^cfirq'. 

757. The roots mentioned under 486 do not change 
their an to Jj irq^, STOnT, XTHPT, &o. 

758. Boots of the Tenth class and Causals preserve their 
3^ before q-, if it be preceded by a short penultimate vowel; if 
not, it is dropped-, ^faq'-sHrr*?; aftOT-snffrq-j ^ can. f%gn$ 5 sft 
cau. win anr attsrisq", &c ; but 11^-^101^, anrfl^sr, ST^IW; 
sr^m^q* ' having again and agaiu caused to be broken.' 

759. ( a ) 3T(<1. cau. may retain its ${& optionally-srrcq* 
or irmiq. 

760. Desiderative bases add q- immediately and Freq, 
bases add it after dropping their q-, when it is preceded by a 
consonant and dropping the final 3? when it is preceded by a 
vowel; f\i-snmrftrt Fre. 

* It changes its final to f optionally; so srsftTcq 1 also. 

44C SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. { 761-763 



The Gerund in g^- 

7<>1. There is another Indeclinable Participle having the 
same sense as that in r^T, formed with the affix 3^ . Before 
this the root or the derivative verbal base generally undergoes 
the same changes as it does before the f of the Pass. Aorist 
3rd sing.; sfr-tTnnr 'having carried or led', ^r-^nn^ 'having 
given'- ^-TO*, ft?-*^, Tf-^TW, H*-nP*, &c. 

762. This Participle is generally used at the end of com. 
pounds- ff Ste'SRT **' <he wa pelted to death;' 
( Vik. I. ) 'She was taken a captive.' 
( Bhatti. I. 2. ) 'He totally exterminated his enemies, &c.' 

763. The participles in r^j and ar^* when repeated yield 
the sense of repetition of the r * ion or condition expressed by 
the verb; f^?fr fqw or ^jrrt fir, ; 4 having repeatedly remem- 
bered; <ftr?T "TTf^T or <Tnr WJH -having drunk again and again-' 
similarly ^^ &FZ1 g^T or ^nt ^HHC; ^-^T g?*T or 

siw^ , *TH-n?*r n?5rr or irr 

or 5JW ^fww or 55TH ?yTT^ 

Pan III. 4. 22. 

At the end of compounds this may not be repeated and yet 
have f he sense of repetition ; as in 

? Bhatti. 11.11 

The descendant of Kakutsths, smiling gently, repeatedly 
bending down the creepers would pluck their flowers, wading 
through every stream ( that he came across ), would sip the 
waters, and seating himself on every charming slab would 
remain there ( in admiration of the scenery ). 


764 The Gerund 3T^ does not, in many instances, express 
the notion of repetition. 

765. This gerund or the one in f^r is nsed with the words 
3T2JT, ITW and 3^, used as prepositions, although the notion of 
repetition ia not present in these compound?., 3nnTt3T-:ff?r9T *T 

'having first eaten be goes out*' so snrevfnr or 

766. The gerund in s^ of the root $j is used * 

( a ) with the noun governed by it, if it be compounded with 
it prepositionally when censure is implied- ^fTOTT 3TTeFl^TfR 
( .J^lgj s^r'pj-fir*}: ) ' cries out ( he is ) a thief ; a thief.' In this 
case ^is added to the noun governed. 

( ft ) with the words sn$, SR^j and ^q^f, n being added to 
these as before; 

'he eats having sweetened er seasoned his food.' 

( e ) with the words 3T7qriT, tft, ?f^t, and qjtf, provided the 
root 3 loses its sense; ^^i^icHif a;?* 'he speaks in a different 
manner-/ tnforT ^% <he eats thus:' similarly 

( d ) with the particles inn and HT when an angry reply 
is given; mn^it ifa% ?TOT*T* ^^ f% rT^T^T ( Sid. Kau. ); 
I will eat in this mnnner, I will eat in that manner, what 
have you do with that ?' 

767. The Gerund of the roots 5^ and f^r f compounded 
with their objects and expresse totality; *^r^j 
1 chooses as many girls as he sees, . e. all of them*/ 

448 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR [767-769 

( Sid. Kau. ) < be feeds every Brahmana tbat he knows or comes 
across or renembers t. e. all of them ' 

( a ) *The gerunds of f^ ' to get' and *fH[ 'to live' are joined 
witb qrsra in the same sense; qrclt? % 'eats wbat be gets.' 

( 5 ) f Witb the words ^jfa and g^? the gerund of ij is used ; 
eat8 so as to fil1 ^ 

768. Tfeis gerund of f^[ is uaed with gs^ t ^pf and 

t S^^r farfe s 5 ^ ftsnR^* ( Sid. Kau. ). so 

'be grinds to powder.' 

769. ^J With tbe words ^TCJ?, 3T^TT and ^ft^r are used res- 
pectively the gerunds in sn^ of the roots 5^ , i& and q^ in a cog- 
nate sense- ^OTTff r% ' kills destroying the roots t. e totally'. 

tr& 'does what ought not to have been done;' 
' captures him so aa to preserve him i. t. alive.' 

( a ) The gerund of f^and fq^ is used with words signify- 
ing instruments ( of action ). qrr^^Tcf 5f?ff=qf^T fPfT ' l strikes 
( kicking ) wi^h foot;' gr^q 1 R5Tr%=3T3%^ I^Tf% * grinds with 
( using ) the water. 

( b ) Similarly the gerund of ^ and ?TJ is used with 5^ 
'and its synonyms, and tbat of 5^ with ^r- ^^?r^S qtftrft; so 
^^^*3[ f^^Jf 5T%^T 9?n<frc*r$h I Sid. Kau.; 
similarly TTffenfW , ^nrif^, &o. 

Pan. III. 4. 30. 

t ^rHhr^fr: $.- \?. in. 4. 31.; 

t S^T^^ ft* I P *"- HI. 4. 35. 

I P&n III. 4. 3640. 


770. * The gerund of ^^is used with words denoting 
peculiar arrangements of stanzas, &c., 

771. f With the words gffa and s^r used subjectively the 
gerunds of ;^ and ^ are used; 

( a ) J The gerunds of g^ and ojr are used with gprf simi- 


rr T^ *mtflf& i Sid. Kau. 

( 5 ) f f Sometimes the Gerund in ara; is used with words de- 
noting a standard of comparison; ^rTRvrm RfgH 5T^ ' the 
water was kept with as much care as ghee-' 3OTC3T3T 
I* TO 

772. The gerund in sr^ of roots haying the sense Of 
'to strike/ &c. are used with words denoting the instrument 
when the object of the gerund and of the principal verb is the 
same; qusWmd <TT: OTSJTfir * 4U)<fi<<tll<f ' he collects to- 
gether cows beating ( them ) with a stick;' 3<JdlH i but 
P M*im. 

( a ) The gerunds of qr^ ^ and ^, with grq-, are used 
with nouns having the sense of the Loc. or the Inst,: qp^q^fhr 

Ti Sid. Kau. 
( b ) Similarly 

. ni. 4. 41. 42. 

- HI- 4. 43. 

fr I Pan. III. 4. 44. 

Pan. III. 4. 45. 

i fm^rm *r i Pn. HI. 4. 48-63. 

H. s. o. 29. 

450 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 772-775 


( c ) Nouns having the sense of the Ablative and the 
Accusative are used with this gerund of a root when haste 
or hurry is intended; ^ittftrorrf ^T^fil 'runs having quickly 
got up from the bed;' ^fejTTfr 5^5^; tftgmgH, &c. 

773. *A root may be used in its gerundive form in gp^ 
with its object prefixed to it if that object be a part of the bodj 
which can be severed without fatal effects; ^rf%^tf grenjf^ 'nar- 
rates contracting the eyebrows* but %T 3"T?$T**T (not f$R3f$TqT^) 
as the severance of the head would cause death 

( a ) Similarly when a part of the body is completely hurt 
or pressed in the action, the gerund in sw is used with that 
part; gr:xrffrW 3W% . . ^Tg*: <f(3TTW ' afflicting the 
whole bosom-/ 

774. fThe roots ft^, tr^, q^, and ^r^ are used in theit 
gerundive forms in 3T*r in the sense of ' complete occupation or 
pervasion or repetition' with nouns which if not compounded 
would have stood in the Acc. ? 

i so- 

775. ( a ) J The gerunds of 3^ and 3^ are used with nouns 
denoting a period of time intervening between the repetition or 
performance of the action; g^^Tf^mf or fr^SHrqw ITTJ m^^fd 'he 
makes the cows drink water allowing two days to intervene, 
t. . every third day' 3^1 <rnrfoc9rr ^snT 
( Sid. Kau. ) ; similarly gifcm or 

* ^Hf^ I ( ** f%*T 5T 3fT^ *&&( I Sid Kau. 
l Pan. III. 4. 64, 55. 

t ftftnfWfe** 5 ^ OT*qHHfawngnft: Pan. HI- 4. 56. 



( b )* Similarly the gerunds of f^ with 3jr, and q are uied 
with ;nJR( and in the sense of the Ace.; JUff^gTHM 
^Ifll^TlW, &c. 

( c ) The gerund of ^may optionally be used after 

( c ) The Infinitive. 
776. The Infinitive is formed by the affix grj with the same 

effect as the 

f to go 

tpj to grow 

5T to give 

ft to carry 

3? to do 

^ to be 

H to shake 
to choose 
to sing 
* to go 

n of the Future; e. y. 
Infinitive Hoots. 



to compose 
to cook 

to cut 
to cover 
to baar 
to steal 
Atm. Freq 





Various Krt Aflixea, 

777. In the following list are alphabetically arranged 
almost all the common Krt affixes forming nouns ( substantive 
adjective ) with various significations from roots or deriva- 
Lve bases. 3 3 r ^^, ^gr, ^ 

: I Pan III. 4. 57. 58. 


31^ denoting < the agent' is added to q^ and other roots* 
: ' one who cooks 

j to and q^, when the words gfrc and ^ 
are prefixed to them respectively; sm*Hr <an adulteress/ 
qq^r: t a Chandala ' to g when the noun governed by it 
is used prepositionally and when the idea of difficulty is not 
present or when the whole compound denotes 'age; 7 3^t 

entitled to a share, a heir * but *m$K: ' a load- 
bearer ' ( TSTK+ f + 3T?r ); <M<4S* : ' a young child; * also when 
3fT is prefixed to it in the sense of ' in the habit of.' 
ff sfrsmST 3Rft S^Tf*:; to the root q^ when the wor 
a missile, ' ^^ < a plough/ af^r ' an iron hook, ' 
javelin/ qi% <a stick/ ^7, ^ and q^ are prefixed to it; 
?T%iTf : 'one armed with a spear/ &c; 

&c.; also when 3^ is prefixed to it and the root is used in the 
sense of ' wearing '; ^nnr: ' wearing a sacred thread; ' but 
*SWTf : ( 5?T+ Hf + 3T7T) * one who takes in his hand a sacred 
thread;' to 3^ when a noun used objectively is prefixed to 
it; l^fmSdTffr f3TT?T HT^QP ' a Brahmana deserving worship^ 
to ^ and 3ft when the words ^3*3 and gjof in the Loc. 
are prefixed to them respectively; tfl^W * an elephant, r 
(taui^q; 'one who whispers into the ear, a spy/ to any root 
when the word $ is prefixed, j&v, $**'> ^fa^ &c.,-to ^fir 
when a word showing the place of action precedes, ^ ^r ^~ 
( ^ )^T? : 'dwelling in the sky, ' BO g-fe^W ' dwelling in the 
heart, *. e Madana'; also when words like qr$ ^T> ?> & c - 
md ^fTH, ^c. precede, qp ^^ W W- ' sleeping on the 
aides/ &c., ^fTR^r?: 'lying on the back with the face up- 
ward!/ so 3Httfciq: (WR?ft %& 3WT ?TOT $^) * . 'with the 
lace downwards. ' When added to roots ending in f and to 
ome others it forms abstract nouns, T% ^m * & collection/ 
ftr 3HT:, ift -W, ^ W 'a shower of rain.' &c. 

3Tur is added to roots when the words forming their objects are 
prefixed to them, 5>*rOTr> * a potter, ' ^mOT*: Wliea a su- 


hanta is prefixed to ^ with q^ 9 the n of this root is changed 
to ^optionally; quj^Vjiq: or-j: 'a collection of words.' 

added to roots ending inland ^ short or long* it 
sometimes forms abstract nouns, sometimes shows the place 
or the instrument of action denoted by the root ; ^j ^f: 
praise, 5 TO: barley, ^ <jw:, ^ ^^:, ^ ^: the instru- 
nient of doing anything . . the hand, Jj *K: poison, 5 TT: 
fear, f ^T: a boon &c., ^ with f% f^^: a tree or a seat, 
:fo*TC: otherwise ; 5^ with ^ takes this affix ; ^fa: a collec- 
tion; jp^ also takes it, nm.'; 3?^ preceded by a pre[ osition 
takes this affix and is changed to ^ ; RTOv STW:, ft^Rf: 
&c.; food or eating 5 ( when no preposition precedes, it takes 
^s? ^TO*' ); the roots srq^and s^nj; not preceded by a preposi 
tion take 3i<Tj 3TT: muttering prayers, ^nr: the act of piercing; 
( but when a preposition precedes, they take ^T 5 as gMvHIM: 
secret whispering into the ear, separation, &c. ); the roots 
^^[ and ^ by themselves take sr^or ^3^; ^^-Wr: or WR: 
sound; f^-f^: or ^RT'i with a preposition they take the 
latter oiily; srWT;-, Vfl^r: &c.; qi^ without any preposition 
or with the preposition OT, M, ft and *rq takes either arq^or 
^rsi^; *nr- or qTH: restraint, control, &c , 3TW or inw: 
marriage; similarly fn^M-' or p^m: &c. ; the roots iy^ , ^, 
fr^ and ^^, with R take 3r^or TST^; ^iiif: or f^iTTT : speech, 
HH^ or HHK^ sound, &c. ^[ with or without ft takes IT^ 
or trst; 9)QT: or ^TOT:, Rl^QT: or-g^n;: the eound of a lute; 
the root j^ when a word other than a preposition is prefixed 
to it takes STVJ with a preposition it takes ^jsr 5 ^rnr^: the 
pride of wealth, ^Ffrr^*' madness, insanity; but when pre- 
ceded by sr or ^r^ it takes s^when the meaning is joy; srjr^: 

or ^jTT- in otller Ct8es ifc takeB TO.? SHTT^:, ^HTT careless- 
ness, oversight, a blunder. The affixes sjq^and -qor are added 
to several other roots too numerous to note here; the 
difference between these is that ^n? occasions Vriddhi of the 
preceding vowel, 31^ does not. 


is added to roots having f , ?, 5^, or < for their penulti- 
mate, and to the roots sft and SFT and denotes the agent f^?ar- 
fNg-: one who writes, %<T-fTq:; one who throws, spj-3jr: &c. 
ift-nnr one who pleases ; 3 f%j: one who scatters ; it is also 
added to roots ending in grr with or without any preposition, 
the final 3jr being dropped ; ^rr- ^n or jr^f: one who knows, 
wise ; ^ if: or 3TTg: one who calls ; also when a subanta is 
used prepcsitionally with it ; ^r-iff^: one who gives cows or 
cuts the hair; qt-flTT- ( ffTvqf ITOfTfa* ) an elephant; when 
added to ^jf it has various meanings ; *T*TW happy; f3q!WU : 
placed in difficulties; jrof: a measure of corn, i&c. This is 
also added to n? ajf a house, JJ^T: a wife, a house. 

T is added to g^ not meaning 'to see' when a prononn pre- 
cedes it; a<I+?^=3T=?rr?5r; like that; also when the words 
and 3^qr precede ; ^r^r: like to, 3(WirS3i: like another 
is added similarly; 

and ^f^- Before these the 3? of the noun forming the object 
of the root with which it is used prepositionaiiy inserts the 
syllable ^ after it. ^ {s added to the root ^ after 
and ^r; ftq- ^^fn% ft^nr^: ' one who speaks sweetly ; 
' subject to the iuflnence of, obedient to the will of; ^ after 
the words $frr, fro, ifg", and *r*r; J^H fs(q > -^-cR > : doing good, 
&c.; OT^r: causing fear, dreadful, 3?^?T^T : i to the root ip^ 
after a subanta ; i%|prr: passing through the sky, a bird; 
to the roots ^, <f, 3, fir, ^, ^, ^ and ^ when the 
whole is a name; f^HWTJ God; T^hft a portion of the Sama 
Veda; qffon a birde who chooses her husband; ^[5r?nr: an 
elephant, ?TJT^^: name of a mountain; ^faq*: name of a 
king; 3WTW : name of a king 5 to *n* after ^r^, ^T^nTJT: 
one who restrains his speech for the observation of a vow m r 
to the roots ^ and g- after the words ^ and ^ respec- 
tively ; flifagT the^earth ? $faf: Indra.- to ^ after the words- 
W and ^flT frilCT: all destroying, all powerful - r 


also a rogue; $*CTT ( a river ) sweeping away its banks; 
*fttar: dashing against, coming in collision with the clonds 
as the wind; cgfiq^qj blowing away dry cowdung, as a strong 
wind or gale, ^^is added to q^ cau. as in *ffiifrvq': making 
the people tremble with fear; name of a king; to 
3^ and 5T 'to go' after the words *RT, S*, ffteT and 
flatulenof ; *T?W3T: facing the wind, a kind of deer; 
kitten; ffos^p an oilman; ana ^T^^ff: causing flatulence 
( ITPTT ) kind of bean; to and \JJTT after the words 
and ^7, re?pectively. *9RTC: a t aby sucking breast; 
( *f )W a goldsmith; to g^ after f^j and 
the afflictor of the moon '. e. Rahu. sr^g^: ( 
5^ffrf^r ) wounding the vital .parts, painful- to q^[ after 
words showing measure as sr^f^r^T WT3T, OTfifT^ ^^Tf: and 
after fax and HS'-ftmTC: one who cooks measured corn, a 
raiser; SHafa^rr nail-scorctiing ( as ir^r^: ); to 5^ ond f!^ 
after the words 3*3$ and ^9T?; <^3<I^Ui: those who do not 
see the sun t. e. the queens of a king who are shut up in 
the harem; srarijaT: scorching the forehead; to ^, jr^ and 
TT afer gir, ^^ and ^TT^T respectively; ^^7 of a fierce 
aipect, f n?^: lightning; (rrfwrq: a road ( shrouded in such 
darkness that one has to clap one's hands for driving away 
serpents &c. that may be in the way ); to ^ meaning 'to 
consider oneself as, tfifefiRT, a pedant, who considers 
himself a Pandita; irfaHf: one who considers himself a cow 
e. who is very humble; &c. 

is added to any root with {^,53; or $ prefixed to it 
when the idea of ease or difficulty is present, T?^T-* done 
easily; 5*3^ done with difficulty; 53^ done easily; so g:$rrcR; 

qSr&i, &c. &c. 

is added in the sense of the place or the instrument of the 
action or forma abstract nouns ; 5? with 3rr-3TT^T^ A mine ; *&% 
with 3Hr 3TT^r: & spade; trot with ^T, 3WTO: a place of traffic ; 
a- touch-stone ; ^r ifr^T" & pasture-ground; 
: a path; srg- ^5: a shoulder j ft*m: that by which the 


people are guided, thb Veda ; unr: and anp. a Ian. Before this 
not preceded by more than one preposition becomes 3* 

^T3J- added to roots ending in consonants has almost a universal 
application and a variety of senses*, before bhis the final ^ or 
V are changed to ^ or jj; q^_^rr^: food; ^^ ^nr: desire* 
*TIT f^MTlT: rest; 5 w, strength, substance, with arft-grft- 
or 3Kfrrrr- dysentery; 51^: * necklace, ^ <rr^: a foot; 
^; Tsn* being, a thing &c . fr^ ^f: a house- 
a disease- ^^^ W& touch; f?>j ^: fuel; 
laxity; f%-^mr: ( *q^6R^Rm^ ) the body, with ft . 
: a house, &c.; to 55 when preceded by a preposition, 
r : the warbling of birds ( otherwise ^: ). The roots 
and fijr^change their vowel to 3TT before this; fro?: or 
: the throbbing of the hand, &c. ^ and J preceded by 3n 
take bDth ^37 and arr; arrtnT: or ^r: a loud sound, angro- 
^r: a deluge. Sometimes the affixes q*^ and 377 are used in 
different senses; ft mq*: chief, jronr: friendship, kindness; 
-* the act of moving a piece at chess, draughts, &c. 
". marriage: f with t^-^rrq': justice, wrq-: ruin ; ^ with 
8TT or r% 3Wimr: or RJTTf : impediment, separation, 3^99: 
a grammatical mark; ^rc^T f^3Tf! ^ e confinement of a 
thief; but 3t3iTT?: JTf ' draught, want of rain, fcr after 307 
take the affix ^sr when the whole means 'gathering flowers 
with the hands' s*uo|Hj:, DU ^ H^^^ : 'collecting flowers with 
a stick' &c. it is also added to ^ and &s^ with ft; ^n 
the hand; 7335?: hump-backed, the Nyagrodha tree. 

^ is added to the root ff preceded by f^rr, rr^, ^. <T^, f%[, 
a numeral, and nouns governed by it; f%^r ^tfrfer f^WSTs, 
vfT^T: the sun, ^C^TI &c.: to ^ preceded by 5^:, annr:> 3*, 
and ^i}:, grifT*:, 3Tim:HT: a leader, &0., and to ^ preceded 
f*$n> ^TT) 7HT and words showing the place of action; 
a soldier, &c. 


affixed to ^ preceded by arm or ^ f 3 * changing to fr 
the whole meaning 'bearing an inauspicious mark '; a hus- 
band causing the death of his wife-^rnmr bearing a mark 
on his body indicative of the death of his wife-, similarly 
<rfSrOTj ^is is also added to g^ when the agent of the action 
is not a man ; ffalT checking bile, such as ghee* <rf^sfr (TTftJT- 
^OT ), &c.; to g-qr preceded by (f^f^and ^TTH" in the sense of 
'having the power to do what is denoted oy the root;' fffOT 
4 one able to kill an elephant/ &c. ; and preceded by qrftt and 
arc in the sense of ( one having the skill;' qrftre: 'one "ho beats 
time with the hand, also a drummer ( beating a drum with 
the hand );' to qr 'to drink' and if if not preceded by a pre- 
position; ^ftnq 1 : 'one who drinks the Soma juice'; 

'one who chants the Sama Veda ', .but qimUliq: (when 
a prep, precede? it ); <TT 'to protect' takes 3?; $fTTTT STTSCnfir, &c. 

T U affixed to ip* preceded by 3T?<T, *ic*lfl, are*^, ^T , TR, *rf, 
3f?ftT, ^fer, qv creeping on the ground, ' ^ **<* ftfHT^ 
and denotes the agent) to irq preceded by ^r and ^ and shows 
the place of action; before this the final consonant with the 
preceding vowel or the final vowel of a root is dropped; SRptf 
4|*btfrflri 4irii|: 'one who goes to the end;' araif: 'a traveller; 9 
TOT, gffP ' serpent;' r%nT3( is changed to f^fHir: '* 
bird/ ^: 'a fortress,'&c.; to 5^ when a blessing is implied' 
<re S^r: ^Tff ' YV%^ 'may thy son be the destroyer of his enemies; 9 
also to 5^ with anr after the words fj^r and ^rr^ t %5U^f : 
'removing pain, consoling, a son;' fl*Ttq^: 'the dispeller of 
darkness, the sun;'-to 5^ preceded by a word having. the senss 
of the Loc. or of the Ab. and not denoting a class, or when it 
ii preceded by a preposition and the whole is a name; R^H' 
* born in a stable;' mi^M <a lotus;' qM>K>H: 'produced after 
some operation;' 3f^T3T: &c.; !r5TT:, 9f^r: a younger brother}' 
ihe words fl^r:, 9HT:, ^^uili'' &c. are also formed by meant 
of this affix- this is also added to ff^ with qft ; qftgr 'a ditch 7 


or is added to roots ending in arr which insert tr be-- 
fore it; 3T-3TV: 'one who receives a share/ ^r qw ' one 
who holds/ Ac to 3$ when preceded by are and sift, 
* mist, frost/ srfifctrnr ' a catarrh or cold; to f , 
and f preceded by a preposition; ararnr ' violation, ' 
: ' oozing, trickling/ arrow ' end ', aregTT. ' a thief, a 
seamonster'; to r%$, %T X , H$, <n*, >^[and^;?Jf: 'a 
lambative, an electuary/ *TO 'an embrace/ irif : 'an alligator/ 
?irnrt 'a hunter/ ifr*?: ' respiration/ nrw: ' a thing* to ;ft 
and 5 not preceded by a preposition; ^TT-* ' a leader', ^TO: ' a 
forest-fire;' to **, ^77, 5R[, Z^[ * to be confused 1 , ^7 
'to smell/ $4?, 9T($, ^5 $r^> ^^ 

(these may 

also take 3f^[ ); ^T5J: ( or STO*. )> flwne or bla/e/ &c: 
to qfoff, 77 and ^8T^, when their objects are prefixed to 
them; RRr$fTcJ: ' one who keeps flesh; 1 irffr^vr: ' one who 
wishes for flesh;' iri*PT$r: ' one who eats flesh'; to 
and ^ with 3^-, 5Wsnfts?: ' one desiring happiness/ 
'forgiving much.' ^qTOTT^TTf : 'good-conducted-,' to ^, if and 
HT after their objects; f^if *T^ WTSnT : > ?ig^PT : ( a weaver, 
VM*miq: ' measure of corn-/-to 3^^ w [th ft, r^: ' food. ' 

is added to <rr, JTT, WT, vt, and ^^; qr-ftv: l one who 
drinks;' Hf jsnr: one who emells; g^ q^qr ' one who 
sees; to $r and vjr 3 cl.; ^T-^*: ' one who gives, ' w 
^T: 'one who holds; to f^and f%^; faf^J ' O n who plasters;' 
ftvqp'one who knows/ also when the former is preceded by ft 
and the latter by iff and other words; frf^PT: * a god/ 
'name of Vishno'.' 3TTT%^: ' a lotus/ to the Oau. of 
tpfwith i-q^, and \j; %^q-: ( ono who thinks or knows/ 
' one who fills'; g^ro: 'one who makes another tremble/ cf t 
Bbatti. 1. 25. vnr<T : l one who holds' ; added to all roots it 
forms abstract fern. nonna> ^-farqr * an act; ' 
'wish/ ^^-^fr^niT 'service-/ qir-^nrr 'hunting;' 
3|^Tn ^ambling;' gfpj 5nTtrf ' wakefulness, &c. ' 

777 ] 



3T -forms abstract nouns from derivative bases; ^-ftqffa 
desire to do; ^nimr a desire to have a son, &c. Also from 
roots ending in a consonant having a long vowel for their 
penultimate; f-?ffT desire, 3?f 3TfT a guess; reasoning, &c^ 

3^ similarly forms abstract nonns; it is added to roots marked 
with an indicatory f and to ft^ and others; ij' 3TTT old age ~ 
OT-OTT shame, &c.; M^-f*T^T distinction; separation; ]%^- 
f%rm contemplation, anxiety; ^T-^HT cleansing &c. to VRI 
which changes its ^ to SKHS^T mercy ; to roots ending in srr if- 
a preposition or the words r^ and 3f?ff^ precede, ^T-ST^T giving 
gift, *TT-inrT lustre, &c. ^T with snjsr^r faith; with 
f disappearance. 

s added to ^5^ 5 *3T*: ' a washerman. ' 

io affixed to all roots and ^notes the agent of the action; 
3> ^TT3: one who makes, acting, &c. 5 q^[ *Ttt'> one who 
cooks; S^-*rnre: ^T ^P^ : > W ^TW, &c ; it is added to 
5T*J and other roots of that group; but in this case the preced- 
ing vowel is not lengthened. 5n^-$m$:, ^if-^IW, ^Rp: 
a killer, 3f^^: a father, &c. A.dded to some roots it forms 
the name of diseases; ^-JT^^fSf^T vomiting; *g-siqifl<fc| 
dysentery; diarrhoea; ^^-f^^M^I itch, scab, &c; sometinfos 
it is added to denote the meanings of roots arr^-anfi^i 
sitting, ^fr-^nRr^r sleeping, &c.; sometimes it has the sense 
of futurity,, ^uf ^fa^f TnR he goes desirous of seeing 
Krishna; ^flf qRWP &c. 

is added to f;^, fifa, fimi W% s^with ft, f^with ^R 
T j , ^, ^, *rn* ' and ^ in the sense of the ' agent/ or ' in the 
habit of;' f%^T ^^^ : <ODe wno blames or is in the habit of 
blaming or censuring others,' flfa; fifa*: 
to f^and ^^ preceded by 3rr;^T^rfr: 'a gambler/ 
<one wno calls out or vociferates, reviler. ' 

460 &AN8KBIT GRAHHAB. [ 777 

is added to sr, 3f and ^ in the sense 'ekilul in/ 

'skilful in walking}' 553^: 'skilful in cutting:' this 
may by added to any root when the idea of a blessing is to be 
conveyed; srfiqq^ T^qr: 'mayest thou live for many years/ 
Hyiwq ^rr: 'may eat thou be the giver of delight. 7 
^q^-4r added to ^5, OT and ^ in the sense of 'one who knows 
the art of/ ?r?fe: 'one who knows the art of dancing/ 13^5: 
<a digger/ a miner/ ?&fq>: <a dyer/ 

3*3 <3!^() %^>T^: 'tremor;' fa ^q^: dwelling, a 
tumour/ '343: 'pain, anxiety/ &c. 

affixed to 5|f and fT; irrqR : *a singer/ ^nrsn 4 a year/ a 
kind of rice/ 

is affixed to verbs meaning 'to go or to sound/ 
one who moves.' ^-fcror: 'one who makes a sound/ 
It it also affixed to verbs meaning 'to ornament, to deck, and to 
be angry/ flgro: serving as an ornament: 

, irascible. '-to ^, ^, q 
: ' a swift walker: ' ^-^OT: ' one who 
goes ' ^j ipfif: ' a glutton;' **<$<{' 'that which blazes, 
fire;' to some other roots ending in a consonant, 
f^-W^r: &c.:-to the freq. of m^ and ^, ^SJm 
* one who goes again and again ', it also forms fern, abstract 
nouns with the cauials of roots and the verbs srw , ^, r^ 
and %% not meaning ' to wish/ f7-KUU ' doing action, ' 

?*T. f[ with g^^Aiqun searching. ' 

affixed to ?rr^ and other roots; rf ^T: ' one who delights, a 
son/ j^ VT^r: 'he who exhilarates, the god of love, ',^rra- 
' one who accomplishes, ' e^ ^T^T: ' one who bears, ' 
'thekiUer of Madhu, ' 3^ sr^f: the 
chastiser of the sinful/ ^ R*fi^ui: ' terrifier, name of 
B&vana's brother.' 


is added to all nouns to form neu. abstract noons; * 
endurance, 5^ f S* langhing, $ft ^nPT sleeping, <rr- 
drinking, g^ i*T3R, *rp-*rnR, &c. This is also added 
in the sense of * the instrument of an action '; jr*^ 73ER: an 
instrument for cutting; an axe, &c; ^ Jfpftf^nr a milk 
vessel ( here it shows the place of action of Adhikarana ). 

( TOS ) is affixed to m^ f fa*, $| g^and * in the 
sense of 'in the habit of / W*WK: ( srf^Tg qnaHW ) 'a 
prattler; f^sjr-f^TT^: ' a beggar-/ $gre?: ' he who divides or 
cuts;' 33TO: 'a robber;' 9TTO* '* poor man.' 

destructive, hurtful; 4^ ^T^ praising, a 

is added to the cau. of ^g, q^; and q^, to ?r^ and to 
the words r%r, JT^T and sn^; ^^*s5 longing for, desirous 
of; ^ing compassionate; ftgrg disposed to sleep; *MUg:, 

^r^r^;' full of faith.' 

f ( f^> f 3 ^* ^ % > 

: <one who tills the ground'; ^-fnR: a mountain. 
is added to TT^ and other roots; 471^: a well; ^TT%- a 

fqr is added to ^r^ and other roots of the group; sm%: a 
battle, arrfit: &c. 

r % is added to the roots ^r and tTT and others assuming these 
forms; <qr ^qif^r: fraud, condition, &c.; ftf^r: a treasure, 
^Rr: a joint, peace, &c.; 5Tf^: the sea ( here it is used In 
the sense of 3Tnj<Mi)l )- 

is added to 'It i ^ ^ ^ > Wt K> and ^nr ; ^r 
a rudder, helm- an oar. afrir a sickle; vrw^ a fan 
made of the deer's skin; ^rfosf cause of generation; 
spade; ^rftsf patience, forbearance; 


is affixed to 3j with sr, ffr,?, %, T3T with ft, ***, 
with an, 3T* with affir, ^ with qft and ^ with if; 
swift-going; srRn* a conqueror; ^ft^ timid. &c., ^rfq^ wast- 
ing away; it is also added to fft with ft- when the noun go- 
verned by it is prefixed to it and when the idea of censure 
or reproach is to be conveyed; ifcftiMn, ^tRTTOft, &c. 

-is affixed to ^^, ^jf, snj, 3*, %, 55 35, 
^witharr, ^, ^t^and ^ with an; *?, %; 
^ff,^^^*W,WC, ^, W* all with 
and ^r?; with f% 5 55? , ^, JTW, 9^ , 9^; all with n ; ^ with 
3rffT and gi<r ; y^ with grf^r, ^r with 3^3; and denotes the 
agent; ?*ra[ HIlfiK one who abandons, rrfir^ .all of passion, 
impassioned, a lover ; srrftni one who takes a share, ^rf^ one 
who blaxnes; similarly ifnret , fflfttT > &c.; this is also added to 
jra[ and the other /oota of that group but without occasioning 
any change in the roots; ^rq^rfffi; tranquil; jr^irf^^j but 

with or 

is added to the roots of the q?r group in the sense of 
'the agent;' yz^jmft jrrfN 'one who takes;' 
f% with K f%wh! 'a sensualist-/ f r^r with 3fqr 
'one who is guilty;' *f with ^R-^R^ff^ f ono who defeats;' 
&c. ; to f^ when precede* by ^ITR and ^; ^inf f^mm 
'one who murders a child,' sfnivHid3l 'one who cuts 

off the head.' This is added to any root, when the subanta 
other than one denoting a class, precedes it, in the sense of 
'in the habit of/ 'disposed to'; ^<crHTT5r^ ( TW ^f^r 
'^tt&tfCT ) 'one who eats hot things-' ^rr^rf^t ' one who acts 
well;' W5T3Tf^ 'one who expounds the Vedas or the nature 
of Brahman;' to q^ after any subanta. <TTO^<Tmftj[ 'one 
who considers himsalf a Pandits/ ^jnfhnTTI^ 'one who con- 
siders himself handsome,' &o. ; this is added in the sense of 
the Past Tense to q^ preceded by the name of a sacrifice; 
^, 'one who Las performed the Soma sacrifice-/ so 


and to f^ when the noun governed by it is 
prefixed to it; flqmmfrtq[ 'one who hat killed his ancle.' 
This is also added to a root when a noun signifying a standard 
of comparison is prefixed to it; 3?tRr%i( 'one who alters a 
sound like that of a camel'; vqifrmfq< 'one who cries like a 
crow- 1 this is also added when the observance of a vow is to 
be indicated; ^fegqnfcq 'one who observes the vow of 
sleeping on the alter)' also in the sense of 'necessity' or the 
payment of a debt ; STOtrvrrfcg 'what takes place of necessity-/ 
'one who pays off a debt of Rs. 100.' 

is added to ^ with stf and f%r, sn* 
with sr, q^, <HJ and H^ all with 3?^, ^, 37 with an:, 3*, 
^5, and ^ in the sense of 'in the habit of, possessed of the 
properties of,' or 'expert in 1 'acting well .' arsteRwr, 'decorat- 
ing, skilled in decorations ; ftficg qn#**r ftfreftv ( see 
Bhatti. Y. 1 .) 'repudiating, turning aside ;' ^?<rr%tj 'clever 
in flying up ; ' ^fffwj, ^fqrwy, ffftroj, fti%^, &<M it is found 
added to some other roots also by poets ; e. g. S^TRTOJ ''powerw 

and ^F-( f^por^, ^^^? ) are added to >g with the words 
*T, *^&t TfefT, sflTi ^VT and fiw prefixed to it in the 
Sense of SfigCTgTW 'being what a thing or person was not 
before:' 3R|^r: srresF WHfff' 3TT^JKW^: or -Hf^?: becom- 
ing rich not being rich at first, ( see Bhatti. III. 1. ) so 

is added to Desiderative bases to form nouns; 
desirous of doing; Rfifift^' ^eairous of conquering, &c.j and 
to sr^ with 3U, f>T<^, f^[ , and f ; 3TT5tg: desirous, hopeful. 
fvng: a beggar j fqrg: one who knows, knowing ; %^ wishing. 
is added to ^ with f%, IT, and^q[. f^: all pervading, 
mighty, srif: able, ^: creating; also to ? TOrT?-' that which 


moves to a measured distance; ^Tffg: which runs in a hundred 
streams, Name of a river. 

affixed to ^, **,-* 
and sr and denotes the agent; 55^^1^^: sporting, glittering 
falling ^inpj: happening, living- ^^355: 
: amorons. 

affixed to ti^,.f%n[, and f%^; f^: 'who knows, 
knowirg;' ft&i 'breaking, brittle;' %^: ' cutting.' 

( ^*F ) is added to arpj and the Fre. Bases of *nj, sr 
and qpgr; 3TT*T^ ' watchful/ &c. ( Vide Bhatti. II. 22. Bag. 
XIV. 85. Sis. XX 36 )- 5^: $*: gffir^r *T 

' one who performs sacrifices frequently' (see Bhatti. 
II. 20. ); 5^-: ^: 3Tfff$nfr ^T TMrfim 3fT^: *one who 
mutters prayers repeatedly, an ascetic;' 5^: g^: arm^T^r *f 
^Trftm ^T^I^* ' biting frequently, a serpent, demon ' ( vide 
Bhatti I. 26 ). 

ndfu* Derivatives are formed with these affixes 
which are added to roots and then dropped; the difference 
between the first two is that in the case of the latter 
3 is inserted between it and the root, if it ends in a 
short vowel. 

a affixed to f g$^ preceded by a sulanta ; >^T$3^ ' one w ^ 
touches ghee; H WOT/ one who touches anything after recit- 
ing a holy verse,' &o. except when the subanta means water; 
^33^31: one who touches water' and not ^33?*%^. The 
following words are to be accepted as they are ; *n^-qnir^[ 
(Jtift ^Jt^ft flft) sacrificing regularly at every season; 
a priest who officiates at a sacrifice* >j^- ^^ proud, 
haughty; ^[ ?r^ a garland; f^ f%^ a direction;^ 
^rfOT^ name of a metre, words like m^fa derived from the 
roots srs^and the words 333; and SRSST ought to be considered 
as derived by means of this affix. 




is is added to a root with or without any preposition 
prefixed to it ; ^ a^ft ^: or ir^: one who bring-- forth, 
a mother ; ^ 3^5' those who sit in heaven, the gods, 
fjj[q[ jrfij^a powerful enemy; 3^ 3P?3^ the constellation 
of stars called ( Aswini ' ;ft %^Tft the leader of an army; 
^ OTi^ the creator ; nr 3lf?ff%r^ one who consecrate* 
the sacred fire, a householder ; f$f ijrfrfafr the conqueror of 
Iiidra, name of Havana's son- *g ^Tfg^he who praises the 
gods* 5 t*T$r^ the extractor of Soma juice; ^> CT$5^, 
n^, &c. This is also added to g^, ^^, and. 
when the object governed by them is prefixed to them; 
seeing all; *n?*S^ touch! Dg the vitals; f^^ the 
creator of the universe; to 3?^ and 5^5 ffioTT^ a flesh-eater, 
a demon ; al#$<l the Killer of a Brahmana ; to ^57^ changed 
to 3^; g^ga^ a garment. Before this affix roots ending in 
a nasal lengthen their penultimate; as $rar-ST$n^ tranquil. 
one who stretches, &c., except in the case of roots 
m , and ft| , which drop their nasal and then obey 

the general rule; arc^R *T^mfa sraiftt a traveller ; qft 
^flcT^ stretching on all sides ; 3^ yielding, poor; 
well restrained, &c.; the an 1 of ^rr^ is changed to f 
before this ; fjnr ^iKcftfd ftwf^nt one who g ivefl advice to 
his friend ; 3TTT3T^ a blessing . IT forms fiftr speech ; the roots 
?fc(, &1^> an ^ ^^ dr P their nasal and insert ^ before their 
final ; qrf RL dropping down from a vehicle, 3KIH3. dropping 
down from a vessel ; MuKqg; falling down from a leaf ; before 
this amx (^7 changes its 3 to 7 and other roots change their 
^ to 37; 3?^r^ (31$ifr3irm) a gambler; %-^T: a weaver; 
protector ; this forms Vriddhi with a preceding 3?; 
=3Rr: the protector of the people, ^nr ^jr feverish, 
swift-going ; before this affix ^ or ^ following ^ is 
dropped; q^-^J swooned. g-^ hurting, injuring; Vtyttg 
what troubles, . e. presses heavily on the axle of a carriage, 
hence the cart-load: the following words are irregularly 
H. 8. Q. SO 

466 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ g 777 

derived ; 3^( *T^ speech, sr^ SH^T one who asks 
acting by will; name of Shiva, a kind of worm, a gambler* 
&o. ; isr 3ft; wealth; ^ qft^T^ an aecetic; f^ 
lightning ; iy^ 3^!^ the world ; vq* %ft the intellect. 

- is affixed to *T33[ which lengthens its sr before it; 
one who takes a share ; SHH^C devoted to, worshipping, &c. 

forms fern, abstract nouns - ^ ^f^ an act, &c.; 

P^ise; irn-irfir gait, &c.; ^-n% sport; ^-^ 
a bow; TOF fan% state; *t *fn% a song, &c ; qr-qrra: drink- 
ing. q^g^ qfifc: cooking; q^f 5%; a sacrifice, &c.. It is 
added to the roots |, ^55; , f ?r and ff in the sense of ' the 
instrument of; sgfff: the instrumen 4 : of hearing t. e. the ear, 
&c. To the root q^ with ^ri^ or ,%, f%^[ or r%q; is added ; 
<f*qf%: or ^rq^, prosperity, ft<n%: or ^q^ adversity ; ft 
instead of ft is added to roots ending in ^ and to < and 
others ; ^-^tffr: scattering. The following words are to be 
taken as they are: ^t ^TH% end 5 f^ %|?T a weapon-, 

H ( 3^, ^53; ) ^^.is affixed to all roots and denotes the 
agent7 tT-*<f a doer; jr^-ir^, q^C-Tf , ^-^tf or ^f|?j, 
f^-^ or 1% &c -; 5^-^ or flRra or ?Rf^ one who goes, 
&c., ft^ 'one habitually sacrificing 7 ( ^ ) &c. 

r_^ is added to ^T or $ f, sft, 

q^-, q^ } ^ and ^^ and shows the instrument of the action 
denoted by the root ; ^j or ^t-^Tsr an instrument for cutting, 
a sickle, ?njr the instrument of guidance i. e. the eye, ^r^ 
^f a weapon, ^TT^ ^TT^f, S-'ETTST, 3^-m^3r the rope by 
which an animal is tied to the pole of a carriage, ^-*rrre 
a hymn of praise, g-cfnr a whip, f%^r~%^T a watering pot, 
m*fcf , q^; q^ a vehicle, the wing of a bird, &c. n^ snfV 
a leather-strap, ^^ ^rj the jaw; it is also added to i^in the 
aenae given qtsr the snout of a hog, a ploughshare, the thun- 


derbolt, a garment. qj^sf an instrument for purifying, a sort 
of ring of Jtusha, grass worn on the fourth finger on religious 
occasions, and to ^ And \n; vrrar: a mother, a foster mother, 
the earth, name of a tree, Emhlic myrobalan. 

( fqparac ) is added to a few roots-, <nr <n$3TT: ( 
fqr$TT: ) ripened, matured; frf^flT artificial from ^ 
produced by gift ( see Bhatti. I. 10, 13 ). 

*re *ir *mre: a singer. 

f < ^T^, ^ ) 

^ is added to q^, *rr^, *r^, f^, *^, and ^w; jy^r: a 

sacrifice, qrair Beggary, q^f: an effort, f%^r: going, lustre, 

sr^r a question, ^TJT: protector. 

^*grSP sleep, a dream. 

^ ( HRT^ ) is added to **^, ^, and \jq^, in the sense of 

' in the habit of ;' ^SHJ sleepy, ^wr^ thirsty, ijsor^ bold, 

3 (W3) i8 added to 5ng^, ^;, >j^and %q;in the sense of 

*in the habit of;' g-fsj timid, qg^ covetous, greedy, Tjvn; bold, 

%^5 throwing, casting. 

*TC ( ^RT^ ^- ^5ITT going, a kind of deer, ^ ^jr^ and 
voracious, gluttonous, glutton. 

is added to ^35;, q^[ and ^r and forms fern. 
abstract nouns; 3*qi asceticism, an attack, f^qr a sacrifice, 
$?qr doing; it also takes 51 andf%^; fSfirr, ^fti; it is 
affixed to 3^, ( not changed to sfr in this case ) with <p^, 
^ and q^ with ft, R3J, ra^, 5 ^ 1 and f in *ho sense of 
either the place or the instrument of the action denoted by 
the root?; ^TT^qT assembly, f^TOT a couch, a market place, 
the hall where an assembly meets, FWrqT slippery ground, 
JT?CTT the nape of the neck, fror, 3OT a sprinkling with the 
Soma juioa, ^ruTT * bed, ^?qT wages, ^n a vehicle. 

468 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 777-778 

ig affixed to sp|, 5?^, ffcr, ^, fifc, and tf <r ; TO bowing 
down, yielding, q^Fir shaking, tremulous, ^ smiling, ^ 
desirous, beautiful, fjfa injurious, murderous, sfhr shining. 
The word g^TO adt>. is also derived from gr^ with * (changed 
to 3T ; and T- 

added to ^r, ^ %, ^ and ^ ; ^r ^T*: 'one who gives 
or eats;' vn& 'one who drinks-/ %^: * one who binds-/ 
one who goes or destroys-/ ^5: ' one who goei or takes 

me who has seen the other 

side, hence, adept in/ lim^m<, < one who has fought with a 
king'; similarly 4M$r<K, 'H^Wi,, and -U4$r4^ 
q^ ( IET^ ) is affixed to the roots f , fsr, *f%i and ^; ??^T go- 
ing, cruel, fncMi victorious, ^^^ perishable, fleeting) it is 
also added to irq; ip^T transient, going. 


778. Syntax deals with the mode of arranging words in 
sentences. Of the three divisions of Syntax Concord, Govern- 
ment and Order, the Syntax of Sanskrit is mainly concerned 
with the first two. Syntax in English depends principally 
upon the last. In Sanskrit and other cognate Languages 
which are rich in inflection, the relation f which one word 
bears to another in a sentence is determined by its grammatical 
form, and no change occurs in the meaning of the sentences, 
how-so-ever the order of words be changed. But in English 
and other languages, deficient in inflection, 'order' is every- 
thing. Change the order of words and there is a corresponding 
change in. the meaning. In Sanskrit, therefore, the mere order 

778-780 ] SYNTAX. 469 

of words is not of material importance, though a perfect 
arbitrariness in that respect is not allowable. Sanskrit Syntax 
also takes farther into account the meaning and use of partici- 
ples, the various tenses and moods, and participles. * These 
will be treated of in their proper order. 

779. There are no articles in Sanskrit corresponding to 
the English Definite and Indefinite articles. The words cfifsar^ 
ud q-^, however, are often used in the sense of 'a ceitain ' and 
v*ie pron. fT3" m. f. n. as equivalent to 'the*' ^f%gr<i ^: a certain 
man ; <r^: qjRr: a traveller; 3- ^j3T the king, &c. 

780. As already remarked ( See 54 ) there are three 
numbers in Sanskrit: a singular number, denoting a single indi- 
vidual, a dual number denoting two, and a plural number 
denoting more than two. Besides these general senses 

* As the great bulk of Sanskrit literature is thrown in the 
form of verse, the laws of Syntax will be found not to be al- 
ways observed by the poets. In ordinary prose writings the 
usual order of words in a sentence is, first the subject with its 
adjuncts, then the object with its adjuncts, then the adverbs 
and other indeclinables ( extensions of the predicate ) and lastly 
the predicate. The chief characteristics of Sanskrit style are 
in the words of Prof. Max Muller, 'the predominance of co- 
ordination, the use of the Locative Absolute, a fondness for 
compounds and indeclinable participles supplying the place 
of subordinate clauses, the frequent employment of the Past 
Participle instead of the finite verb, a predilection for passive 
forms, and the absence of the indirect construction and of the 
subjunctive mood. For the latter reason the use of the tenses 
and moods is comparatively simple; on the other haud, the use 
of the cases, being much less definite than in Latin and Greek 
presents some difficulties. 7 

M. Williams 1 Grammar for Beginners. 


( a ) The singular may be used to denote a clas; 
W^il^T-' the lion is the king of beast?. ^f%lT^ T?: SIB*: &o. 

(b) The dual sometimes denotes a male and a female of the 
same class} ffcRT parents; ^?$?r a male and a female of sparrow. 

( 1 ) Note: Words like g[q-, fgrihr, gir, f , &c. meaning 
*a pair/ &c. which are dual in sense but singular in form ought 
to be always used in the singular, except when eevcral pairs 
are meant. 

( 2 ) Note: Words like ?*cfr, *%, TTsfr, &c. should always 
be used in the dual in Sanskrit. 

( c ) The plural, like the singular, may represent a class, 
STTgratt: **3t. ( or sn^fur: *&?' ) Brabmanas (*. e. the Brahmana 
class ) are adorable. 

( 1 ) The plural is hot unfrequently used as a mark of res- 
pect oj reverence, f i% 3fr$fc?TCTOT:> so ( says ) the venerable 
Shankaraeharya; ft^ aTI^I^TT^T^ this is the opinion of the 
revered preceptor, &c. 

( 2 ) In the first person, great personages and writers some- 
times use the plural instead of the singular; 

: we ( t. e. 1, ) too ask you something; 

but we (,t. e. I, the writer ) hold this opinion; 
jfr^H% we rule over speech ( . a. language ). 

( 3 ) Words like^m:, ^fTv 3WTTJ,ffr^fr, 3TT<f:, 
&o. are always used in the plural, though some of them aie 
singular in sense. 

( 4 ) Names of countries which are really the names of the 
people inhabiting them, must be used in the plural; ^r f%55n 
gTCTtHlV be went to Videha, &c. 

But in the case of compounds ending in words denoting a 
country, such as ^^f, ftw* &c. the sing, must be used; an% 
ITT^^T ^IdlSa-H sn^ ^JIT^ there is a town called Pataliputra 
in the country of Magadha. 

( 5 ) The plural of proper nouns denotes a family or race- 
as in English; 

781-784 ] SYNTAX. 471 



781. Oonoord is the agreement of words in a sentence a* 
regards gender, number, person or tense. 

The concords deserving notice in Sanskrit are three: ( 1 ) 
Concord of the verb with the Subject; ( 2 ) Concord of the 
Adjective with the Substantive; and ( 3 ) Concord of the Rela- 
tive with its Antecedent. 


782. The verb must agree with its subject in number and 
person; amffa TT3TT 5T5JT 3m there was a king, Nala by name; 
3Tf *P53Tf& I go; STTSTofr *T*W two Brahmanas go, &c. 

783. ( a ) When two or more subjects differing in number 
are connected by 'and' the verb must be plural; prft: ^fr ^T 

c. Mah. Bha. 

Sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject in number, 
qf[ H^Tft ^T ^Slf^ft I 
II Mah. Bha. 

( b ) Bat when they are connected by 'or' and are all sing. 
the verb will be singular, and when the subject differ in 
number the verb will agree with the one nearest to it; *TR-' 
'Let Rama or Govinda go,' *r qr f W ^RmTT 
nim or these b y s take tne man o fit.' 
784. ( a ) When a verb agrees with two or more subjects 
of Different persons connected by 'and,' the first person has 
preference over the second or third, and the second over the 
third; &mt nRshr^wnw: Ra ma , y u and * sha11 do this ; ^ 

( 6 ) But when the subjects are connected by 'or', the Terb 

472 SANSKEIT GRAMMAR. [ 784-786 

tgwes with the one nearest to it ^r^T W *T aedmVIIR? he 
or we accomplish thtt, 3f Tnd*WT fl^TT S^WaTt *T vfotft 
either I or King Kama or Lakahmana will perish. 

785. The predicate may not always be a finite verb; but 
a participle, or an adjective or a noun may take its place. 

(a ) When a participle is need as the predicate it must 
agree witfc the subject in number and gender; *f H^rfi^K he 
i& tnat, ^r^pnft she said that, jfrr ^VRTf^ ITOTfir their 
bonds were cat off, CT$ 5<T the work is done, 3cTT f^Tr the 
creeper is cat; &c. 

(b) When an ad jective-or a noua is used as the predicate, 
a form of the roots 3^ or ^ may be used with it or may be 
omitted; the adjective osed predicatively agrees with the 
subject in number and gender-, 'words like mifqq, qrsr, 

^ & c - retain their gender and number; igywr: ^^: a 
good servant is difficult to be obtained, 55^: ftg: 

good son is the object of his father's pride, 

riches are the abode of miseries, ^ 5 cffqr 3^f^tHM*im': &cr* 

in these cases the verb agrees with the subject in number and 

sot with the noun used predicatively 

and not 

786. When a substantive or an adjective is used predica- 
tively with verbs of incomplete predication such as l to grow, 
to seem, to be, to appear,' &c. the substantive or adjective so 
used must agree with the subject in case; crqf *r fovzm this is 
my resolve; ^ igjmr: JHimTOSr: 5*W* * a at king seems 
emaciated through wakefulness; ST^^^T^q^r desirous of 
being the lord of the three worlds. 

( a ) The same applies to transitive roots of incomplete 
predication used passively; fo gf^RT * W^ : ^& f<T: by 
that sage the mouse was made ( transformed into ) a cat, &c. : 
a king is thought to be Vishnu. 

7*7-789 ] SYNTAX. 473 

787. When an indeclinable used with an adjectival force 
takes the place of the verb, the object governed by it is pat in 
the Nominative case. * 

II. 55. ) it is not fit to cat down even a poisonous tree having 
first reared it up* here the indeclinable 3roT9cT is equivalent to 
and the whole sentence to %$ ^ tf *&3 BTOTttKT ( * 

Concord of the Adjective with the Substantive. 

788. An adjective, particpial or qualitative, most agree 
with the substantive it qualifies in gender, number and case; 
a handsome man; ^q^cTr ^fr a beautiful woman; 
a. great calamity, q 


But numeral adjectives of fixed gender and number remain 
unchanged: $ref 3T9TOTT: * hundred Brahmaoas; ^nt \^j: a 
hundred women, firsrf^ ^fg5<gllH twenty children. 

789. When an adjectives qnalifie two or more substantives 
it agrees with them in their combined number; when the 
substantives differ in gender, the adjective will be masculine 
when the substantives are masculine and feminine-^ and neuter 
when they arc masculine, feminine and neuter n^TT CT^T ^ 
^f^^KcU ^cT- the king and his queen are of laudable 
conduct; ^: qjms* ?W f: SR!>T: g^ W I 3?Wi^cTn^ ^RTTOT 
Sf^h?ar ?T ^"5T?T. ! fulfilment of duty, satisfaction of desires, pride, 
auger, happiness snd long Iife 5 all these proceed undoubtedly 
from wealth. 

( a ) Sometimes the adjective takes the gender of the majority 
of the substantives; ^V ^r *TT(TTffafy ^TW WT? g?T: \&g : I 
^T^^Tit ^^T Hrferr IT3T^r3 I! aged parents, a good wife and 
v young son should be maintained even by doing u hundred 
ioul deeds, so has Manu spoken ( laid down ). 


474 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 789-793 

( I ) And sometimes it takes the gender and number of the 
substantive nearest to it when the particle ^ is need; 3^: 
<FJf ^DTf : 3lMWHr ^r ^fe Rejection, quarrel and an itching 
sensation prevail all the more they are attended to; q^q- *f*hn; 
&fdft ^T ^ Wttfr ^ ( $?OR ) by whose valour we have be- 
come happy and so have the three worlds. 

790. W^eQ * P^ti or potential passive participle is used 
as predicate with a noon in apposition to the subject, the parti- 
ciple agrees with the subject-, ^m: 3R3* fftorr d4lti<T: ( S'ak- 
VI. ) the demons are made the marks of your arrows by Hari. 


791. The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender, 
number and person, the cases of the relative and its antecedent 
being determined by their relation to their respective clauses; 
*T IT : $*for he who has wealth has a noble family 
TW; lifar ^vHlft ^1% ^VW'dvf vl^^ what, which 

is fit to be united with anything, a wise man should unite 
with it &c. 

792. When the relative has for its predicate a noun 
differing in gender from the antecedent the relative generally 
takes the gender of the antecedent noun, the demonstrative 
pronoun following that of the noun it qualifies; 

fiT *T?*r ^HHHF PnHfsr: -non-endurance of the merits of another is 
but the nature of the wicked; 

793. The relative pronoun q^ nsu. sing, is used like the 
English ' that ' to introduce a clause, the gender of the demon- 
strative pronoun being the same as that of the antecedent noun; 
*ff TC( &W SR: arerre^iUNicf ff VRinf W it is tfce pride of 
wealth that even a learned man slights another; &Hfrq- 

it is a true saying that one good fortune 

follows another. 

793-797 ] SYNTAX. 475 

Obs: Sometimes the antecedent noun or pronoun is omitted 
and has to be inferred from the gender and number of the 
relative*; . g. vr^T f% *ft JT ^TT<T *TT^% 3*3 -T^T. &c. what 
is the use of wealth to him who does not bestow it on men- 
dicants, &c. 



794. The only portion of Syntax treated separately in 
Sanskrit grammars ie the KarakaprakaraDa or the chapter on 
Government. Karaka 'is the name given to the relation 
-Bsisting between a noun and a verb in a sentence. There are 
six Karakas in Sanskrit belonging to the first seven cases, 
except the Genitive, which is, therefore, not a Karaka case. 
These are <<rr, qjff, 3?W, tfsr^R, aWT^R and aiRreTUI, 

795. There are several indeclinables in Sanskrit which also 
govern cases. Oases governed by indeclinables are called Upa- 
padavibhaktis, as distinguished from those governed by verbs 
which are called Karaka vibhaktis. In cases where both are 
possible the latter predominates over the former ( 

); as in gfRstf snr*^ although srjr^ alone 

would govern the Dative. 

796. The Nominative, as in English and other languages 
is simply the naming case; its office, when used by itself, is to 
express the crude form of a word, gender, measure and number 
and nothing more.* When used with a verb it forms its Subject. 


797. The Accusative denotes the object i. e. the person ol 
thing upon whom or which the effect of an action takes place- 

srom Pan. II. 3. 46. 

476 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 797-800 

he worships Hari; ?ntf H^jgtf wrf* going to a 
Tillage he touches grass. * 

798. All transitive verbs govern *n Accusative; 
ftJtfit collects flowers; an q* franrfcft ( the creator ) created 
water first, &c. Several transitive verbs govern what is called 
in English a factitive object besides a direct object; 

Kum. II. 13. they consider thee to be 
Prakriti, they know thee to be Parnsha; griTft ^cTK 1?W having 
made Kumara the leader ( of the forces ); 
made his son Aja by name. 

$ 799. \ Intransitive roots govern the Accusative nouns 
denoting space or country, or duration of time and distance- 
sleeps in the country oi the Kurus. <f 
there he dwelt for some days. 4U< 

he sits down till a cow is milked; sFf^f srms'nf he walks for a 
Kosa- ^t^T ^>|^^| ^^V the course of the river is winding for a 
Kosa; but 1TRTW fef^i^ studies twice a month; sft^rcq^^r qfe: 
the hill is situated in a part of a Kosa. 

800. Boots having the sense of motion, real or metaphori- 
cal govern the Accusative of the place to which it is directed. 
fJW l-odffi goes to a village; amMvMl (wm m* with his 

bow strung he roamed all over the forest; <HIH^^J qrt 
irx^^[ they reached the highest point of joy; j^ 
goes to Krishiia (thinks of him) mentally; ^ M<d^^^ ^T I%t 
while thus pondering he sank into sleep. 

(a) When the motion is real, the Dative may also be used; 
IJTO rf ir^sfff; bat not of words denoting 'a road;' 

4 But when the relation ot object and verb is expressed by 
the passive termination the noun forming the object is put in 
the nominative case; fft: ^^Jrt 

t OTOTS^r*c*r?cT&frit I Pan- n. 3. 5. 

800-804 ] SYNTAX. 477 

qnjpf l^fo only; but z<v*fr qft <I91W he retches the main 
road by taking a by-path. 

801. The roots* $ft, ^Err and 3rr^ , with arRr, govern the 
Accusative of the place where the action takes place; 3rf\r- 


on a stone-slab; srofcrf tfrsrft^tfsRCWT occupied half of Indra'a 
seat; sromH *ri&3OTlWtWT* lived in Ayodhyl delightful in 
all seasons. 

802. f f*K **& ariStfa governs the Accusative; 
he Pannes the path of goodness; urnrr 

is that harlot girl on 

whom you have fixed your mind ( see Bhatti. VIII. 80. ). 
Barely this governs the Loc. 3TmRT^ra Tft 1 fondly resorts 
to sin. f%^ with a preposition governs the Ace. but with OT 
meaning 'to sit 9 takes the Loc. autfteffa^rffr^T sit on this seat. 

5 803. J The root ^ preceded by the prepositions 
and 3TT governs the Accusative case ; 5^- 

: Hari dwells in Vaikuntha ; ^^HH^ffgit he dwelt in 
a dreary forest ; but ^ with ^q- meaning 'to abstain from food' 
is used with the Loc.; g-q^flrm ^T fHT: Hama observes a fast in 
the forest. 

804. f Tbe particles 

|RRT:, qfttT-', *mrr, f%^TT, ?T and srf^r meaning <tO, and 
'between/ and 3??fWOT 'without/ regaidi D g to/ govern 
the Accusative ; &mm: fair *far the cowherds are on both 

. 1. 4. 46. | 3?ftf^Tr Pan. 1. 4. 47. 

t ^TT^OT^TO: | Pan. I. 4. 48. 


I 3rmcT: ^ftcT ^TOTT ft**T fT sri^fntft I Vartikas on Pan. 
4 48. 

478 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 804-805 

sides of Krisbna-^gfcT: 5TOHT$ ^TOTO T^Tmop guards keep vigil 
on all sides of the palace. sqTjq'R sjfa? 5TT-* Hari is over all the 
worlds; 3T'IT*4t 35T3P qidTg: Patala is below the world, 
c*fa^-, ftnfr 3TT?m^ fie upon you rogues; ft?f* 
upon the lord of the Kurns, with all his brothers; ( fvf^ ) is 
used sometimes with the Norn, and sometimes with the Voc. 
faiTW <E'K3mn fie upon wealth which is attended with 
troubles; fogr ^ fie upon thee fool; T^ffa %f^ qftSt f%H^- 
4lF'MqT3fr5fiw STVTR** ( Bhatti I. 12 ) he dispelled the demons 
from around the altar and offered sacrifices to the minor deities 
arranged round the principal one. sjnTcTST ^T^3: ^5* <?R- 
cTfrT>Kir. XI. 8; irrtf ^TR^r-f^qT sT3Tf% goes near to the 
village. Vide Sis. I. 68, VI. 75. jr ^OR^J woe to him who 
is not a devotee of Krishna; R??frf^RrRR 5T*RTOi mH I have 
but a faint desire to go to the town; airaTTr ?^f jr*r 
^T ^ happinesi is not possible without Hari; %g 
with reference to queen Vasumati. 

Some of the indeclinables given above are used with the 
Genitive ; e. g. 3<rg<TK T^fRn%^ &* ^3THT ( he stood ) very 
high above all by his lustre, like the sun, &c. 

805. * The following prepositions are used with the 

(") 311% 'superior to, higher than/ 3^3 'just after, after, by 
the side of, inferior to,' 3?fn -close to' and ^r 'near, inferior 
to ;' e. g. arfar %^R[ fT^OT: Krishna excels gods in might j 3n%TTR 
^ri%?^: Govinda ie superior to Rama ; TTq'R^ 71^^ it rained 
just after the muttering of praj ers ; ^ Rrjrg ^everything 

f%m Pan. II, 3. 8. Prepositions used by 
themselves and governing nouns are called Kaimapravachaniya. 

**fRT*r i ?R i <rift% ^ 1 5y^5tf4^;m^< 

^: I 3TTHT^Tit I Pan. 1. 4. 85-87. 90. 91. 

805-806 ] SYNTAX. 479 

of thee ia after niine ; 3^3 fq^ *Tx^f?r 5cf: the son imitates 
his father; * vig^ ajg wi ^ if you are not inferior to Rama; 
9 -o 3T3 5R STT:, *TTT sf? 3TT*f the devotee is close to Hari; ZV^R 
T ^ frf your act is not like that of a hero ( lit. is inferor to 
his af j: &c. 

() The prepositions 3TPT, 3T$, *rf* and srf?r are used with the 
Accusative when they refer to particular things; frrf^ ^rpr 
3T3 <Tfc srfff f^fmff t%5(r the lightning flashes towards the 
mountain; also whea they mean 'to every one,' &c. f^- ^ajjry^- 
waters each and every tree; so 3)ft 

r: \ 

also govern tl^e Accusative when they 
imply 'one's own share-/ H?*ft: 5 fnT3-*lft-S?eT Lakshmi ia the 
proper share ( property ) of Hari. 

800. The roots given in the following Karika govern a 
double Accusative 

i. 9. the roots ^ to milk, <ra^to cook, ^ir^to punish, 
obstruct, ST^SJ^ to ask, f% to collect, sr to speak, ^TTf^ to instruct, 
f^T to win ( as a wager ), uro to churn, and j^ to steal-, as 
also ^r, f > and ^^ and ^ ; and the synonyms of these; qf ^if^T 
qq 1 : he milks ( draws milk from ) the cow; ^fS iTFaftt ^gvjt he 
begs the earth of Bali; cTOgn^r^r ^rfff be cooks rice (into food); 


; Vide Bhatti. VI. 8-10. 

480 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 807-808 

807. * When these verbs are used in the passive, the 
secondary object in the case of the first twelve roots and the 
principal one in that of the last fonr is put in the Nominative 
case, the other Accusative remaining as before; qtj*. *pff 


808. f In the case of the causals of roots implying 'mo- 
tion,' 'knowledge,' 'eating/ roots having come literary work for 
their object, intransitive roots and the roots g^ and sit?. rrc[ 
with arj; V* with ft, trg-and sj, their subject in the primitive 
sense is put in the Accusative case. 

: n Sid. 

That venerable Harl is my refuge who despatched the enemies 
( of gods ) to the next world, explained the meaning of the 
Vedas to his ( followers ), made the gods drink nectar, taught 
Veda to the Creator ano^ seated the earth ( made it rest ) 
on valors. 

3RT*HT ?nf *t|jR[ iie makes- the devotees see Hari; ^c^TTir 

cf. Knm. i. 52). 

- But when the double causal is used the 
subject ceases to be the subject of the root in the primitive 
sense and therefore takes the Instrumental; 

O3: 35^18 sometimes found used with the Dative; 
Rag. XII. 54. 

( a ) The causals of ;fr, nd ^ when it has for its subject a 

* * vvtf* HT: Sid. 

on Pan. VII. 1. 69. 

fi^i*<^iRi<ifli ^m ^ w 

52. ^^ftMfff^Ty^f^n I *$V Vartikis. 

808-809] SYNTAX. 481 

noun othar than one denoting a driver, govern the Instrumental 
of the primitive subject ;* 5TT*HTfS *r$ <TT?f *T *TR f^?r he makea 
hid servant carry a load ; but ^Tifqiff ^ <41SK ^T- the charioteer 
makea the horses draw the chariot. 

( 1 ) t Th same holds good in the case of the causal of 3^ and 
WTT ; auqm'ff mqqft *T 3F3* Wgtt he makes the boy eat his food. 

( 2 ) J *ra^ when it has not the sense of f^rr ' pain or injury 
to a sentient thing' does the same; *KTqKJ j STjpTT; but H$Rf?t 
( w hen the loss of corn causes pain to the mind). 

( ) ^T and srr which denote a kind of knowledge are construed 
with the Instrumental, though the former when meaning 
'to remember with pain' is sometimes found used with the 
Accusative also ; tHit^ici siismift IT ^r^%T; 3rf5" 

Vide also Sis. VI. 66. 

( ) The causal of the denominative ^1^|^| also is construed 
with the Instrumental; gis^i^qi^ ^4ri|ff he causes Devadatta 
to make a sound. 

Note: ^ By intransitive roots are, meant such roots as are 
not capable of governing an object other than one denoting 
.space, time, &o. and not such as, though transitive, may be 
used without their object being actually expressed ; JT 

but ^*3%^ qrorft and not *%&&[ though the object of 
is not actually expressed. 

809. $ The primitive subject of the verbs g and 3?, of 

* sffctft* I M^Vl^j^^ q%Tl^n I Vartikas. 

t ST^WT^ I Vartlka. ; Kr|rrf^ T ^ ^ I Vart 

: i 

Sid. Kan. 

I. 4. 43. 

H. 8. G. 31 

482 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB [ 809-812 

37HTC^, an d $[ when used in the Aim. is either pnt in the 
Accusative or the Instrumental; giT^m cfcR^ft 3T 
causes the servant to take or weave a mat ; 

rfc *1%T 3T be makes the devotee bow down to, 
or see, God. 

810. *When the causal forms are used in the passive, the 
principal object ( *'. e. the primitive subject ) is put in the 
Nominative case ; but in the case of roots implying 'knowledge 
or eating' and roots having a literary work for their object 
the principal object is pnt in the Nominative case and the 
secondary object in the Accusative or vice versa- 
Devadatta prepares a mat ^^t 

he makes Devadatta prepare a mat, 
. goes to a village; ^r^f 3Tm *UWm causes 
go to a village ; g^rT* TTH ^l^Ud; Devadatta is made to go, 
he makes Minavaka know his duty ; 
$ %fo *l- M&navaka is made to 

know, &c.j sr^RtT ^t^r^nfr te makes the child eat food; 9^- 
or 414^ ^Hm the boy is made, &c. 

811. As regards the causal of roots governing two Accusa- 
tives the general rules given at 808 hold good ; 


812. f The Instrumental case primarily expresses either the 
agent ( when the construction is passive ) or the instrument or 
means by which an action is done . (mqftnTH 3MMHT*nTT 3TCT^- 
thou wast disrespected by me, not knowing thy greatness 

ll Sid. Kau. on Pin. VII. 1. 69. 
I Pan. II. 3. 18. 

812-814 ] SYNTAX. 483 

H waa killed b 7 R ma witn an arrow 

( here TltTO i 8 fc ^ e a S ent ; TT^R the instrument ). 

fl ) * The Instrumental is also used in the following senses. 
RTT. lovely by nature-, srrqrtir. *TT%^: he is almost a 
ritualist; Tfr^ror irm? : Gargya byjamily name-, 

with ease- so ^riffilcf , nPTHtJTTkj &c. f&sT)ui4 ^(1*3 ^RTTinT he buys 
two dronas of corn at a time; ^TT^&ur T2^3[ sfelUHIrt be buys one 
thousand beasts at a time, &c. 

( 1 ) In the case of numerals and words expressive of 
sure the Ace. may also be used* 

( J ) 05s: f The root f^ < to play/ however, governs the 
Accusative or the Instrumental of the instrument used* 
9T frarfiT he plays at dice. 

( c ) f The root 37 with ^ also governs the Accusative or 
the Instrumental; (qr^j Reft ^T ^^Hl U^T be recognises or lives in 
peace with his father, but fS^ij ^sr |rfi g ^' remember Vishnu. 

813 | When the accomplishment of an object is to be 
expressed, the Instrumental of words expressing the length of 
time or space is used; g^r cFT^T mgtripfcr. the section ( of 
the Veda ) was studied by him in a day, or a Kosa ( t. *. by 
going over it >, but RTSWtftar JTPIT^ as the accomplishment 
does not take place. 

814. Words expressing some defect in a limb of the 
body govern the Instrumental of the defective limb* 3r$orf 
blind of one eye; so 


f f&: w ^r | ^^tr^TcTT^Jt CTICT I Pan. I. 4. 43, II. 3. 
I Pan. II. 3. 6. 3f<r**f: 

3. 20. 

484 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 815-817 

815. * A characteristic attribute indicative of the existence 
of $ particular state or condition is put in the Instrumental; 
3T?TTm- rTTTO: he is an ascetic ( whic* ia apparent ) from his 
matted hair ( sHdMimdim^qftf^re f?*nS: Sid. Kau. ). 

816. f The Instrumental is also used to express the cause 
or motive or the object of purpose of an action as distinguished 
from the mere instrument of it- ijuqTT HT ?7T' Hari was seen 
by ( virtue of ) merit; Ifarrnfo 5*i35fif% thou art to be 
punished for that fault; aronr^r srcrfrt dwells for the purpose of 
studying; aleo when the object to be accomplished is simply 
implied; && mflm away with your efforts t. e. the; will not 
succeed- swar ^TW ^Trficf f^T^J: ( Sid. Kau. ) 

817 The Instrumental is used with words expressing the 
idea of 

( a ) excelling; ^pfa H^nTHF <nTTTrTO% Oh fortunate one, you 
excel your ancestors in that ( devotion ); 

: ( Mu. 3. 17. ) he surpasses, by his lustre, the lustre 
of the suDj f ff^PTT ^T^ !jft^^T5T^rTT H<rf<iTT% : I S'ak. I. 

( b ) reaemblance, likeness, equality; ^ffQT f^fl-^ftfrT resembles 
his father in voice; %5^^-R ^OT ^T Tm^sT^fTlW ( Utta. 4. ); 

his face resembles that of his mother;. 

equal to Vishnu in valour. 

( c ) swearing; HidHc*HI ^tt ^ I swear by Bharata and 
myself, ^nf^f% TO sfWSfR I conjure thee by my life. 

( d ) rejoicing, being pleased; Yr^Rrf S^ 

I am pleased with thee by thy devotion to Your preceptor and 
compassion upon me ; ^(^M: ^yHJ>Hift g^^Tfef low person IB 
satisfied with little. 

. 3.21. 


Sid Kau. 

817-819 ] SYNTAX. 485 

(0) motion ( the conveyance or the part of the body on which 
a thing is carried being put in the Instrumental case ): ^ifr 
^TRft ' he moves about in a chariot.' 

(/) price ( real or metaphorical ) at which a thing is 
bought; 3i%r 5^: bought for a hundred ( rupees, etc. ); 
*$ruftirr: Uf^W: 'the life of a friend ought 

to be saved even at the cost of one's life/ 

818. The following words also govern tha Instrumental 

( a ) Words expressing the idea of use or need,, such as f$r, 
3PRT, 3T3T, qqfcM and the like, and the root ^ with j% used in 
the same sense; ^HT f% <n &c. what is the use of his wealth who 
& c -; ^tT SEW ^WU'WOTra; ' oven the rich sometimes stand in 
need of grass,' similarly 

( b ) The particles 3^ and &$ meaning ' enough-/ 3^ 
^enough of your weeping ( do not weep ):' 5^ afHrr^oT ' away 
with overpressing'; && is also used with a gerund 
^roH" 'away with misunderstanding/ 

( c ) Particles expressing ' accompaniment ' such as 
*T, ?nt, ^, &c.. SIR* ^ETT^ -R^T ^ ( Bh. VIII. 70. ); 

mi FnfrrRr snr?r: Rag. XIV. 63; 3^^ firsrr-^rrR ?rif 

Sak I. 27. &c. 
( d ) Words meaning " having or destitute of;' 

) ' though possessed of wealth/ &c. ; 

: Destitute of wealth/ 
N. B. For the optional use of the Instrumental see the Abl., 
the Gen. and the Loc. cases. 

819. * The primary sense of the Dativ easels Sainpra- 

* ?T5^ W5& Pto- II- 3. 13. 

Pan. I. 4. 32. T %^r TOf*r^r% ^ftfr ^sr^nr VArt 

486 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 819-822 

dina ( ^nr^TH ). The indirect object of the root arj is called 
SampradAna; also the person or thing with reference to whom 
or which an action is done- f^Miq nt $$l\!\ * he gives a cow to 
a BrahmaDa-/ 5^rq- ^TfrW 'prepares for battle-/ ;r ^j^rir 
'The Sndra should not be instructed in the Veda, &c.' 

*Bnt in the ease of the root q-^ the proper object is pnt in 
the Instrumental case and the indirect object in the Accusa- 
tive, qgFTT T* TH?t 'be sacrifices a bnll to Rudra/ 

Note: Though the root 57 ought to govern the Dat. of the 
indirect object, it is sometimes found used with the Gen. or the 
Loc. *T3* TOrifrf 5* % ^Tftr <f* ^T Oh sky-wanderer, I 
will give you the prosperous kingdom of the Sibifl; ' i&3 *TT 
^n% 'thou who art thinking of bestowing the earth 

upon Rama/ &c, 

820. f The roots 5^ and others having the same sense 
govern the Dative of the person or thing pleased or satisfied; 
*rfrF: 'Hari likes devotion;' g^t ft 5*1* * 3lfl*IKI 
a stream of sweet water, cool and per- 

fumed, is not liked by one who has already drunk enough of water/ 

821. JThe roots sgr^ 'to praise/ ^ 'to hide,' ^n * : ^ *tand/ 
and ^rqr * to swear/ govern the Dative of tho person to whom 
some object or feeling is to be conveyed. *n<fr TOTT3. fmT^T 
%3m[-5ni% ^T ' a cowherdess being incited by love 

flatters Krshna or apparently conceals her feeling from him 
or waits for him or swears before him-/ ( Vide Bhatti. VII. 73. 
74. ); but <l^M sgisiW 5r?Cr ' minister praises his king/ 

822. The creditor ( or the parson to whom something is 

t ^n*RT sfNWT-' Pan. I. 4. 83. 

% ^mgg^Wi #T<*mR: I Pan. I. 4. 34. 

qftHHOi: I fStftfcfrcr I Pan. I. 4. 35, 36. 

I Vait. 

822-824 ] SYNTAX. 487 

due ) in the case of the root <j ' to owe; ' and the person or the 
thing desired in the case of ^g^, are put in the Datfve case; f $r- 
* you owe me two sprinklings of trees * ( Sa'k. ).; 

wrsf sfc ; ( Sid . Kaa. ) ^ qjsMHTqfreft * he 

longing for her ( Bhatti VIII . 15. ) ; ' jtsqrvqr: gr^fff < he longs 
for flowers ;' but tronfor tg53f% where no longing is implied. 

823. * The roots !R\T, ?f , fs^, and sj^, and others hav- 
ing the same sense govern the Dative of the person against whom 
the feeling of anger, hatred, &c. is directed; 5^ ^*rfa fSTW- 
$ JffT-3T*jqrr?r ^r (Sid. Kau. ) < he is angry with Hari, or^ears 
hatred towards him, or is jealous of him or finds fault with 
him; ' tfrafr ^rire^Rrrcii^jr ( Bhatt. VIII. 75. ) he did 
neither get angry with Sit& nor find fault with her ; ' but *rnrf- 
' he keeps a jealous watch over his wife ' ( that others 

y not see her ^RrsNY^STr^rlf^fff Sid. Kau. ) 

( a ) f But ^3; and ^ preceded oy H preposition govern tho 
Accusative case; f% fl-f ^ffreqr% ' w hy do you get an^ry with 
me ? ' f^qTOH^ffrjrpTOnr^ na^ ( Mud. I. ) ' he always endea- 
vours to do harm to my body. ' 

Obi; gg with 3THT is also found used with the Bat.; 
Utta. VII. ). 

824. J The roots ^r^C. an ^ i*% ^ ot ^ m ewri n 8 * to detemine 
the good or bad fortune of govern the Dative of the person 
with reference to whom the inquiry is made; $MJU<T 

I 1 nf: *rtf ^TRSHra^wnfs I Sid. Kau. 

Pan. I. 4. 37. 

i Bid 

- l 4 - 88 - 
I. 4. 39. 

488 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. [ 825-827 

825. * |j with qfft and srr meaning ' to promise, ' gov- 
erns the Dative of the person to whom a promise is made after 
solicitation fisrnr ui sfifsnjftfir STT^fRT *TT I ROT IT^T 

826. f The root a?r with <rft Ho hire, as a servent,' &c., 
optionally governs the Dative ( and optionally the Inst. ) 
of the price at which he is hired ^Kfr 31cTTO *T <rRa?fa: I 
Sid. Kau. 

827. J ( ) A noun expressive of the purpose for which 
anything is done, or the result to which anything leads or the 
effect for which anything exists, is put in the Dative case; 
' worships Hari for final beatitude; ' 

5Tr*t?T SI ' devotion leads to knowledge-, ' 

( Mb. ) 'water gtuel tends to 

( produce ) urine, ' $ugdiq" fjr^nr ( Mah. Bhfts. ) ' gold for 
un da la ( a kind of ornament ) ; ' ^mu ^i^ ' wood for a 
sacrificial post, ' &c. 

N. B. The roots ^ or g^ are often omitted after a .Dative 
used in this sense qErstf TT5T% ( WTO ) poetry is for fame. * 

. (d) An evil foreboded by a poiteotcus phenomenon is 
also put in the Dative case; ^TcTf7 %>ft&\ Rgd[ l the tawny 
lightning forebodes a storm. ' 

(c) $ The word f|ft is used with the Dative; 
' good for a Brahmans. 7 

Pan. 4. 40. 
I Pan. 4. 44. 

I Sid. Kau. 

rgtfr srixm i ^csft ^nr^mR ^r i Vfirtika. 
^?Tr?r5T ^rwit ^ i Vart. 

828-829 ] SYNTAX. 489 

828. * The object governed by an infinitive mood not 
actually need but implied, is put in the Dative; 

in or ^ er to brin 8 ) 

( . *. 3T%*W33F3ffi6 ) ' We bow down to Nrisimha 
( to propitiate him ).' 

( a ) The Dative of an abstract noun formed from a root may 
be usd to express tho sense of the infinitive of the same root; 
* goes to perform a sacrifice; HJIHN 

( Bag. 1. 7. ) < who had amassed wealth in order to give it 
away,' &c. 

829. f The particles w. t **ffcr, ^rr?T and *^r ( exclama- 
tions used in offering oblations to gods and manes respectively), 
S|<$ meaning < equal to, a match for ' and *^r ( an exclamation 
accompanying an oblation to a deity ) govern the Dative case- 
rns' 5m: 5i*fr ' bow to that Sambhu; ' snrnRT: f*i% ' may it be 
well with the subjects; ' ^^^3 ff ( Rag. V. 17. ) ' Farewell to 
thee; ' 3^ ^r^T ' this offering to Agni; ' similarly f^ppq-: f^iT; 
$FTt7t ?R- 3^y ' Hari is a match for the demons; ' so 375 trgt 
HftHj ( Mab. Bhas. ) ' one wrestler is a match for another; ( see 
Rag. II. 39. Bhatti. VIII. 98.); |OT TO 'thii oblation 

( a ) But when 5 is used with qriP, it becomes the principal 
verb J and therefore goveros the Accusative case; ' 

l bows down to gods' ( when the souse of an infinitive is 
suppressed, of course the Dative will be used, see $ 828 ). 

( b ) Words having the sense of 379, such as sr*j: *TfTO:, 5H&:> 
&c. and also the verb 719;, are used with the Dative ( Sid. Kan. ) 

ar. II. 94.); JT3 
the other words may also be used with the Genitive ( Bid. Kau. ) 

II. 3. 14, 15. 
t Sfl.* 

490 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. [ 829-831 

: ( Mai. Mad. IV. ) the great 

king has power over his daughter. 

( c ) Verbs meaning ' to salute ' such as srorac , STOPF^, &c. 
may govern the Dative or the Accusative, 
( Kad.) they do not bow down to deities; ffT H 

saluted her with a mind bowed down with devotion; 
srafo% Sffiptf ( Bag. X. 15. ) the gods bowed 

respectfully to him, the annihilate r of the enemies of the 
immortals: rrifi$f ( ^rfnrmffo: ) xrftniar ( Kum. II. 3. ) having 
bowed to the lord of speech &c. 

830. "With verbs of telling such as qs^, ^err, ^ , 
ftft^ can. &c. and of sendirg such as f| with sr, ^ with 
&c. the Dative of the indirect object is used; 

: I ( Bag. XI. 37. ); He told the king 
of Mithila that Rama was eager to see the bow; 

: ( Bhag. XI. 31. ) Tell me, who thou art in 
this fierce form, &c., ^f^rat ffrrW 5^% fif^^nft ( S'ak. IV. ) 
I will tell my preceptor that it is time to offer the morning 
oblations; fr%*& tKl'Hl syRimg ( Bag. VHI. 79. ) Indra sent a 
heavenly damsel against him ( i. 0. to disturb his contempla- 
tions ); ?^rw^ Hjtq^ MM^N ( Bag. XV. 21. ). 

83?. *The indirect object of the root m cl. 4. ' to think ' 
if not an animal, may be put in the Accusative or the Dative 
base when contempt is to be shown; tf RTT ^ur TT?% 3<mtf *T I do 
not consider thee a straw; but ^ r^t ^OT H?lr ( R[ cl.; 8 ) when 
mere comparison is meant, the Accusative is used; ?qf ^n* 

Pa?. II. 3. 17. 

Katyayana remarks ' 

' . 0. " Instead of 'If not n animal' it should be said, 
If Tiot one of a ship, or foo9 or a crow or a parrot or a jackal/' 

5T?5rf R^STHf 3T5I5rT,5r^tS%'^R^r^; > the former cse 
though neither ?{f nor ^^c is an animal, the Accusative ought 
to be used, in the latter though ^ is an animal the Dative 
may be optionally used. 

832-834 ] SYNTAX. 491 

832. * The object of roots imply log motion ( i. e. the 
place to which the motion is directed ), if it be not a road, is 
put in the Accusative or the Dative, when actnal motion is 
meant j jrrtf UII *T *T^fa ' goes to a village } ' but H5RTT tf$ 


833. The principal sense of the Ablative case is mm$H or 
'motion away from );' hence the noun from which the motion, 
real or conceived, takes place ia put in the Ablative case ; 
' comes from a village-,' ^R^TPTm^ 'falls down 

from a running horse'; 

(a) I Words having the sense of ^j*jcgr, Q<IH or 'cessation/ 
'pause,' and JTRTT^ ' swerving from/ also govern the Ablative 
case ; qrnrr *Sa?* ' he hates sin 

. ( Rag. VIII. 22. ) the new monarch, steady in 
action, did not desist from efforts until they bore their fruit '; 
'swerves from duty '. OTTWSffmam^ ( Meg. I. ) 

4 careless, failing in the discharge of the duties ( of his office )' 

so ^un^Sinff ; SRTWT^T f^efo ^Kt^^T *T$nnT<I ( Manu Smr, 
V. 49.), & c . 

with sr in the flense of 'to be careless about' is used with 
the Loc. also; gfiftaFir smrcfcr M^^l^ Rqfeld: I ( Manu Smr. 
II. 213) on this account wise men are not careless about 
their wives. 

834. In the case of words expressing fear or protection 
from fear, that from which or whom the fear proceeds is put 
in the Ablative case-, ^fTTil^fft i* afraid of a thief ; *fmt **t 
was afraid of the white-horsed one t. 0. Arjuna ; 
( Bhag. II. 40 ) even a little 

. II. 3. 12. 

TSI^ <r23Hf I Pan II. 3. 28 ^UMiq 3iqnfR^ Pan. 1. 4. 24. 

I V&rt. 


492 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 834-837 

of this ( kind of ) pi^ty saves one from great fear ; $JqT^lf%^IT- 
373. ( Bhatt IX. 11. ) were afraid of the roar of the monkey. 

(a) * That from which one is kept off is also put in the 
Ablative ; Wttfinmvm wards off from sin ; q&ft irf gWlfd 
keeps off the cow f rbm barley. 

835. f In toe case of fir with <rn the thing unbearable is 
put in the Ablative case ; 3renRTcTO*T*KT finds study unbearable 
or difficult ; at mimmiHt jftfr ( Bhatti. VIII. 71. ) who got 
disgusted with the love ( of Havana ); but 

836. \ When concealment is to be had recourse to, that 
whose sight one desires to avoid is put in the Ablative case ; 

* Krishna conceals himself from his mother; 


837. (a) The teacher from whom something is learnt 
regularly is put in the Ablative case ; ;?qTUINI<^M learns from 
fche preceptor ; but s^pr mit 

(b) Similarly the prime or original cause in the case of 573 
to be born, and the source in the case of i are put in the Abla- 
sr*TT : ST5fm% the creation proceeds from Brahinau ; 
^HlW the scorpion is born from cowdung; 
The Ganges riles from the Himalayas . 

from desire anger is produced. 

: Verbs meaning 'to bo born' or 'to be begotten upon' 
are often used with the Lpc.; rerf 31dlM afaf^lt^^TPTcf from 
her was born Satananda Angirasa ; H<fet<llii^yt begotten upon 
Henaka. See Manu Smr. 154. I. 9. 

: I Pan. I. 4. 27. 
I Pan. I. 4. 26. 

I Pan. I. 4. 28. 

Pan. 1. 4. 29 

Pan. I. 4. 30. 31. 

838-840 ] SYNTAX. 49* 

838. *When the sense of an indeclinable participle is sap- 
pressed in a sentence the object governed by that ptc. or the 
placo at or on which the action takes place is pnt in the 
Ablative case; qwT^T^ 3T$m sees from a palace ( 
Sid. Kan. ); similarly 

Sid. Kan. 

839. ( a ) f The place or time from which the distance of 
another place or point of time is to be expressed is pnt in the 
Ablative case; the distance in space being pnt in the Nomina- 
tive or the Locative and that in time in the Locative; 3*71^ 
*T ( Sid. Kan. ) the village is a yojana from 

the forest; irfnjjra: ^rfor^T ^?*Tft *ff3TRTR **%$ Tftftg *T (Mb.) ; 

( Sid. Kau. ) the fnll moonday of 

Hlrgasirsha is a month ( at the interval of a month ) from thao 
of Kaitika 

( b ) The Ablative is also used in questions and answers 
^m whence art thon ? from the river; 
where do you come from ? Pataliputra. 

840. JThe words 3T?<T, ?!T ud others having a similar 
sense, the particles a^TT^ ' near or distant, ' 5}^ * without, T 
words expressive of direction used with reference to time or 
space ( except when they refer to the limos of the boby ) and 
those derived from the root 3^ at the end of componnds, and 
in declinables ending in aft and srift are constructed with the 
Ablative; 3^ f*F5T fcTH ^T frrorr^ different from Krishna; f?fft 
if? Bh|ti. VII. 106. If he be one other 

than Havana and a follower of Rama; awni'^T^. near or 
from the forest- ^T cFPT^HNId: ( Bhatti. VII. 105 ) come 
without ( setting aside ) his cruelty; JimTrS?? 3tTfr *T *o the 



Jran. II. o. 29. 

494 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 840-841 

east or the north of the village; 4hnqL: TO?3PP the month of 
Falguna is prior to that of Chaitra; bat trjj <fcr^HT the (forepart) 
of the body; sm> STrq^qr *4midl to *te east or to the west of the 
village-, sn^sreraT^ ( Bhatti. VII. 106 ) before the day dawned; 

the south or in the southern direction 

of the village; SrTTT ^&*K( Bhatti.) in the north of the sea. 

Obs: =5ft is sometimes used with the Accusative; ^PT r^t 
!T *rfqmPcr *r5 ( Bhag. XI. 32 ) even without thee all will die. 

( a ) Words like snjUT, am^T, srff.', 3TTOTC, 3TtS, & &c. are 
used with the Ablative; the first word may also be used with 
adverbs of time; ctWrf^TTSnifSr from that day; 
since then; 3*^*3^5^% ^rf^T ^W: (Kum. V. 86); 

outside the 

village; 5**n*tHrWtW%Q: ( 1%T^T^ ) wenfc out of the emerald 
gate of the town; gj^J ^^r^<T3: ( M - S - IX. 77 ) after a year- 
hence forward; 3r*fr: Vf ( Hag. I. 17 ) beyond the path; 
: if; S^l u N^lMlWI4''*' ? Tf ( Rag. III. 70. ) after the 

dropping of old leaves; see Bhag. XII. 12. 
841. * The ablative is used with 

( a ) The prepositions 5W and <rf? meaning * away from, 
without ' and 3H meaning 'as far as 7 or 'including, comprehend- 
ing ' 5 *?OT*r<T ^ifoiRft ZRWri **iArra( ( B&m. > now that he 
dwelt in Lanka, in terror, away from the worlds; 3TO f^: 
^HU : Samsara exists outside Hari; ZR f%nf^ ^Jf ^: it 
rained everywhere, except in the country of Trigarta. Similarly 

^f^rSvift^r^: ( Vop. ) 

Brahman pervades every thingj 
until the learned are satisfied. 

* 3TWT TO-flT I 31T^rarfal*pgfr I Pan. I. 4, 88-89. 
: Pan. II. 3. 10 srfo: sri?f^ftl|f?^R^ I Pan I. 4. 92. 
Pin. II. 3. 11. 

841-844 1 SYNTAX. 495 

( & ) SfffT meaning 'the representative of, in exchange for or 
giving in return for;' sr-gg: &m|fijfff ( Sid. Kan. ) Pradyurana 
is the representative of Krishna-, ffttr: srfitan^rfer HHi< g ives 
mashas in return for aesamum. 

842. * When a word expressive of 'a debt,' is merely 
intended to be stated as a cause, it is put in the Ablative case; 
<? a thing mortgaged for a hundred rupees; 

tied down as it were by the debt he owes. 

843. ( a ) The Ablative often denotes the cause of an action 
or condition and may be translated by ' on account of, by reasou 
of/ &c. ti\H|r^j: irtHftt one is considered a fool by reason of 
his silence ( if he keeps silence); ftma*nmt *qrgt ( H. ) on 
account of my killing cows and men. 

( b ) The Ablative is used to make a causative assertion or to 
advance an argument. q$ft 3%m^ ^m^l The mountain is 
fiery ( has fire on it ), because there is smoke; * 

( Ved. Su. II. 1. 1 ) A 
disputant says- if you say that our argument is liable to the 
fault of giving no scope to your smritis then we reply: this your 
argument will not hold; for in that case other smritis will 
have no scope given to them. 

( c ) The Ablative is used with comparatives or words having 
a comparative sense; ^rnuwrfgt STRmn: ^rrq the way of 
knowledge is more efficient than that of dsvotion. aT(rfFU|un<Ul 
smaller than an atom; ap^TOphar: *TfUiNirafl^nr truth 
alone is superior to a thousand horse-sacrifices, ^a^vri^^ft not 
inferior to Chaitraratha. 

844. f The indeclinables trzr^r, f*RT &&d ^rqr govern the 
Ablative, the Accusative and the Instrumental cases; ^^ 

from or without Rama; so 5fT*T TTR, 


* 3^ot rajft I Pan. n. 4. 25. 

t ^Tl ^RTTT*TriVR^[rfl M i *<4 n T V4 \ ^ I Pan. II. 3. 

496 OANSKBIT GRAMMAR. f 844-847 

&c. jfRT HTflf ftwffOT ateMHI ( Vop. ) worldly life is vain 
without a woman ( wife ) 

845. * The words ^fa? ' a little.' g^ a little, ' %&% 'diffU 
culty, ' and jgftqq" 'some 9 when used in an adverbial sense with 
verbs, are used in the Ablative or the Instrumental; 
' let off with little; similarly 3T5^T a^TRSrU:, 
: clone with difficulty; ^fffaifa ^ffTWTfT STO', but 
killed with a little poison; when used adver- 
bially they take the Accusative also; ^ftt& T^rrff goes a little. 

( ) <pf and ^TrfT^ and others having the same sense, are 
used in the Ablative, the Accusative and the Instrumental cases; ^or^TT away from the- village; so ajfcdfel^3n^fr 
3TT%%3; 31 near the village. 


846. f The Genitive, as already remarked, is not a Karaka 
case. It, therefore, expresses simply the relation of one noun 
to anothar in a sentence, such as that of a servant and hi 
master ( a relation which is other than that expressed by a 
Karaka case ) - iffi: 55% 53TW mcTT> 5*rW 3*T : &c. j and evert 
in those cases where the genitive is used in the eeuse of 
other cases it expresses simple relation or JH^VT only, as in 

847. J When the word 55 ( cause, object ) is used in a 
s en ten e, that which is the object and the word %g are put in the 

I Pan. II. 3. 33. 35. 
t TOT ^% Pan. II. 3. 50. ST^Jrrffof^rtf ( the sense of the 

Sid. Kan. 


847-849 ] SYNTAX. 497 

Genitive case; sngRV WtTOlft dwells for the sake of ( with the 
object cf getting ) food; ftl^ft **T fc?fr: Mark P. 23. 12. 

( Bhatti. VIII. 103. ) he 

b0gau to ;- j her *n account of Rama in order to show her 
that Ue ( L r< v/.inTOat ) was Rama's messenger. 

( a ) * When & pronoun is used with the word ^j, the Instru- 
mental and the Genitive may both be used; g^q %?fr, %* ts^r, 
with what object? Why? The Ablative may also be used; 
ifcT %S*T, <WTT%?l1v ?W Sift:} when a word having the same sense 
as Jg, such as ftftrw* <hKm, &c., is used with a pronoun it may 
be used in any case in agreement with the pronoun; ^q* RffTrlftr, 

&c.; but they are 

generally used in the Accusative used like an adverb; 
38KU|-M*njffi-3**T, & c - when a pronoun is not used, any case 
except the Nominative and the Accusative may be used; ^|^H 
QJH^H ( fR: %oT: ), ^MIU ftftnTRT with the object of acquir- 
ing knowledge. 

848. f Words ending in the termination ^ and showing 
direction and others having the same sense, such as 

with the Genitive; mHHI 3fT%Wf: 31TT<T : &c. to the south or te 
the north of the village, &c. ; ^4^qR ( 8'ak. II. 8. ) on the 
Arka plant. <r^nm^: ( S'ak. I. ) under the trees- 

: (Meg.) standing before him with great difficulty, &o. 
( a ) I Words ending in ^ such as ^T$rT, gsftor, &c. are 
used with the Genitive or the Accusative; 

to the south of the village; avHm ^r^i ( Mai. Mad. IX. 24. ) 
to the north of the river ; ^o^?T5^%ui^ ( Bhatti. VIII.108. ^ 
( Meg. 80 ) to the north of Kubera's palace. 

849. + The words ant and sif^re and their synonyms 

I fWwj</l<JH<iUt ^nfTt XTR^fT^ I Vlrt 

t TOlTTO*rr^^R Pan. H- 3. 30. 
t triT^rfitwnn I P&n. II. 3.31. 

l3" : ^5y^<WR I Pa n . n 3. 34. 
. 8. G. 32, 

498 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 849-851 

govern either the Genitive or the Ablative; mm^ jjfmq qr Tf 
the forest is distant ftr/n or near the village-, 
be who is away from Rama 

or Siva is near sin; HHim^fr RTMiwU4M<W close to the bower 
of the Madhavi creeper; r^qr qehUf &c. 

650. * The root ^rr meaning 'to have an incorrect know- 
ledge of ' governs the Genitive; %$ ^affat srnffit supposes oil to 
be ghee-, but ^rf 

( a ) Verbs implying ' to think of, to remember/ such as ^, % 
with srf^, 'to be master of/ such as fsr , ^ with sr, &c. and to have 
compassion on such as B^ &c., govern the genitive of their 
object, yf^^: ^R^% (Meg. 90) dost thou remember the lord? 

Ram. VI. 60. 8 

: ( Bhatti VIII. 119. ) Lakshmaaa remembers thecj 

: ( Mai. Mad. 4. ) the great king has 

mastery over his daughter; ^ <t 

( Uttar. ) if after I see him I shall have control overmyself; 
?rnfmt 9*5fh$ft4f$ff ^rr? ( S'ak. II. ) I have lost all power over 
my limbs; ^Bftftor Wf^t ^5S*- ( Kum. III. 34. ) with great 
difficulty they could control their minds- qriqRtMSHf TOOT ^ 
5T ?FWT^( Bhatt. II. 33. ) why dost thou 

feel no compassion for those whose wealth does not see 
the morrow ? *TKCT 3TOR: ( Ibid. VIII 119 ) taking pity 
OA Rama. 

( ) 3 meaning * to impart additional properties ' governs the 
Genitive; <nrfcCTO ^TT^^ ' fuel imparts heat to water, 'm 
: Bhalti. VIII. 119. 

851. t Verbs meaning <to be afflicted with a disease 

* trif%fw sstfr i ^ 


t 4>^ll4lHf *4IM^^HHIn^: I Pan. II. 3. 54. 




govern the Genitive of their object when used impersonally or 
when they have for their subject names of diseases; 
the thief is afflicted with the pain of fever; 
: dysentery inflicts pain on the man; except when 
and *KfTO are used as subjects; ( vide Bhatti. VIII. 120; ) ?f 
or ^mi-* fever or affliction pains him. 

852. * srr^ meaning 'to wish' governs the Genitive when 
the idea of a benediction is implied) Tjfqr STOW wish to have 

desires to have wealth. So q 


853. f The roots 5T^, ^ with ft or * or with both, ^, 
randf^ govern the Genitive when meaning to injure, to 
punish, &c ; *JUHft*dlqra *HTT a king punishes a thief? 

l ( Sis. I. 37. ) to kill the enemies of the world 
( the demons ) by his own power; Hfn>aanqMH; kill (drive 
away ) your anger; tigUIMi ftgQt 
or n^pimQ *TR: H&ma 

r g 
will kill 

q or 

the R'akahaias. 
ra does injury to a Vrishala- 

^nr: &c ; in other senses they govern the Accusative; 
ffaf% ^e grinds fried rice. 

854. { The roots STTf ( t. 6. f- with ft and 3T* ), ITT and 
when they all mean to transact business, or to stake in 

he staked 

gambling^ govern the Genitive of their object; 

invests a hundred rupees in business; yiuiMiHM 

Ms life; 3j%*flfr f^ifrrnrf lost his brothers and pleasures in 

gambling, &c.; but when f^ is preceded by a preposition, 

the Accusative may also be used; ^nTW ST* *T irfiWsq^ 

( Sid. Kau. ) 

855. H Words having the senses of ^^: t. e. denoting fre- 

* 3TT%ft Tm: Pan. II. 3. 55. 
t 'HlRlfimuiHld*h|VtriW 1 


II. 3. 56. 

fer I fwu^Mtii I Pan. II.3.57-59. 

i Pin. n. 3. 64. 

500 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB [ 855-856 

quency of time, such as f$:, r%:, <ne^??P &c. govern the Genitive 
of the time in the sense of the Locative; <refec4l&l vfrs&m 
taking food five times a day; fgft^f 5^%:, &c. 

856. * The Genitive is used subjectively and objectively 
with Kridantas or Primary Nominal Bases derived by mean* 
of the Krit affixes ( i. e. is used in the sense of the subject or 
the object of the action denoted by the Kridantas ); 

an act of Krishna s. e. of which Krishna is the agent; 
the Creator of the world, which is the object of the action 
denoted by the noun gs< ; similarly ^r?rf qfgS#: the protector of 
the good; qire: trrjj the drinking of milk; flfq- ^ (for a work 
of that poet; ^NHufi wftftq- * *TTf : ( JUmacharita XII. 117. ). 
This is not a common creation of Brahman. 

(a) ] In the case of verbs governing two Accusatives the 
secondary object of the K rid ant a may be put in the Genitive 01 
in the Accusative; Tftrerw ^ l^T ^T ( Sid. Kau. ) the taker 
of the hone to Srughna. 

( b ) J When the agent and the object of the bases derived 
by means of Krit affixes are used in a sentence, the object is put 
in the Genitive ease and not the agent; snwfr 9T3T ^l^l^li^H 

the milking of cows by one who is not a cowherd is a wonder. 

Exceptions. This rule does not apply to Krit nouns ending 
in the affixes 3U and ^ when feminijuty ftflrWT W^T *T W** 
gnTcf: ( Sid. Kau. ) the desire of Rudra to split the universe or 
the splitting of the universe by Hud ra. According to some when 
the Krit affixes are of feminine gender, and according to others 

. II. 3. 65. 

3TWI&UHI 4>Mfu| I Pan. II. 3. 66. 


Sid. Kau. 

856-858 ] SYNTAX. 501 

when they are of any gender, and the agent and the object are 
both used, the agent is put in the Instrumental or Genitive case ; 

r wonderful is the creation of the 

world by Hari ; 3l4Mmd$ll*MHMl3uiMl4*<l 3T ( Sid. Kan. ); 

857. * When past passive participles are used in the sense 
of the present tense the Genitive is used ? ^njrf JTrff 3^ 
3T respected, known or honoured by kings ?ff *nf ' ?J TOft 
Bhatti. VIII. 124. 

(a) Past participles showing the place of an action, as well 
as those used as abstract nouns are used with the Genitive 



See. Bhatt. VIII. 125. 

858. f The Genitive is not used with present participles 
except that of f^f, verbal derivatives ending in 7 and 3-3? 
except that derived from 3^, verbal indecli cables, past parti- 
ciples, passive and active, nouns formed with the affix ^^ ( see 
p. 456 ) and with such as mean <in the habit of, or having the 
properties of or doing any thing well'; if $q^ or $qiu|t; but 
& ST^T *T ll^ fR: Hari, the enemy of Mura.jrft %g: desir- 
ous of seeing Hari; $ft afaff?uj:, |?qrn; ^3^^: Hari is the 
killer of demons . 5j$5?r: cRg^:, onrT, ^ ^S & c - 

ftoTT worldly life goes easy 
with Hari. 3TTcHTfr MgfiMa? in habit of decorating oneself; 

: a habitual beggar; ^ *ff? one who prepares a mat; 
also in the case of nouns derived by means of the terminations 

I Pan. II. 67-68. 

t T ^l^ftai^-JflHiq; I Pan. II. 3. 69. 
t ^Hl^RMj^NHUq^l: | Pan. II. 3. 70. 

502 SANSKBIT GEAHXAB. [ 858-861 

showing futurity and f^ showing necessary payment; fjfc 
ri& he goes desiring to see Hari- ^rtf ?fpft one who ha* 

to pay a hundred ( rupees. ). 

85V. * In the case of Potential passive participles the agent 
of the action is put in the Genitive or in the Instrumental case;: 
Hari ought to be served by me; 

1W& WH nsrfrof ** ( Bhatti. V III. 129. ) this forest which the 
lord of the demons ought to preserve must be destroyed by me - 
&o. ( Meg. > Thou should go to Alakft 

860. f In the case of words denoting equality or likeness, 
such as jjpr, fTSST, &c., the person or thing with whom or which* 
any object is compared is put in the Genitive case, except in 
the case of gstt ""* 3TOT, gpr: ^T^T: *nfr *T ^WTW &*ft* ^T 
equal to or like Krishna; SJtwftfw *C5T$ft WT who else is equal 
to me ? but ^UIR? g^r ^TRT ^T 5ffR<T ( Sid. Kau. ). 

06*. The words 337 and d<(W, however, are found used by 
good anthers with the Insrtumental against PaDini's rule^ 
( Kum. V. 34. ) which rises to the high 

position of being compared with your lip. 

3fcTT ( Sis. 1. 4. ) clearly deserving to be compared with 8'ambhn. 

white with ashes; see Bag, VIII. 15. 

861. t The words ans**, W*, **, $*#, 5*, 3** " d fi?f 
and words having the same sense, when used in a sentence con- 
taining a benediction, govern the Dative or the Genitive case ; 

WT ^TRT (Sid. Kau.); may 

Krishna live long., similarly IT?, iRf, $*rtf, M<m4, 
, ftli", 1^" IT H5II9. ( Sid. Kau. ). 

Pau. II. 3. 72. 

862-864 ] SYNTAX. 503 

862. The Genitive is used with 1 indeclinables like 
^ft> 35%, & C. ; JIFHTT *T^ ^ *T in the middle or on the other 
side of the Ganges ; 3ufwr muiHT $ft for the sake of this life. 

863. With superlative?, and words having the sense of 
tht superlative, the Genitive is used; ^ja 

( Hag. V. 4. ) the chief of sages, the authors to the 

Note: Words having the sense of comparatives are used 
with the Ablative and sometimes with the Instrumental; spr- 
33CT R : or 3TT*ta : tn is person is superior or inferior to 

him in strength ; similarly ^^fft 73 4*11*5' *j^lf *Tj lt 5 
H7T WA W H1 nave a happier end than 1 ? The word 

is used with the Genitive, the Locative or the Instru- 
mental , 5^f| dmmffoPTffr tftsw^ he was more ( i. e. dearer ) 
to them than their sons ; ^rTRan'^^T ITT^T: T^f ^T $RP$T ^TTP 
they passed five months and twelve nights more than ( those 
yean ) $g^.s(^nE ST^cr* -^ Pratt ha is larger than a Kudavb. 

864. * The place where an action takes place with re- 
ference to the subject or object is called Adhikarana ( SfivreTO ) 
and is put in the Locative case; f ^RfR Aftr*? (Bham. 1. 60); 
WTflt sf*5*Hfr ( H>M 64 ); yqi^qr ^RpT 'nrft **ooks food in a 
cooking utensil- e^of 3HraT% tells ( something ; into the ear; 
3Trc<T; & c - The Locative also denotes the time when 

ua action takes place 5 m?R[ RggrtT: ^T& (^ft^r: ( Kiim. II. 
1. ) the gods being harassed at that time ; f^TR^ ffi^gilT <I^t 
( Bag. II. 15. ) 

( a ) I Verbal derivatives in ?^ and having the sense of the 
p. p. participle govern the Locative of their object -, STOTttt 

I f 3HmR|*.<ul ^ I Pan. 1. 4. 45, II. 3. 36. 

^ I Yaiukas. 

504 SANSKBIT GBAHHAB. [ 864-866 

one by whom grammar is studied, 
whom the six Anga were mastered, &c. 

The words ^rrg and 3TW$ govern the Locative of that with 
reference to which they are used ; *ng: ^07? RTrTft well be- 
lieved towards his mother ; ^^iv^m^^ ill-behaved towards his 
maternal uncle. 

( b ) * The object or purpose for which any thing is done 
is put in the Locative case when the thing desired is intima- 
tely connected with that on which the action takes place 

<ttf*H*5I*'fl ^^3?*^ I 

( Mb ). ( Man ) kills the tiger for his skin, the elephant for his 
tusks, the Chamary deer for her hair and the musk-deer for his 
musk. If there is no intimato union the Dative is used. 

Obs. Sometimes the Instrumental is used to denote the 
object for which any thing is done; %flifo ( for wages ) ^F^T 
^tilfft. Sometimes the Loc. is used to denote the object in 

general ; *ran ^tfa ^rrsrT ^& **W* ftince von are created b y 
the creator to do duty, fulfil it. 

865. f The Locative or the Genitive is used with the 
words ^rmt a master, %*&, 3fft<n3 a lord, ^nTT? a heir, grfF* , 
STO^ a bail, and srOT born for- ir^f iftl *T ^trft the master of 
kine ^i%5qr^ or ^i^rsqT 1PW the lord of the earth; HTHTOlt or 
r: toe lord of villages, similarly fofeiw ftsr^t ^T 
^Tf ^TT^ftj ^^ 3T^fTf r 5T uRl^ ( surety 

for appearance in a court ) } ifY^ T9T Tf 5T^rT : 'TTT* a cowherd 
is born for cows. 

866. I The words ail^Tfe and ^r^T meaning 'appointed 


| Sid. Kau. ^rvr^pr: Rr^^^r^: (constant, inseparable 
union ). Tark. Kau. 

t T^iHi^tijyMin^Niqtift^sriff^M^iSnwi I Pw^. H 3 39. 

II. 3. 40. 

66-870] SYNTAX. 505 

or devoted to ' are construed with the Locative or the Genitive 
4HI&*: $*!<& *F SKfr*ft ffffrmw *T appointed to worship 
Hari; OTdl^umiumgtft fcrern'or I ( Bhatti. VIII. 115. ) In 
other senses they are construed with the Locative- 
5T$%- a bull harnessed to the yoke of a carriage; <jff6fr 
expert in the performance of an act. 

867. *When an object or an individual is to be distinguish- 
ed from a whole class, the Locative or the Genitive is used; 
?n STTgrar: OT: ( see Mann 8. I. 96. ), 

( Sid. Kan. ) 

868. f The words ^n and T^gor, not preceded by the pre- 
positions 3Tg, qf^ and srnr, are used with the Loc. when the 
sense of adoration is to be conveyed; iHftft ^rnjRTJofr 7T reveren- 
tially disposed towards his mother; bnt fsnpir: VT$: apq*: a clever 
servant of the king. When preceded by the prepositions 313, qft 
and srfc these are used with the Accusative; 

869. | With the words <rf&cr &nd g<^^, the Locative or 
the Instrnmental is used; srftr?T 3<%\ 31 ?ftarr sft ^ intent 
upon Hari; <rc*n qft^^ Tfr srf^R ^T fflftfrtt^r, a woman gets 
anxious ( or restless ) when her husband goes out; 
Kir. XVI. 7 

870. When the names of Naltthatrat are need as showing 
particular time the Locative or the Instrumental is used; 339- 

t ffir *r i ( Sid. Kau. ) 

Sid. Kau. 

. n. 3. 43. 

I Vart. 

I Pan. II. 3. 44. 

^cft^TT I Bharata on Bhatti. VIII. 117 

506 SANSKRIT GEAMMAB. [ 871-875 

871. * Words expressive of the interval of time or space 
are wed with the Ablative or the Locative; a^T gtyquf sf| 
^TrFT having dined to-day he will dine again after two 
*T W* f%^H standing here he will hit 

a mark two miles distant. 

872. f The prepositions 37 in the sense of ' exceeding ' 
and arftf in that of ' the master of ' govern the Locative; stpRpJ 
: the merits of Hari exceed a par&rdha; srnj >f 1% TFR: or sjftr 
ij: Kama is the lord of the earth; in other senses these 
prepositions ara used with the Accusative, for which see 805 

873. The words 57 and 3ffere ad others having the same 
aid used in the Locative also; 

874. Verbs having the sense of ' love, regard for, attach- 
ment to ' such as T%{[, m&*^, 21TH^, T^, &o. and their deriva- 
tives generally govern the Locative- fq^T ^ f%fm * father 
loves his son; aim $T ift^Qsiri q:^ ( S'ak. 1)1 have a^ 
sisterly affection for them also; ;f 

I do not, indeed, love the ascetic's daughter, 

people do not love a king whose ministers are 

corrupt; nrfl4flW TOfaf $ia<*3fl ^m?f: ( Manu. S. HI. 179 ). 
TO% TH?T ( Mai. Mad. III. 2. ) takes pleasure in solitude; *ff 

Bhatt. I. ) devoted to his welfare. 

Note: ^|6^ an( i *?TH^^[ are sometimes used with the 
Accusative also; ^H^H^^I^d (Bama.); ^I^MMdNnO 
(Bhatt. IV. 22.) 

875. Verbs of acting, behaving towards,&c. such as 373 r 
STOg, &c. and of throwing, such as 3!^, 5^, %?, &c. govern 
the Locative; aj^ RH^H ^T^ : ^^F one shoald act modestly 
towards respectable persons; ^ fHq^^ffi ^Mc^MH ( 

Pan. II. 3. 5. 

I Pan. II 3. 9. 

75-878] SYNTAX. 507 

I ( S'ak. I. ); fff*U4ll 
( Rag. VII. 23- ). 

876. The root n>J with 3fq- ' fc offend' is generally construed 
with the Locative and sometimes with the Genitive; it)MM(q 
S'akuntala has offended some one deserving 

respect; ^ 3 ifl^*0q gmiiWI^ 3*185 ( 6'ak. IH. 9. ), 


877. " When the participle agrees with a subject different 
from the subject of the verb, the phrase is said to be in the abso- 
lute construction. " Bain. 

In English, the Nominative is used as an Absolute case- in 
Sanskrit the Genitive and the Locative are so used. The English, 
Nominative Absolute ought, therefore, to be translated by the 
Sanskrit Locative Absolute. When the Absolute Construction 
is to be used, the subject of the participle must be put in the 
Genitive or the Locative case and the participle made to agree 
with it in gender, number and case. 

N. B. When the subject or object of the principal sentence is 
the same as that of the participal phrase, the absolute contrac- 
tion should not be used-, as arqtvqi Mi^Hl *mt TT^W$(H and 
not 3T3t*f M^% THT *T &c. ; 
and not arjira ft>i ^vq-: &o. 

878. * When the action done or suffered by a person or 
thing indicates another action i. 0. when the time of the happen- 
ing of the one action which is known indicates that of the second 
action, the Locative Absolute be used; iff<J $m*JMIfi TOT.* 
he went away while the cows were being milked; 

Pan. II. 3. 87. 

Sid. Kau. 

508 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. [ 878-882 

^nft the night being ended. $at V| fifth m ft g: ?Enrt T%tTft srfir 
whence can there be obstacles to our religions rites when thou 
art the protector of the good. 

879. The locative or Genitive Absolute may be used to 
express the sense of the English particles 'when, while, since, 
although/' &c. ( and may thus supply the place of a pluperfect 
tenso ); q% ?nft: <RW ^^.'; while they two were thus talking ; 
5% S^ STfft HIMIwUt<iim ( Meg. 40 ) ; Thou wilt accomplish 
the rest of thy journey when the son rises again. 

880. * When ' contempt or disregard' is to be shown, the 
Genitive or the Locative Absolute is used , ^^fff *>3<ft 3T 5% 
STO* ^T STcrraX ne turned out a recluse disregarding his weep- 
ing son . e. in spite of the weeping of his son. In this sense 
the Genitive Absolute is used more often. The Locative or the 
Genitive absolute may thus have the sense of 'in spite of/ 
'notwithstanding,' &c. in English. 

( a ) The Locative Absolute be made to express the idea of 
i as soon as, ' ' no sooner than, ' ' the moment that ' &c. by 
compounding it with the word q* or jrr^; dl?m*..-HfiidHM *& 
( Rag. XVI. 78. ) no sooner was the arrow fixed, &c. 
V trnr scarcely had I finished my speech when. 

Section III. 


881. The chief peculiarities in the Syntax of pronouns 
have been already noticed in chapter IV. 

882. The pronouns of the first and second person viz. 
ve no g n der. The other pronouns follow the 


882-889 ] 



gender of the noons they refer to. For the uses of the shorter 
forms of dWId, an ^ ^4*dl see chapter IV. 

883. Irakis used in the second person like 'you' in English 
as a courteous form of address though it is to be regarded as a 
pronoun of the third person and ought to be treated as such, 
WTO 3TST TOsq-: you ought to be asked here, 
you may also go there. 

( a ) When respect is to be shown, srar and tnr are prefixed to 
HT^ according as the person with reference to whom it is used 
is near, or at a distance or absent; 3HM3K STT^TT: the venerable 
Kashyapa ( who is near ); $qumH 3TgfKldmwrra: may you 
occupy ( lit. ornament ) this seat ; H^rWYT g<l3dl lady Iravati 
( who is not present ). Sometimes ft^r is used with sr^rg; to show 
respect; as *Trjrr ftWf3N * TOT^ftsf; I Mai. Mad. I. 

884. The pronoun R^ has often the sense of 'well known, 
renowned/ &c. ft mJcflmft'qfr those (well-known) Parvati and 
Parame swaraj rTr^^ ^H^<yilf% those well-known forest sites. 

(a) When repeated, this pronoun has the sense of 'various, 
several-/ ?fcj 5 ^^cft^ WT^^ in those various highly delightful 
spots. $foft ^: 5HT^: notwithstanding several 

: &c. ( Bhag. VII. 20 ). 

885. The pronouns q^ and 
plural in the sense of 'someothers}' 


are used in the 


some think that widow- 
remarriage is sanctioned by the S'astras, some say that it is pro- 
hibited by them, while others hold that it is not allowed in the 
Kali age. %r%^may take the place of <{%. 

886. The pronouns 3UH^> 5**?^ , *T3C and f%^ are often 
used in combination with other pronouns; ^f^ 
that I will describe the race of the Raghue; 

510 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 889-890 

that I am the most degraded of all the people; ^ & sr$ret 

TO^ that thou dwelling in my fire-sanctuary; 
&o.; 7r *? W4~<*4$ 'SRW gPnTlfSUHH we, of this description, 
roam over the earth for ( in search of ) Damayanti; sometimes 
3*173; may he understood} ^rr (IM*4l(rt8 t*fr *l& *T . 
that thou quickly sit in a chariot or mount an elephant. 
'tfttf 35Rcl* *T5g^rf <mmMI f%3?TT this is that son of thine, the 
aubduer of elephants shedding ichor } 

wno wifll1 to ^ ve 8till> even tbo S n deprired of my 
ions in that manner, &c. &c. 

887. Adjectives in the Comparative degree are used with 
the Ablative; 3A$TO[$roT sfr: protection ( of one's subjects ) is 
better than aggrandizement. 3iJHI^fcfft ^ro r^C Udhisthira 
was older than Arjuna. 

( a ) Sometimes the comparative is used with the Instru- 
mental; snor fstaft: dearer than life. See also 863 Note. 

888. The superlative may either be construed with the 
Genitive or Locative; 

889. The sense of the comparative and the superlative may 
also be expressed by the particular case used; 3Rq- g^4 Mniuilfe- 
f%% his heart is harder than stone- graimt ^T^ ^T $*: qf : 
Ohaitra is the cleverest of all students. 

890. The words *? and snn; when used in the sense of the 
superlative govern the Genitive or the Locative. 53- tq$Ndl m^: 
'a son is the best of things possessed of touch;' -rj^m^j *fb srqTTT 
9tfT*ft ^n^ Tt ' the cow is the best of quadrupeds and gold of 
metals'; the neu. sing of qrt is used { with a word expressive 
of negation ) in the sense of 'better and not, or but not;' sr^orf- 
f doing any thing slowly is better than not doing 

- 890-894 ] SYNTAX. 611 

it at all j aMMqd*H3IUil mmeft sr ^Tf^fir of ( the three kinds 
of ) sons not born, born and dead, and foolish, the first two 
are better, but not the last, 

Meg. I. 6. ^ STfft: fl*fnr: * 3 WRSTft: better death 
than disgrace. 

Section IV. 


891. All declinable participles in Sanskrit partake of the 
mature of adjectives i. 9. they agree with the nouns they qualify 
in gender, number, and case. The participles often discharge 
the functions of verbs. They are largely empolyed to take the 
place of the Past and Future tenses and more especially of 
passive verbs. When BO employed they follow the same rules 
of syntax as are laid down for the roots from which they 
.are derived. 


892. The present particple is to be used when contem- 
poraneity of action is to be indicated. It is often idiomatically 
-used to express the sense of 'while' or 'whilst* in English ; auofr 

^^ while wandering in the forest ; ftfrr? SPHJ^ f%H?T *?? while 
.he yet wore the marriage string. 

Vide 670. ( b ). 

893. *The present participle is used to denote the manner 
in which an action is done or the cause or object of an action ; 
*T*5fT: the Yavanas dine by lying down ; ffif 

a man is absolved by ( reason of his ) seeing Hari; 

( Mb. ). 

894. The roots grr^ and ror are generally used with present 
participles to show the continuity of the action denoted by 
them ; <rg5ft ^ ffH arr^ used to kill ( always kept on killing ) 
animals ; <t Wl^TTOT^ rTW remained waiting for him. 

?^: f%^rnn: Pan. IIL 2. 126.^: ^ ^HW^T I Sid. Kau. 

512 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 895-900 


895. The use of the perfect participles is very limited ; it 
is used in the sense of < who or what has done &o.' 5 <f dfimql*> 
H*i<lM3sU% ( Bag. V. 61. ) him who had halted in the vicinity 
of the city ; ^m% *refnnri*3TfgTOr ( Bag. V. 34. ) of thee who 
hast obtained all good things, ^ g^jfrK^H ( Bhatti. I. 20 > 
when he heard his words &c. 


896. The past passive participle is very frequently used to 
supply the place of a verb; sometimes in conjunction with the 
auxiliary verbs 3^ and ^. The past passive participle agrees 
adjectively with the object in gender, number and case, the 
agent being put in the Instrumental, while the past active 
participle is treated exactly like the verb in the past tense ; ffr 
^rfr V& b 7 aim the work was done j fa q-VMlM Qtflft by him 
the bonds were cut ; 3flfsren?fT ^T Mlffum I am commanded 
by queen Dharini ; sr ^T$ &d3K he did the work ; w- ^WTT 
5ft*T? Rama killed the B&kshasas - 5cTsrr3T% *Tl^vfKmr thou 
didst never despise me, &c. 

897. In the case of past passive participles of intransitive 
roots the agent is put in the Nominative case ; 
then the king of demons wept; 

898. The past passive participles are often used imperson- 
ally, the agent being put in the Intrumental case; s^fffrf ov 
?T* it is shone by the sun; j^rq- prRfOTT victorious ( all 

powerful ) is the affection for sons ; qfiUdlNd d^M<<<5l he 
showed his learning; ggf^ or q-Rrf^r ^TfSTT, &c. 

899. The past passive participles of the roots jn;, gy 
and 33t an( i their synonyms are used in the sense of the Present 
tense and are construed with the Genitive. ( See 857. ) 

For further particulars vide 705707. 

900. Many past passive participles are used actively in 

900-906 ] SYNTAX. 51S 

which case they may govern the Accusative case, like a Perfect 
tense active} ^ntjc&rrfr^ ( Rag. VI. 77. ) which had ascended 
the mountain ^;, similarly iriRTOmr^: *rfirT armTOrfW: 
crossed i. t. got over the calamity; 4^ l<fc^m<ftof: descended 
to the bank o'l the Yamuna, &e. 

901. The past passive participle is used as a neuter sub- 
stantive; irtf departure; spfr a gift, ^rnt an excavation, 

902 The past passive participle active and passive, may be 
used with the auxiliaries 3^ and ^ in any tense, the mean- 
ing of the participle changing aocoidingly; irat^R or 

I have or am gone; so Tr<raRY7 or iHTCRKT or TKTfr? I had 
or was gone; so %aqRl'W; TaY SR ^T rra%m TTO: that Rama 
is to go to the forest to-morrow- ^srnr: ^fffir^cJf nfifcq/H 
thou wilt obtain great glory, &c. 


903 The future participle denotes that a person or thing 
is doing, or is about to do the action or to undergo the condi 
tion, expressed by the root; qKStrq[ going or about to do; 
about to do or what is about to be done. 

904, Besides showing simple futurity participle expresses 
intention or purpose. 3*337*9^ gRcTJ^TT^; wishing to follow 
the daughter of the sage; 3^73 wishing to give/, qrqrc 
l3^qfc(4 $Sf.*JT9K wishing, as it were, to tame the wild beasts. 


905. The Potential psssive participle Is used in the sense 
of ' what should or ought to be done; ' beeidts this, this parti- 
ciple yields the sense of < fitness, obligation, neccsiity, capacity, > 
&c., the agent being put in the Instrumental case; 

( Devi Bhig. IV. 7.1.) he considered in 
his mind what he ought to do ; <nT:3Tgq<uTNs religions duty ought 
H. 8. O. 33. 

614 SANSKBIT GRAMMAR. [ 905-909 

to be followed, ^n *mt W^ft^n thon art able to bear this burden; 
: this rogue deserves to be killed; 4|*dcUi ?t ?fcU5l 
thoa will have to go to Alaka, the habitation 
of the lordb of Yakshas, &c. 

Obs. Sometimes the agent is put in the Genitive case, pr 

Hari is to be served by me; fi^idlnl W& 3RT boiled 
rice to be eaten by Brahmanas. 

906. Occasionally this participle is used impersonally in 
the neuter gender and singular number; d^^^df HMNH 
his honour should go to the penance grove* ?r*n 

should have to dwell in the company of Chandalas &c. 

907. The neuter forms *n%fcqr ^d vrf^T are used imper- 
sonally in the sense of ' being, ' or ' what must be or in all pro- 
bability is, ' the noun denoting the agent being put in the In- 
strumental case: are %*rft tfeKfr* irftasi there must be some 
cause; H^r q*mT|m qfUF^ir ^^W or mm in all probabi- 
lity his strength must be corresponding to his sound; srnhiT srsTTS - 
cnrr^^n ^rf^Hai^ the lady must ( in all likelihood ) be seated 
in the carriage, &c. 

908. This participle is sometimes used as a noun; 

to him who asked what was to be asked; 
let that, which is to happen, happen. 


909. The past indeclinable participle in Sanskrit denotes 
the prior of two actions done by the same agent and corres- 
ponds to the perfect participle in English; 
having said this he stopped; 

having seated them on his back, he carried them to the lake 
and ate them up. 

As the past indeclinable participles or gerunds serve the 
purpose of carrying on the action of the verb and act as 

909-911 ] SYNTAX. 515 

connecting links between sentences, they account for the spar- 
ing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative pronouns, con- 
junctions and connecting particles. When several gerunds are 
used in a sentence they should be translated by verbal tenses 
and copulative conjunctions; 

when the evening time approached, 
Ohandr&pida went to the royal palace on foot, remained in the 
presence of his father for an hour, saw Vilftsavati, &c. 

910. A few gerunds are used prepositionally in Sanskrit; 
f*?nr, g^fST except, *n^m with, xsQ^U, ^tQ&rq, <4<i<>ti4 with 
reference to, &o. 

THE iNpnrrrtvB MOOD. 

911. The infinitive in Sanskrit generally expresses the 
purpose or that for which an action is done and thus corres- 
ponds to the infinitive of purpose or gerund in English. The 
infinitive in Sanskrit thus involves the sense of the Dative and 
may, if desired, be replaced by the Dative of the verbal noun 
derived from the root 5 qr^rtf TT3 *JHH14>^ aTOWH: descended 
to the bank of the Yamuna to drink water j here qrjj may be re- 

placed by ITRHT ( mfl<w IRHT ); 3i*^<fiPnnjK *frjF ( Bag. 

X. 25. ) where ^^=^mr. 

"The infinitive < formed with 3^ fern ) in Sanskrit " remarks 
Prof. Monier Williams, "cannot be employed with the same 
latitude as in other languages. Its use is very limited cor- 
responding to that of the Latin supines, as its termination Ju 
indicates " 

(a) "Let the student, therefore, distinguish between the in- 
fiinitive of Sanskrit and that of Latin and Greek. In these latter 
languages we have the infinitive made the subject of a proposi- 
tion; or, in other words, standing in the place of a Nominative 
and an Accusative case often admissible before it. We have it 
also assuming different forms, to express present, past, or future 

516 SANSKRIT GBAHMAB. [ 911-912 

time, nd completeness or incompleteness in the progress of 
the action. The Sanskrit infinitive, on the otber hand, can 
never be made the subject of a verb, admits of no Accusative 
before it, and can only express indeterminate time and incom- 
plete action. Wherever it occurs, it must be considered as the 
object, and never the subject of some verb expressed or under- 
stood. As the object of the verb, it may be regarded as 
equivalent to a verbal substantive, in which the force of two 
cases, an Accusative and Dative, is inherent and which 
differs from other substantives in its power of governing a case. 
Its use as a substantive, with the force of the Accutative case, 
corresponds to our use of the Latin infinitive; thus 
f M?TW ' I desire to hear all that/ 'id audire capio,' where 
and audire are both equivalent to Accusative. Similarly, 
ST3CT 'she began to weep/ and *rf ^Tg 3TFC^, he began to conquer 
the earth, where H^Mq 3TKH, he began the conquest of the earth, 
would be equally correct," 

(&) "Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be 
the Accusative of the suffix tu ( 458. Obs. ), and it is certain 
that in the veda other cases of nouns formed with this suffix in 
the sense of infinitives occur; e. g. a Dative in tave r>r tavai, as 
from han comes hantave 'to kill;' fr. anu-i amxtave, <to follow;' 
f r. man, mantavai, 'to think/ there is also a form in tot generally 
in the sense of an Ablative; e. g. f r. i. comes etos ( from going;' 
fr. han, hantos, as in pur a hantos, t before killing; 7 and a form in 
tvi corresponding to the indeclinable participle in tva of the 
classical language; a. g. fr. han, hatvi ' killing/ fr. bhu bhutvi 
'being/ &c. &c. " Sanskrit Grammar. 

912. The infinitive cannot be used as the subject or object 
of a verb, abstract nouns supplying its place in this case. 
Where, therefore, the infinitive occurs in English as tae subject 
or the object in a sentence, the abstract noun derived from the- 

! 912-916 J SYOTAX. 517 

uooi most be used in Sanskrit ; ^\mfcnft Qirnrf to do 
duty is beneficial and not W 

913. * The infinitive is nsed with verbs and verbal nouns 
meaning ( to wish or desire' provided the agent of it is the same 
s that of the verb; qfr gjfWQ *>' t?W ( Mud. I. ) who 
wishes to snatch away the jaws of the lion ; 

Bhartr. II 6. But flilflrm^rffr I wish 

him to do this, is wrong. 

914. f The infinitive is also used with : 

( a ) verbs meaning to be able, to make bold, to know, to 
be wearied, to strive, to begin, to set about, to bear, to be 
pleased and to be; * 5Tfrfar f*RlW VTRftg ( Kad. ) is not able 
to support tis neck; &jRlf% t<r flgflj you know how to re- 
strain anger ; srjp^r ^EfW 4l4Hvn'5'g (Bhatti. XV. 77) he strove 
to fight with Angada ; ^g^^W^^^m^ ( Meg. 22. ) thou wilt 
try to go ; cnfr M&ft4i: (Meg. 103.) begin to speak ; %T%-iWffr- 
f%?m 9f ^t-^.^^T ( Bid. Kau. ) there is food to eat, &c. 

( I ) \ words like 3^ and others meaning sufficient or able, 
proficient or fikilled in, &c.; qqlnfRT SHITs TT3 ( Rag. X. 25 ) 
thou art able to protect the creation ; q;: 

who is able to change destiny; mm^regt ^Nd^^ (Meg. 66 ) 
the palaces are able to stand comparison with thee- jfr^T snfhd: 
J *&R ( Sid - Kftu - ) BkiUed Jn eating. 

(c) words haying the sense of ' it is time to do anything ;' 
Y %cJT 3r%^T *T *&%* (Sid. Kau.) it is time to 
take food. 

915. The infinitive in Sanskrit has no passive form. In 

* HM*<i^ 33* P&n. III. 3. 158. 

t 9i e fc^^i*9i^e < <itf*<'*t^i'&i^^I^ 313ft * Pan. HI- 4. 65. 
Vide Apte's Guide 176 and note thereon. 
mff I Pan. HI. 4. 66. 

^T^TRn^rg E* t P &n - HI. 3. 167. 

518 SANSXBXT GBAIOCAB. [915-918 

turning, therefore, an active construction involving an infinitive 
into a passive one, the verb should be changed into the passive, 
the infinitive and the woids governed by it remaining unaffected- 
JJTrf T*3 f^gfft, ft* STTR *F3 fint-except where the object of 
the infinitive and the verb is the same, ^r *nt Wtf fi 

916. The root sr| ' to deserve ' when used ( in the second 
person ) in combination with the infinitive expresses 'a request, 
a respectful entreaty,' and is generally, equivalent to the 
English < I pray, be pleased, &c. ; ' sr?3r ^nTf^rffir ( Meg. 55 > 
please put out the fire ; * ^flgHl srffa^prffir ( Kum. V. 40 ) 
if you have nothing to conceal from me, please answer me ; 
( Bag. V. 25 ) pray wait for two or three 

days, O respectable one ! &c. Sometimes it is equivalent to a 
gentle command ; fin M*U$I*J4HSI% ( Bag. I. 89 ) you ought to 
please her } ;f tf ^tf%gi*i% you ought not to bewail him. In 
the third person and under the same circumstances it expresses 
power or ability and can be translated by ' can ; ' gfor T% 

. Bhar. IV. 58. 27. 

917. * The infinitive with the final ^ dropped is joined with 
the nouns $ro and n^^ to form an adjectival compound mean- 
ing < wishing or having a mind to do any thing-/ Hdfq$q*q| 

&c. ( Rag. V. 18 ) the disciple of the 
great sage was desirous of returning &o. 5 3nf z&: 

( Kum. V. 40 ) this person has a mind to ask you a question. 


918. The Present, tense shows that an action is taking 
place at the present time ; awHHi^'ft a? S^r here comes ( is 

S 918-920] SYNTAX. 510 

coming ) thy son. * It is the Present progressive, which expresses 
the continuance of an action which is begcn over sometime 
and is, remarks Prof. Bain, a true or strict Present tense. .It 
is only by means of a special adverb or the context that the 
sense of the present tense can be limited to that of a present 
act solely; gflg^r fT fut sf? 3nvfcq'3 now he dwells in this city. 

919. Besides the general sense given above the Present 
tense in Sanskrit baa the following senses: 

( a ) f It is sometimes used in the sense of ' immediate futu- 
rity; ' 9^ Tft**n9 when wilfc thou g ? TT Thrift Here I go 
( i . . shall go ) ; an fir* ggft!% I shall die an honr alter. 

( b ) It may also be used to denote an action which is recently 
completed; ^r ?$ qimqHIdlfc 3^HMHaiffr when didst thon 
come from the city ? Here I come ( have come just now ). 

( e ) In narrations it is used for the Past tense; JJOT 3$ 
qptft the vnltnre says, ' who art thon ' P 

( d ) Sometimes it is used to denote a habitual or repeated 

920. I When a question ia asked and an answer is given to 
it, the Present is used in the sense of the Past tense when the 
particle 5fg is used; qs ST^rtf: fi^ 5T5 *ETtf& 4t: where 

* " The principal use of the Present Indefinite is to express 
what is true at all times; 'the sun gives light; twice two is 
lour * * V Hence a more suitable name would be the Universal 
tense. It expresses present time only as representing all tii/ie. 
The permanent arrangements and laws of nature, the peculiari- 
ties, habits and propensities of living beings and whatever ia 
constant, regular and uniform, have to be represented by the 
Present Indefinite. ** It is only by a special adverb or by 
the context that we can confine this tense to mean a present 
act solely. " Bain, Higher English Grammar. 

f Pin. III. 3. 131. Seep. 525. 

t *ift 5wfinre% f^tfrim i P*n. m. 2. 120, 121. 

520 SANSKBIT GRAHUAB. [ 920-42$ 

is equivalent to mcfelMH ; when the particles ^ and 3 are used 
the Present may be optionally used; $d*w(?- f%^ T Wllk or 


921. * With interrogatives the Present is often used in the 
sense of the Future when thought or desire is implied; fifc qaflfft 
i. e. (Rqrifr X 3> T^lfa f. e. ( nftmnft ) What shall I do ? 
Whither shall I go ? q^ft: SJR or qfof ^TtW *?faro% ( *. . St- 
^flfeq'Rr or ifanPldlRr ) which of these persons will you feed ? 

c. ; but <$: mnr 5 

( a ) It is also used in the sense of the Future in conditional 
sentences as implying a condition and the fulfilment of the 
desired object. ^ ^rfSr ( ?TfTT *T*rfS *T ) *T **i? *nfi* ( ?nm 
qr^rm 3T ) fa e, who offers ( or will offer ) food, goes ( or will go ) 
to heaven i. e. if one offers &c. 

922. With the words qr3cT> RT3< and others having a 
similar sense, tho Present is sometimes used in the sense of the 
Future perfect ; in**W ^f STM^fcdl^mm before he sees 
you, move away ( before he shall have seen you, &c. ). 

( b ) f With the particles grr and irr*^ the Present has the 
sense of the Future when certainty is indicated; 

' I ( Rag.V. 25. ) I will endeavour to accomplish your 
object, sn ^ETTOFrf 5Wft *3qT* ( S'ak. VII. 33 ) he will 
conquer the earth consisting of seven continents, gflffifclfr rTO 
rnaR* OT: I Kir. VIII. 8. 

923. 1 The particle ?JT wbenused with the Present converts it 
into a Pas t tense j 3rf8rf*5ftBT5* ffiTSr^nrf 5TflT ZH&W irfitTOfif W 
in a certain village there dwelt a Brahmaoa Mitrasarma by name; 
**T the citizens ran in hundreds. The particle 

r i Pan. in. i. e. 7. 

t 1TR5Tr i^THiftW^ Pan. III. 3. 4. 
Sid. Kan. 

S 923-927 ] SYNTAX. 5il 

W may not necessarily be joined with it; # 

924. * When 3TTr3 or arR is need in a sentence and con- 
demnation or censure is implied, the Present may be used in the 
seme of tbe three tenses; 

where rq*TT and 3TTE^% may have also the sense of the Past or 
the Futnre tense; grrg *H*HH 1*WK <4lvHm<T ( you will even 
make a 8'udra perform a sacrifice ). 


925. In Sanskrit there are three tenses denoting a past 
action, viz. the Imperfect, the Perfect, and the Aorst. Oh- 
ginally each bf these three tenses had a signfioation of its own 
and was used in its proper sense in ancient writings, f After 
Sanskrit ceased to be a spoken language the exact senses of 
these tenses were lost sight of and writers began to use them 
.promiscuously, so that now any of these may be used to denote 
past time with certain limitations. The original senses of these 
as well as their other peculiarities are noticed below. 


926. J The Imperfect according to P&nini denotes past 
action not done to-day t. 0. done at some time prior to the cur- 
rent day, ftTnOTTO <rHKCT ( Bhatti. ) Bibhlshapa spoke to them. 

927. The Imperfect is optionally used for the Perfect 
when the particles f and ^TM? we n *ed in a sentence; ffir f 

(a ) f It may also be optionally ueei in asking questions refer- 

* TSTtf dgfiIHft: I Pan III. 3. 142. 

f For a farther explanation of the 'difference between these 
three tenses the student is referred to Dr. Bh&ndarkar's preface 
to the 1st Edition of his 2nd Book of Sanskrit. 

t 3R<K^ <*< I Pan. III. 2. 111. 

ifraMk* i 1 srir <*mr* *r$ Pan m. 2. m, in. 

522 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 927-930 

ring to a very recent time; 3T*ns^ fifc ( Qu.) ( Ant ) 
or an) TO %? snrrcr; but when the question refers to a very remote 
time the Perfect alone ought to be used, ^coj: ^ 3nTRT% ? STOR.. 
928. When the particle *rr in combination with *jris need 
with the Imperfect in the sense of the Imperative, the augment 
3T is dropped; 


929. *Tfae Perfect denotes an action done before the current 
day and not witnessed by the speaker. It has reference to a very 
remote time and should, therefore, be used in narrating events 
of the remote past; <rf dld^K^I foriViM *nr I Bama killed her 
whose name was Tataka. spnnfq*R<mmfr (Bhatti. XIV.1. ). 

( a ) In the 1st person the Perfect shows that the speaker was 
in a distracted state of mind or was unconscious when the event 
took place, or that he wants utterly to deny something that he- 
has done; * 5fir^ STSTniTO grnfeoM^ ( Sis XL 39 ) being 
frenzied I prattled much, I am told, before him; * 

didst thou dwell in the country of the Kalingas P sn 

*Tnr I never went to Kalingas. With these exceptions the Per- 

fect should not be used in the 1st person. 


930. f The Aorist simply expresses past action indefinitely 
. e. without reference to any particular time ( ^d-Kim^ g^" ); 

(Bhatt. I. 2.) 'He studied the Vedas, offered 
sacrifices to the gods, satisfied his departed ancestors, honoured 

Pan. III. 2. 115,. 

( Sid. B^au. ); ^ri4*dlM^ fS^ Wrfjsq^ I Vart. 
f 5 Pan. HI. 2. 110. 

930-933 ] SYNTAX. 523 

his relatives, snbdned the collection of six ( i. 0. the fix pas- 
sions ), took delight in politics and totally annihilated his 
enemies. The Aorist, however, properly denotes a recent 
action or one done during the coarse of the present day. "It 
is similar to the English present Perfect, " remarks Dr. 
Bhandarkar*, ''which the student will remember defines an 
action as having happened in a portion of time which is not 
yet expired; it brings past action in connection with the pre- 
sent time," 3T^f f%TO it rained to-day. 

931. f The Aorist ought to be used when the idea of the 
continuonsness or iiearnees of an action is to be implied; 
( Sid. Kau. ) gave food throughout hi* life; $ 

( Sid. Kau. ) he consecrat- 

ed the fire on the last Pnrnima day ( the full-moon day ) and 
offered Soma, &c. 

932. | With the particle g^r not joined with **r, the Aor- 
ist, the Imperfect, the Perfect or the Present may be used 

I ( Sid. Kau. ) here formerly 

dwelt pupils. But when *H is used with grr the present alone 
can be used; q*ric| TO 3TT he formerly sacrificed. 

933. Tne Aorist is used with the prohibitive particle ITT 
( HT^F ) or ITT fIT, with the temporal augment 3\ cut off, and has 
then the sense of the Imperative; ffjr *<t ^$rat m ^ Ma. Bha. V. 
132. 16. have no doubt &c. in CT mfft *W do not go against. 
Barely in ancient woiks the augment is retained JTF f^TT^ 

: may you not live, oh Nishada for 

many years. When a root is preceded by a preposition, the 
3T is sometimes not dropped; *n H^q^mrqm. do not submit to 

* Second Book of Sanskrit, P. 154. 
f Pan. III. 3. 135. See next Page. 

1 5ft 5^ *n* i Pn in. 2. 122. 

3 w^Rt i Sid. Kau. 

524 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 933-935' 

-sorrow or anger ( here the 3? is not dropped ); sometime* it is 
-dropped; as in milMn: ^mcHl4 do not despise your coul 
( conscience ). Some explain these anomalies by considering 
the particle to be in and not !TT^. 


934. The difference between the Two Futures is the 
same as that between the Imperfect and the Aorist, the only 
difference being that the former refers to a future time and the 
latter to a past one. The First or Periphrastic expresses 
futurity definitely hot not of this day ; the Second or Simple 
Future Axpresaes futurity indefinitely as also that of to-day; 
it is also employed to denote recent and future continuous 

time; a* artmf >*: *nrrmr% *ft irorm^HT* (Bhatti xxii, ) 

oh monkey, to-morrow you will go to Ayodhya governed by 
Bharata; *< 

( Rhatti. XXII. 14. ) they will be delighted 
on seeing yon and will ask you questions about the welfare of 
us two and Sitft; and Bharata also will be greatly pleased; 
*>Ffta3t| ( Kir. IH. 22 ) they will be extirpated 

by the monkey-bannered one ( Arjuna ); mHHJ<l ^*tl^l S'ak. 
IV.) 6akuntaHwill go (goes) to-day; ufounft ft^ ^T 
( Bhatti XVI. 13 ) if my sons are killed I will 

die or kill the enemy, &c 


935. 06*. * When the continuousness of an action or 
nearness of time ( i. . the non-intervention of the same period 
between the two points of time referred to) is to be expressed the 
First Future must not be used; mq^NHfrf ?T**jfff he will give 
food throughout his life; and not 

Pan. III. 3. 135-I38. 

936-930] SYNTAX. 525 

te will consecrate the fires and 
offer a Soma sacrifice on the coming Amavasyfi day} and not 
gmrrar and *njT; also when limit of time or place is expressed 
and the word 3CTT is used in a sentence ; ir: aujnw <IHfT : 


and not Hsftcmsfr but when the word |5 is used 

the First Future may be used; qtf HTO: w\*uift jf^q- q-: 
M-^^^KM: cTaT srorarwft w will study in the earlier fortnight 
of the coming mouth. When the period of time meant lies 
beyond a certain point of time, the First or the Second Future 
may be used; 



936. * When the close proximity of a future action is 
intended, the Second Future or the Present may be used; ^qj^rfr 
**T% when will you go ? <r^ n^m% or J|fomifa I shall just go, 

937. f When there is the idea of hope implied in a 
conditional form, the Aorist, the Present or the Simple Future 
may be need in both the clauses to denote a future time-, 

( Sid. 

Kau ). if it were to rain we would sow corn. 

938. The Simple Future is sometimes used as a courte- 
ous way of command; WTW srfS ifawjft ( Vik. IV. ) then 
you will go (i.e. please then go ) to the lake r &c, 

939. J The Simple Future is alone used when the idea of 
hope is conveyed by f^nr and words having the sense 

i ^n. ill. 3. 131. 

I Pan. III. 3. 132. 
. III. 3. 133. 

526 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 939-942 

?*ffcf TT *m<Tfif 5far nwm: if a shower were to 
-come quickly we would at once sow corn. 

940. When the word q^j is not used with roots meaning 
1 to remember/ such as ^, &c. the Second Future is used in 
the sense of the Imperfect; *R*fa 50* H$gfr gWIIT Krishna, 
do you remember that we dwelt in Gokula > 

941. * When disbelief in or intolerance of an action u 
intended to be expressed, and especially in the form of a ques- 
tion, the Simple Future is used optionally in the sense of the 
Potential; 5f ^MN<Tlffr or 5f jrfa TOTHC fff R^ or fffi^mfly 
I never believe, or cannot tolerate it, that you would or should 
speak ill of Hari; ^: or *&&: ^nr: %ft fo%% or RF^miq who 
will speak ill of Hari ( I do not believe that any body will, 
&c. ); ^r ^T *rqr^ <IM*H or iiwftwrfjf, &3.; when the word 
f%%9 t ( a P&rticle, showing great anger ) and roots having the 
sense of 'to be' precede, the Simple Future only should be used; 

r ^nfRrrftr or ^r vwr^ T%ifF$y ^rw ?fsnra^ifd I &o not believe 

or like that yon should make a Sndra perform a sacrifice; so 

942, When the idea of wonder is to be expressed and 
the words q^f, q*^ and qf^ 1 do not occur in a sentence, the 
Simple Future should be used; arregrqsrrvft STTR f wf sT^rfff it is 
a wonder that a blind man sees Hari. 

(a) The Simple Future is also used when the particles 
OT and arfr expressing a doubt are used, ^r ^rg-: irfifarTjT will 
the stick fall ? arft WTftt will he close the door ? 

(b) This Future is also used when the particle srsJ mean- 
ing sure or able is used; ^ ffroft 5%* fRTftr Krishna is 
sure or able to kill the elephant. 

^n. III. 3.144,145. 

? I Pan. in. 3. 146. 

S 943-944 J SYNTAX. 527 



943. * The Imperative Mood does not express merely com- 
mand, but also entreaty, benediction, courteous enquiry, gentle 
advice, ability, &o. 

( a ) In tne second person this Mood is used to express com- 
mand, entreaty, gentle advice and benedictions or blessings; 
( ?* ) $flHSH go to Kusumapura; 

help ! gmwmiq O God I forgive my faults, &c.; 
$* fsfrrcn&fiff% qWI*A ( Sak. IV. ) serve your elders and treat 
your co-wives as if they were your friends ; trfqr fr[j^fc<M *T *r?*T 
jr^r ^nr% be thou my messenger, go to Raghava, and say to 

him; 4H<4|KM qfctalgglfd ^BT ?TTO^rrHf?TT S^OT she wts 
addressed the truth by Hara when he said 'do thou obtain u 
husband not devoted to any other lady.' 

(k) In the third person it is often used to express a blessing 
and sometimes gentle command ; Hm-dl T%f% ^f sr^fo? : SwrnHT 
this handful of flowers scattered on the 

feet oi Hari give us success. q-TJTqr qT9CTfr ^"^3 may rain pour 
down in time; MfcJIMB^ frn: ^T*H<MH: ( Mud. V. II. ). 

(0) In the first person it expresses a question, necessity, abi- 
lity, &cj f% 3FWm ft what should I do for you ? 3^TTf *K^|f^ 
I must go nowi <^|^afq %ft fW a^ we will ( are able to ) do 
this thing, oh queen, which is agreeable to you; stff Tdrrq- ^fr 
q<3Hm*4 ^ Hm: (Bhalti XX. 6, ) let your thought be ' I must 
not commit the horrible murder of an ambassador.' 

944. The third person singular of the Imperative in the 
passive voice is often used and sometimes as a courteous form 

*3l^ I Pan. III. 3. 162. Vide Pan. III. 3. 161. quoted on 
the next page. 

528 SANSKRIT GRAMMAB. [ 944-050 

of expression. 3TTSTTm <MH^ : tne prince should be brought 
3pm *Tf <rffcrm: may you hear, ye Pandits ; 
take this seat. 

945. When time after a gg& ( nearly equal to an hour ) is 
expressed, the Imperative is used ; g&dfcudl *JT offer the sacri- 
fice after an hoar. 

946. The Imperative with the particle w is used when a 
request is courteously expressed ; qidm-qmq wr please teach 
the child. 

947. The Imperative has sometimes the force of the pre- 
sent when used in combination with the particle *fT; jrr *nrg 

it is not so ; *rr 

948. fs?rft *Hllmfl or &m% I *ish you should dine. 
See 958. 

949. * There is a peculiar use of the Imperative which 
ought to be noticed. The Imperative second person signlar is 
repeated when frequency of an'act is indicated and the whole 
used with the root in any tense; qrft Trf f 1% Tlftr ( Sid. Kau. ) 
he goes every now and then ; so trnr *TT?ffiT %$ *mT; Trft mfranrr- 
H^Tl m I vfl ^f H vfr^ he studies steadily. The Imperative 

second person is also used when several acts are described as 
done by the same person; ^^ ffo >JRT: *sn^wre?*fir ( Sid. 
Kau. ) he takes his food, now eating barley, now eating fried 
rice, similarly spgfr ^^ smTOTTST^q^iwresnf ( Sid. Kau. ). 


950. f The Potential Mood expresses the sense of ?%ra (com- 
mand,, directing a subordinate, &c. ), RH^TUl ( pressing in vita- 

I tifj^^ tn*ir^i'i f it<< i P&a III. 4. 

1-5. T%*mmfafTT ft WT^- FVart. 

t ffoM*4rs<ui i R?^m>ftgwr%nmRf r% i P^. HL 3. 16 

950-953 ] SYNTAX. 529 

tion ), 3TO**tfr ( giving permission ), srrfte ( telling one to at- 
tend to an honorary office or duty ), *fsr*^r ( courteously asking 
a person a question), and srnfsrr prayer, qifa one should perform 
a sacrifice; RT ffTH T^: go to the village; f 5 r^r^ gsfa your 
honour should take food here; fgrcftcT WH* you > may sit here; 
yon naay teach my eon ( a? an honorary duty ); 
3-<T <reb* what, oh ! shall I learn the Veda or 

logic ? vft ^t3R 5J^T good Sir, can I get food here ? t. a. will 
yon kindly give me food? (All these senses are optionally 
expressed by the Imperative also ). 

( a ) * In the case of the first two senses viz. f^rvj- and 

and in that of ' proper time ', the potential participle may 
also be used for the Potential; vnrof TCeTCy &c. 

951. f When the words ' after an hour ' are need the Poten- 
tial ( also Imperative ) or the Potential participle may be used- 

r ( Sid. Kau. ). 

952. J The Potential is used with the words 
and yr, when the word n^is used, ^i ^inr: %OT TT 
it is time now that you should dine. 

953. When the idea of fitness is to be expressed the 
Potential or the Potential participle may be used; and some- 
times the noun in 3 also; a? qjrtrf 3%:, ?*r ^^iqT" TtOT or 
yon are fit to marry the girl. 

( a ) The Potential or the Potential participle may be used 
when the sense of capability is implied; vrrt <4 wfr: or 
: thou canst ( art able to ) carry the load. 

n Pan. III. 3. 163. 

i. 3. 164. 

. III. 3. 168. 
I Vfc fat * I PAD. HI. 3. 169. 172. 

ft 8. G. 34 

530 SANSKRIT GB&KMAB. [ 954-958 

954. *With interrogative words such as fijj, 153*, ^<m, &c. 
the Potential or the Simple Future may be used when censure 
is implied ( see 937 )-, gj: ^cffr ^T ffif 

( a ) When wonder is implied the simple Future is used in 
preference to the Potential if the word *rf^ be not used} 3ff3?3 
it is a wonder that a blind man should see 

Hari; but arts*? *ff^ ^TTrfWfa it is wonder if he study. 

955. | When hope is expressed without the use of the 
word c|sT%3 tUe potential is generally used; 
it is my desire ( I hope ) that you will eat; but 
hope he lives. 

956. J When the sense of ' I expect ' is implied, the 
^otential or the 2nd Future may be used provided the word *r^ 
used; ^Mi4<l : lft 5flr?T ifit^ ^f ^RTR[ I expect you will 
at; but ^n^HTTm ^hlT^f^ ( Sid. Kau. ). 

9 57. ^[ When in a conditional sentence one thing is expressed 
as depending upon another as effect upon a cause, the Potential 
or the Simple Future may be used; ^of ?rfr%? 
if be will bow to Krishna he will attain happiness ; so 

958. $ When words having the sense of ' to wish, ' such as 
. &" are used, the Potential or Imperative is used ; 
cT or ^rKl^ * wish you should dine; 

Pan. ni. 3. 144. ( 
. III. 3. 151. 

t iwft^ ^l%ft I Pan. III. 3, 153. 

i fr* vrm> ^UNH^^OTT^ i Pan. m. 3. 155. 

. HI. 3. 156. 

$ *^ dl I f * I Pan HI. 3. 167. 159. 

958-961 ] SYNTAX. 531 

*T WF* ( Sid. Kan. ) I wish Your Hcnonr will drink 


(a) Bnt when the agents of both the actions are the same, the 
Potential alone is used in the sense of the Infinitive; *f ^fr^TrfT- 
x^ ( Sid. Kan. ) t. . Hl^ffl^M wishes that he will eat 
( wishes to eat ). 

959. Sometimes the Potential is used without a subject 
when it is used in the sense of 'a preeept or advice'; 

II a 

should save money for adversity; he should save his wife at the 
cost of his wealth and himself even at the expense of his wife 
and wealthj q^sTl^d &rwJWTl<JI<tH<^< ; ( one ) should serve 
BrAhmanas with all that they like, without being jealous. 


960. The Benedict! ve Mood is used to confer a blessing 
or to express the speaker's wish; f%^ sftsqr?!; af^T 3 * may you 
live long ! srRrftHT: *roft& ^3TR?t f?3^0: I 
^TT^W-Tt ^WT ST^f?nftll (Bhatti. XIX. 26); 
may I be successful ! 


961. * The Conditional is used in those conditional 
sentiences in which the Potential may be used when the nonper- 
formanco of the action is implied or in which tbc falsity of the 
antecedent is involved as a matter of fact. It expresses both 
future and past time. It must be used in both the antecedent 
and the consequent clauses; 

if there would be plentiful rain there would be an abundance of. 

n. III. 

Sid. Kau. 

532 SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. [ 961-96$ 


bads t thou obtained ( which thou hast not ) the sweet 
fragrance of hei breath, wouldst thou have had any liking for 
this lotus ? 

Obs. 962. * When a past action is to be indicated toe 
Conditional may be optionally used in the sense of the 
Potential} ^q ^m ^^F^nfoar^q^ or RT%: how could jou 
give up your religion ? 

(a) Also where the Potential is used in conjunction with the 
particles 3cT, arft, 3^3 &c. ; arf^ ra %: tfhff 

?^ TTH ^fraTf%5p^tr^ H (Bhatti. 

XXI. 8. 4. ) 

( b ) When wonder is to be expressed the Conditional ifr 
optionally used where the Potential is used in combination with 
the particles tr?? tr? or qr^ when the action does not take place-,. 

r ^^6^^^^ ?T9r i srrfrr^^rf ftHiai^ fife 

II ( Bhatti. XXI. 8 ). 



963. The mu. singulars of the Nominative and other cases 
of several nouns are used as adverbs; f%f or f%^or or 
Wr^T having contemplated for a long time; jtf or 5: 
Ee is in distress; so 3^- or 

(a) The word ftvjr ia used adverbially in combination with 
. III. 3.140. 

963-966 ] STNTAX. 633 

several words such as srj , STRT, &c. ; ^fttf, srorri*^ in various 
ways. The word ^ is also nsed adverbially as the latter 
member of a compound when some action is to be expressed as 
having happened before; qfrtmj? having said something by way 
of consolation*, gi%3TC thoughtfully, ( t. e. thought preceding 
a certain action ); 3Tf%o mi^g^n 5?TT TOTT O venerable Sir, 
I killed this cow unwittingly; ^TTO^ 3*^mJd & c . 


964. The use of Prepositions has already been explained 
at 365-371. The Prepositions governing cases are already 
noticed under the various cases. 


065. The use of Conjunctions has not many syntactical 
Peculiarities and needs no special notice here. They are nsed 
in their proper senses in sentences. 

966. The most important of these conjunctions and the 
one very frequently used is ^r. It can never stand first in a 
sentence; nor can it be nsed like 'and' in English. It is used 
with such of the words or assertions it connects or is placed 
after the last of the words or assertions it joins together; TOW 
J$ROT%sr or TOT c5$ROw; OTW 3|f3*ldmMi ntfUtf qg love with 
its excellences expanded, and fresh youth; 

( a ) Sometimes this particle hes a disjunctive force; 
f&^ITT'W^ fgrrfifr ^r mj. the hermitage is tranquil yet my 
arm throbs. 

b ) Rarely this particle is used in the sejtta of ' if; 

oh fool, if you wuh to live,&c. 

534 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 966-968 

( e ) Sometimes it is used aa an expletive; 

( d ) Sometimes it is used to connect a subordinate fact 
with a main one nrgnrrcr it *c|M<J wander for alms and bring 

a cow; $(|ir ^ ^nftcfT *Tt<ft ^r wr^rftai ^q%5sgr H<**d* the 

procuress was chastised, the cowherdess was expelled and 
Kandarpaketu was honoured. 

(e) When the particle is repeated it hao sometimes the 
sense of 'on the one hand/ 'on the other hand/ 'and yet/ ^ ^ 

sfityfrMi sfrfttf ^rfiftfa* s> ^ Rftraft TOT SSRTRT: srcret where, 

on the one hand, is the extremely frail life of fawns, and 
where, on the other, are thy arrows hard like adamant and 
falling sharply; * $&w H<&r$$H*\ ^ *TT 

?T^ I on the one hand the full moon-faced lady is not easy to 
obtain and yet there is this unaccountable sport of love. 

(/) Sometimes the repetition of ^ shows the simultaneous 
or undelayed occurrence of two events; ^ ^ 

r they reached the ocean and at the same time the 
primeval Being also awoke. 

967. trar 'likewise' often supplies the place of 
Eama and Lakshmana ; 

both Anagatavidhata and Pratyutpannamati; ^TT f$ means * for 
instance, to be more plain/ ^ETT ^ 'likewise/ both are often used 
introducing quotations. 

968. 5 but, f% for, because, and qt are also excluded from 
the first place in a sentence. 3TTcOT $&: ^T^T n^rr &s$ 5 fficIT 
l%^y the son is one's own self, t}ie wife one's friend, but the 
daughter a source of anxiety; 

968-970 ] SYNTAX. 535 

( V. 10. ) ; arWTTOf *T 5nM *T *W choose either the missiles or 
your person. 

969. *n? &ad %^ 'if ' are usually used with the Potential 
or the Conditional; as q^ Hff *T%l%ffir tft^ cfrf TO 
he were here he would assist me; q-f^ %*^rft 

had Devadatta been here, he would have undoubtedly 

done this; but they are also construed with the Present Indica- 
tive; q-f% 5n*ft Wl% Wift if he lives he will see prosperity; 
*rf$ RST %*<TT^RT TOf3Wtt% if Your Majesty has any thing 
to do with me, &c.; 

I conjure you by my life if you will not tell it in words, 
is never used at the beginning of a sentence; tf ^fcrf 
fr TT^f?!^ ( S'ak. VII. 4 ) if the thousand-rayed ore ( sun ) 
did not place him at the yoke of his car; &rf$ TiTgCr^fftfa 
( have recourf e to ) ^t %g; &c.. Bha. V. I. 44. 

The Particles s^ 1 and ffn. 

970. *3nET is used in the following senses: ( 1 ) aa a sign 
of auspiciousness f- awmt Sfrf^nW now begins the inquiry 
about Brahma; cf. the Bhaaya on this sutra. ( 2 ) marks the 
beginning or commencement of a work; arefoHR*-^ 5TTff 3^=^ 

now is begun the 1st Tantra ; so spsi iftirr^n^R^C, &c $ (3) 'then' 
after that,' &c. ; gr^ snnsniTi^! &c. ( Rag. II. 1. ) After that 
i. e. passing of the night ) the lord of the earth, &c. ( 4 ) asks 
a question 3W tnTCT^ SJteTsJiJfTO $3$t ^|^M.' is the venerable 
Kasyapa all right that he may oblige the world ? aw $|cHffi *&& 
are you able to eat? ( 5 ) 'and, including'; tfrJT: 31^7 &&' Bhima 
and also Arjuna; ( 6 ) if ; ' 3^PT ^<um^^a^y 3T??ft: if death is 
sure to befall a creature, &c. 


f Properly speaking this is not the sensa of sni. The mere 
utterance or hearing of this word if considered as auspicious 
as the wotd is supposed to have emanated from the throat 
of Brahma. 

536 SANSKRIT GBAMMAB. [ 971-972 

971. As 3Tr marks the beginning, so ffa, marks the close 
of a composition. This particle is used in the following senses; 
( 1 ) to quote the exact words spoken by some one, thus taking 
the place of the quotation marks and being used generally after 
the words quoted; * 

ft certain Chandala girl requests Your Majesty ( saying ) ...... " I 

who have come to ycur majesty's feet wish to enjoy the happi- 
ness of the sight of Your Majesty;' argnrrr: g>xj: ^a$ajr: *W 
3^ the Brahmaoas said '' we have accomplished our objects; " 
( 2 ) cause ( rendered in English because, since &c. ); 
I ask you because I am a foreigner; 

if every thing is not good simply because it is old- ( 3 ) 
purpose or motive; ;RT ^fTSTR^Rl *fftnTS*W- they two took 
a limited number of servants with them that there should be no 
disturbance, &c.; (4 ) so, thus; as follows; 
< 5 ) in the capacity of, as regards; fqnRr 

as a father he ought to be respected, as a teacher ought to be 
censured; ( 6 ) to state an opinion; f fft 3T13RTOT this is the 
opinion of Asmara thy a. It is often used by commentators in 
the sense of ( according to the rule'; ;fft 


972. The following stanza from the Bhatli Kavya 
illustrates the uses of some of these interjections:-* 

3?r: v& ^RT fir fin* r 

* In Sanskrit there is no indirect construction, so that in 
translating indirect constructions the actual words of the 
speaker followed by ffar must be used. 

Appendix II. 


Pre. Present 3^ . Im. Imperative gr^. Imp. Imperfect 
Pot. Potential ftft&?. Perf. Perfect f^. P. f. Periphrastic 
or 1st future g^. Fut. simple or 2nd Future $r. Con. Condi 
tional <g. Aor. Aorist . Ben. Benedictive 

Causal T%^> D. or Des. Deaiderative ^. Fr. Frequentative 
JTJfcrff or ^g*raT. P. Parasmaipada; A. Atmanepada 5 U. Ubha- 
yapada; Pass. Passive; p. p. past Passive participle. Inf. Infi- 
nitive. Ger. Gerund. The figures 1, 2, &c. after the roots refer 
to the conjugations to which the roots belong. Pre. p. Present 
Participle ( $M^ when the root is Paraam* $TR*Trff when Atm. ) 
Pot. p. Potential participle. 

U. f%>rnn* to distribute; $QrafiHt ( also afcnmifa-% ) 

r **$& per. ^wn^rftwr P. fot. 

[-rT Aor. 3T?n 9fTfinft?T Ben. 

10 U. like the above with the only difference of ^ for 

1. A. infti to go- a|f ar Pre. ^^ Perf. atffcfT. P. fut. 
Aor. atfWte Ben.; Can. -3^^% Pre. arrRjf^HT Aor. 

10 U. vwft to shine; ^rf^-% Pre. 

pert 3fffarr P- fat. 3TH%5eT-^ Aor. sfalTS, ^Tfftff^ ben. 
inf. atflcT. p. p. 

to move tortnonsly; f^ft pre 

& 5. P. to reach, to pervade, to accumulate; 
3 sing. 3T^T%-3T^iftft 2 sing. 3TSnffr-3*$oitW. l Bin 8, P re - 

3TF^^ Imperf. 
pot. 3TT^T perf. 


p. 1 srfsrorteMcwff ft. an^n^ ben. 

aor. 3TT%ETH-3nST* 3rd dual, 3m%S:-3YTg: 3rd P l - 
ri%$Tf?T Des. Pass. 3^3- pre. 3m% aor. Oau. 
P'e. arn%$rar-tT aor. are p.p. art^r-aT^T ger. 

r^n inf. a?nr$^ Perf. Part. 

1 P. ffSarot *nft to move tortuously; g^fS pre. anT per! . 
3TpmT p. fat. arnftg a r. 

10 U. THT^or to go wrong, to sin; aregf^ pre. 
&c. peri. Bnrftcfr P- f. 3rn%^ra[-tT aor. 

1 A. 55^T to mark; ar^fr pre. 3TJTT J perf . srf|^r p. * 
con. vf&fri ben. 

10 U. q^[ 55Wt ^ to count, to mark or stain, to stigmatise; 

pw. 3T3-^rra^r-3mr-3T^gN^T-^^ pert. 
P. t arf^Tf%-?r int. 3TTRrg?i:-?T con. 

aor. aTf^lT^-aT|ff^fT7 ben. BTf^rf^T^ 3" des. Pass. 
-BT^^ra ( also 3TfTOT% ) 

1 P. to go; gflTTRT P'e. 3TH1P P erf ^^RfT P- 1 rnfac aor - 
s del. 3m inf. 

10 U. same as 

l A. ir^n^rqr to go, to blame; gfaft pre. arnftr perf. 

p. f . srtftc aor. Tnnft: ben. 9?%|^m^ des. 

1 U. r?fr arfflTWTOW ^T to go, to speak indistinctly; 

W P'e. arra or 3TT% perf. 3rf%?rr p. f. SH^fta ^rf^g aor. 

B?^rf%^fcr% des. np PP. arf%?3T, ars^T 8 er - 

1. P. nftOTngt: to go, to run, to censure; arsrm P*e. 

ftfigg, arrmg, f%figw, WTSTR 1st d. and pi. ftrf 

arrfim 2nd sing. perf. %CTT or arfiRTr P-f. 
iut, argsq^-arrfiT^con. arl^-arnfl^ao 

des. jfa or an^nr p.p. sffarr or 


ger. Cau. *T*T*Tlft ?T pre. arefhnr^ fl aor. Pass. 
pre. flcft perf . ^riqm, *<TT> VIWTr p. f . ?TTR*ra 

Jut. *rrWre, irra wWre ben. 

3TTRW<T con. a^rHJ 3rd 8ing 
^rranr 3rd dual; 3^mh^ 
2. pi. aor. 

1 P. !|fff<Hctf P *o go, to worship ; 3?3am pre. 3TT5T2I 
arnaeTT p. f. 3ri%rm fut. aream may he go. 
he worship, ben. airsfra aor. 3TTT^q^: COD - Cau r 
pTO. 3n^f%^l% dcs. 3^fiicf, 3Trf), with ^ij, ^Rrfj 
or 3T3F??T ( when it means to go ) ger. 

1 U. uaV 1T^% TT to go, to beg ; 3T^afff-^ P'e. 
perf. 3?f?isiTfff-^ fat. 3TRjrg[ 7 3m%1 aor. pass. 
3Ttl> p- p. 3TT3^r?cTT ger. 3H^T5^ inf. 

10 U. f^^tw to individualise; 3?*^gm-% pre 
&e. perf. 3T>^1^af p. f. 


WW 7 P. oU fts n ^ u| ^n nnrf^^ to make clear, to anoint, to deco- 
rate, to go; 4CTr% P r - 3TR^-ir^imp. 3T^\ ( 
aing. ) Im^ra. ^SUI^ pot. arr^ Pf. 

p. f. srrefamr, a?^priir fat. 3?rr% 

or. ar^n^ ben. s?T%r^Trff ds. Pa9s.-3^?q% pre 

Can. 3T3rom-3T5raiT pre. 3Trr%3T^-?T aor. 3^ p. p 

3T^Fc?r, e?|p5r, pot. p. 3if%[r^r, ar^f^rr, ar^^r gr. with 

ft- oirsq- ger. arfog** , 3T^9^ if - 

3^ 1 P. i|tfV to roam, to wander; sr?f?f pre. 3^r? perf, 5Tf^TT s 
p. f. arfeyifff fat. arreTtJ aor. ^J^r^ ben. srijfHNrrff des. 
Oau.^3Ti^nff% pre. 3?n%??l Aor. 3^12*^ Freq. 
3Tf 1 A. 3TmRR01|^nTT: to transgress, to kill; Hfff pre._3TRS 1 
" perf. 3Tf|?rT P- f. 3?f|^ff fat. 3Tflf 7 aor. arf^fT^-T^f^- 
es. Cau. Hf ufrf-ai pre. 3TTT?f 5-*T ^nf^^-ff aor. 

. VI. 4. 30, sf3^ in tne sense of ' to 
worship ' does not drop its nasal before weak terminations. 


U. STJTT^ to despise; arfeggt-^rf^gfr Aor. 
ben. ^gftg^ inf. 

to sound ; arcirft pre. STTOT perf . arrftRTT P- 
aor. ajfurrorera des. Oau.-3Trurorf?t-% pre. 

A, JJTOT* to breathe, to live; 3Ttrq^ pr 
p. f. 3Tl?oT**ra fut. arnbre aor. arfiWte ben. STfoifan^ des. 
Pass. 3T<nm Pre. 3TFTOT Aor. 

1 P. ^THrq-TPR to go constantly ; 3raf^ pre. arTcf per*. 

aor. ^Rrfaqf^ ^es. Pass.-^^Rt pre. 3T[j& aor. 
fft-ii pre. 3TrfS?T^-cT Apr. 3Tf?RT P-P- 

2 P. r^r$r to eat- arRr per. Bn?: 2nd sing. 3fr^, 3rd sing. 
Imp. 3n^> ^nrRT perf. ^TtTT *p. * 3TrWT% f at. 3T^T^ aor. 
fgr^rft des. anf^r^ con. 3TOT^ ben. Oau. 3Tl^rar P'e 
( also STfcFrfeT 'ar^fwn^' ) 3TTff^:iT aor. Pass. arafr 
pre. 3T^-3T^- perf. ^nf ( and 3?^ food ) p. p. 5ro3T-snnnr 
ger. sr^^inf. 

.2 Pi ST<n% to breathe, to live; 3*&f?r pre. 5Tf*r:-^: 2nd sing. 
NgHi*i:3TR3. 3rd sing. Imp., 3^R P' f ^raRfT P- * 
con. arpftg; aor. ^TRftqfar des. Cau.-BTr*nrfff-% pre. 
Ar. Pass. affq^r pw. a^rR aor. 3TRr3TT ger. with 
4 A, to live- *Tfq^ pre. 3TPT perf. 3Tf^T P. f. This root 
Is Hie same as orror. 

P. ^*> *o bind ; 3TrJTT% pre. 3|f^f^rfff fut. 3Tf5^f!^ Aor. 
Ben. Cau-3i?<nTW BTr^ffl-cT Aor. 

10 U. gp^prerfr gg^M^lgT^ to be blind, to close the eye 

pw. aiT^ri^r^ con. srrf^racff Aor. 


1 P. itrfi- to go, to wander 5 3T*fS pre. snsnr perf. srr^ftri: Aor. 
1 P. TfiRT5^^%5 to go, to sound, to eat ; sreft pre. anw 

aor. Cau.-3rrR^-^ pre. 

p. p. 

10 U. frit to afflict with pain; 
Aor. 3jWTT-gmf3*fte ben. 


Aor. grmfOTm Des. Pass. anfa. Aor. 


1 A. *r? to go. sniff, with iprr q^rq^ pre. amt'BW perf. 
3TfiraT p. 1 3TTreS aor. arfWt^ ben. 3TOHT^ des. Pass. 
aqwNf pre. annr aor. Oau. arnHT^-^ P'e. ^iftqd.-ff Aor. 
<RfV^T, with q^T, WWJ. ger. 

10 U. ?TT% ftfWflT ^ to heat, to praise; 3^9%% pre. 
^t^^T-^ 3TT^ ^33" perf. 3T%ft<TT P f 
aor. 3Tq=qr^, aT%f^fn? ben. arf%cT p. p. 

P. ^QT to be worth, tp^ost; sHrfa pre. 3TR^ perf. 
p. f . srr^ra: aor. arfifftrifJr des Can. 3r5*rft-^ pre. 
^-cT Aor. 

1 P. ^TTTqT to worship; STrFfa pre. 3)R^ perf . arftlfT p. f. 
aor - 5T^IT Se* Hf%l%^W des. Can. 

P re - 


a <> r . arf%^T ger. 
10 U. to worship; 
^ perf. 

ben. 3^4^*1^ ff con. aTlft^^ <T or. 
des. Pass. 3^^ pre. 3?rf% ( 
3rd dual ) Aor. 

1. P. 3f^r to procure, to take; 3T*ffff pre. 3TPT^ perf. 



10 U. ( also can. of the above ) srnTO% 3<TT3% ^T to procure, 

to acquire; sr^fq-^r^ fut. BTi^nrRr^Iff-^ des. Pass. 

^Trflr ( arrJn4^1d^--^lf?^lfllH dual. ) Aor. 

10 A. ^WT^STTTOC t request, to sue; sr&ft pre. 


perf. 3T*JftrTT p. f . 3Tnfa<T aor. 
d*s. Pass. 3?fo srofaTf* ro- 3TTf5r Aor. 

1 P. Jfifr *ra% ^ to go, to beg; sr^nT P*e. 3THT? perf. 

p. * arrf^wr^ con. arrsff^aor. anff^ben. 3Tl?f^iifr des. Oau. 

pre. snf^r^ <r aor. Pass. ST^ P'e 
( asked ), 3TVTO ( near ) p. p. 

10 U. fg^HTP* to kill;9nf^-ir Aor.3T? 

-ff dea. Pass. 3^^ pre. 3nf| Aor. 5??^ p. p. 

W*l& ^[ to worship, to deserve; artfk pre. 
perf 3*ffrTT P * STrfl^g; con. 3Tr#T^aor. Sfnh^ben. 
des. Pass. 3?p->r pre. 3TTl aor. Can. See below 
10 U. 

10 U. to worship, to deserve-, ar^rnHf pro- 
^RCTC-^5frperf. ar^TfTTp.f. 3?Tf5f^:T Aor. 
ben. 5Tf3Tf fam des. Pass.-ar^ pre. 3Tff| Aor. 3Tfir?*T ger. 
1 U. *<TOT<ra?f?frRdt3 to adorn, fco be competent, to prevent^ 
^TSfff-^ per. 3TT5J BTf^ perf. 3Ti%?fT P. * - 3Tfsfat-3Trf&E aor. 
Can. arrasft-?* pre. 3Tr%cJ^-fT aor. ^fiHf^r-% dee. 
( according to some this root is Atm. ) 

P. wanrreforf^rTlTSc^^ 

to defend, to protect, to do 

good, to please, to know ( and a variety of other 
meaning?. ^^n'Sr Pre. 3TF5T perf. arftffT P- * wfi^ a r - 
3?an^ben. Cau.~3TTgwm-^ pre.anfS^-tT Aor. 3rft?f p. p. 
Pa8. 3T5*ft pre. 3TTit aor. 
5. A. ounfr B^lSf ^ to pervade, to accumulate; 3?^ pre. 

perf. 3?(|rm-3TCT P- * 3Tfrq* 3T^ fut. 3n%I?T, 
f r^rar-3TT? aor. rer?^r, 5Tf^nfl: ben. Oau-- ^rr^r- 

pre. anftr^arrr Aor. 3T^T%^ des. Pass. 
pre. 9rr% aor. T P. p. BTT, arftTWT, Ger. 


P. Hl3T% to eat ( with sr, to drink ); 3i^mS P'e. 
2nd sing. Jmpera. arTST perf. 3tt%<TT P- *. 3*T$fT^ aor. 
ben. arfafsma dee. Can. air^^llr pre. affraOTt Aor. Pass. 
31TWfr P'e. a?lftr Aor. aif$T?T P- P- 
2 P. gfc to be; aw<T pre. trfa 2nd pers. sing. Impera. 

perf. ^rTtrr P. f . *friTfpr fut. &c. 

4 P. $faot to throw; awniT P^. 3Tr^ perf. an%fTT p. f . 
or^con. atrro^aor. ^qrr^ben. arf%rr%^fir des. Oau. 
^m-flf pre.^TmFc^ cT aor. Pass HCTft 

p. p. 3Tr%?^r, ar^^r ger. sTRrs^ ^f. 

P. 3TTOTfc to lengthen; MT?f?r P re - SfTSfF ( according to- 
some arouse:) perf. arrrl^rTT p.f- arrfe^m'S fat. 
con. arrtfr^ Aor. 3TfT%%?fff des. Cau. 
pre. anfia^T^ cT Aor. 

10 U. STT^Org^ to sing, to rock- 3^33^ ff Aor. 

to prevade, to obtain; srrsfttS, ^T^ft, 3TTSftm 1st, 
2nd & 3rd sing. (3Tfc^: 1st dual. 5Tfcg^fe?r 3rd. plu. ) pre. 
3TTJfr^ 3rd Sin g ( s?nr*H 1st 8ing. Hfc^ 1st dual, 
3rd plu.) Imp. HTSftS 3id sing, arnr^rf^ lk sing- 
2nd sing. 3Tn^"?5 3rd. pin. Impera. am perf. 3TTWT p. '. 
t. arn*^ con. OTTT^ aor. Can. arr<T*rffr ^ pre. 
-f! aor. 3UR p. p. 3?rc?^T ger. arr^iaf- 
, 10 U. 5jni% to get; ajrft^ * Aor. ( 10 conj. ) 

2 A. to sit; arra* pre. ansnrfc ^r^ arr^r per^ arrftrrr 

p. f. 3TfT%nr^ fut. ri?rf%m con. STffite aor. aTTRf^hf ben. 
Pass. arrror pre. Can. arn=wfif. 

* ar^h^: I ^ is substituted for ar^ in the non-coojugational 



3 1 P. jnft to go; arotfj pre. arRTg-Imperf . ^jq perf . <THT p. f 
vjwjft fat. q-sq^con. <4V^ Aor. ygnj; ben. Cau. >TRnjfS 
pre. arnTOct <f Aor.f ^frrfer des. Pass. f^r pre. arriS Aor 

f 2 P. irrflT to go; <rr?r pre. %*m perf. tr^r p. fat. qriarf^ fut 
<frgL can. SRrat Aor. Pass. fgpf pre. 3TTTf9 aor. Oau 

n*rof?r % pre. ^afrTjr^- tr aor. ( wi 

2 A. with arfo srwq% to study. 

P- fut. oT^^ff fut. ^Tg^iTT^m-aT^m d con. 

aor., 3TOTff?r ben. Pass. BTqfam pre. 
(3rd dual, 

ben. Oau. STgqmqQ pre. 

aor. Hvfhr p.p. 

1 P. nff to go, to move; tr^f pre. *$^r perf. ^r%ff p. fut. 

TT^ Aor. 

1 P to go, to agitate; ffm pre. ffTO^re-^S^-arrer perf. 

flflT P- fat. ^pfc aor. f flpff P.p. [Also A. see Bhag. VI. 16] 

1 P. nrft to go; tr^fir pre. f^? perf. ^ft^T P- *t ^ft^ aor. 

1 P. ^T&^5 to have great power; ^r^nf pre. ^g[ Imperf. 

^rr^ F erf - ? F^?fT P. fut. ffr^nw fat. 

ben. f|%?r p.p. 

7 A. ^fhfir to sHine, to kindle; f^ pre. f?>jt^ 5TTfT TS?T 
(f^T in the Veda ) perf. fiFcKTT p. fat ff^'a'^r fat. 
con. ^f^viz Ao. . Ifcftqit des. tfom ben. Pass. 
Oau. f ?vnif?r % pre. ^ p.p. 
6 P. f=s^nTr^to wish; ?^j^ pre. fifa perf. q^r or 


p. fut. <rf^rf?T fut. ^fawrg; con. ^ffa Aor. qftf^ft des. 

mrrs ben. Pass. ^jjppre. %fo aor. Oau. 

P*e. ^fa?a; <T aor. ^TT or qfiqrqi ger. f ^ p. p. 

4 P. ?|ffV to go; fwnff pre. tn^cTT p. fut. ffaf p. p. 

ger. Other forms like those of the above. 

9 P- *nnffcft to repeat; f OTTTW pre. 5%^ &c. like those 
of 6. 

^ 1 P. JTrft to go ; 2 P. to go, to pervade &c.; ^^-inar pre. 

3nn-^^IT-W^-3TT^r perf. ^r P. fat. ifMjfff fat. "C^T^ 

con. ^ifr^ aor. 
f 4 A. to go; J^ pre. awH** P erf - ^?T fat. $s Aor. 

f iff^ des. Oau 3TFref?H* pw. 

1 A. g^ to look at, to see, f^^ pre. ^rt-^:-^j^ 3TRT 

perf. t%aT p. fat. i%ry^ fafct $%**?[ con. 1%^ ben. 

^TO aor. Cau j^rfff-^ pre. ^i^r^-?r a6r. |f%%^ 

des. Pass l^ilr pre. ^r% aor. |r%?T P. P. lr%?^T ger 

$%3H inf. 

1 A. irfff^^Tlt: to go, to censure; f3T?t pre. 

^T^ aor. f fira p. p. 
x 2 A. ^ r to praise; %$ pre. j^Ni-^^i^ an^T perf; 

p. fut. ffnf ^t. ^WTrf con. ^f|-^ aor. %faftz ben. 

Pass |gir?r pre. Cau ^qffl-% pre. ^j%^-?f aor. 

ger. if%-gn inf. t%?r P. P. 

1 p. q f to go, to shake; |<m pre. f Rcf P- p- 

2 A. iirfr to go &c. ; |w pre. i?r^ perf. Ifrm p. fat 

fut. ^frsim con. ^KC aor. Jfalte ben. Cau f ^jfir-^ pre 
aor. f R?f p. p. 

* According to some, the forms of the p. fut. and the 
gerund in ?^T of this root are qpnn and ITJ^T only. 


10 U. ^ to mov, to throw; fT^flr * pre. <qUiK or 
Perf. ^ftT<r-?T aor. fTWcTF P. fat. 

-<T con. f<rf3-nM^te Ben. ffc?T P. P- 

1 P. farfanc to envy. s$fir pre. 
perf. fq-fTT p. fut. i?W*Tra fut. <tfro3 con. 
aor. fajfirrrer or tfamft dea. Oau oft 

2 A q* 1 ^ to command, to ml*, to posses*; fj- pre. 

rar p. xut. 

^ aor - P99- f 9Tai pre. $Tr aor. Cau 
-^ P re - ^rfsfT^T^-T Aor. f %ff p. r . 
1 A. iTT?ff?f?T^r^ to RO, to kill, to see; j^ pre. f^sriK 
perf. ffqrai P fit- tfirarir ft. ^rfq^?T con. ^fte aor. 
ff^lhr ben. ff^f p. p. 

1 A ^^TUT^^O aim at; 5% pre. fsNrfc-amr-W perf. 
tfc?TT p. fut. (ffvq^r fut. qrfinr?r con. q-ff aor. f f 
des. frHre be Q . Cau f^ffT-^ pre. 

T x 1. P. fc^r to sprinkle, to wet- g^m pre. 

3fffr perf. afirar P. fut. ^%^f?r fut. afrfitfsiKr con. 

aor. Tgqrqt ben. ^f^f^T^fS des. ^%<f p. p. 
1 P. to go, to move; *fi^f^ pro. 5?f^^ imperf. g^t^ perf. 
p. fut. ^r%?rf?r fut. 3?r%r3 con. arr^ir^ aor. 

es. TCTT^ ben. Pass y^q^ pre. Cau. 
or ^%?f p. p. ( also written as 
pre. &c. ) 

* P. *nrer<r to collect together; T^crfff pre. T^t^" perf. 
P. fat. offf%TO fat. frf%ni con ^TOC ben. 
or ^r p. p. 



1 P. 


to -finish, to abandon; 
fat. 3rn%T^aor 


. Can 

p. p. 

753T ft P- 3r^r*T to abandon, to avoid; 

3U*r-*>i^r porf. g-ftsnrr p- fut. 

con. sfr^fh^ or. Cau 

p. p 

P re 


1, ft P. to glean; g^j'f'ff pre. 
Aor. 37%^l%T 
p. p. 


. Oau. 

1 P. dMmri to strike, to destroy; ff3f5f pre ^y perf. 
T P- ft *flwfif f *t. rtf r3 Aor. TTJff p. P- 


7 P. cF^^ to wet, to moisten; 
perf. grf?^r P- fat. 3T%Tf^ fut. 
aor. ^F^ftTf^ ^es. ^^ or ^gr P. P 



or ^Tij 6 P. 55^1 to fill with, to cover over; 3-vrfefr or 
pre. Tsfr* or g-^n^^^rr perf. aftfawmr or 
Hin?^ or *?f*>?rc* aor, ^f^ff or ^(PR<T p. p. 

1 A. 

to measure, to play; gff pre. ' 
perf. 3rf?TT P- fut. 3rnri* fnt. Hir^ con. 
aor. 3?ff^?T des Can. ^gm-ff pre. 'i?h^-?T aor. 

^ 1 P. 

to kill; g^ffif p'e. 3r3r r f^ri?rT perf. 3rfSr?TT p. 

con. sfaf 3 or. 

1 P. ^f> to burn, to punih.,3TT<rfr pre.^TnT^ 
-^S5 perf. ofn^Tf P- fut. 3?tfrTrlT fut. 
ben. B^iaor. ^rf^r-7<%<T P P. 

1 P. a?^ to hurt, to kill, to destroy; oft?ft pre. ^fif pert 

Aor - ^ftff or fti?Jf p. p. 


_ 10 U. qftsm to lessen, grrofflT-?* pre. g^f^lffir fat. 
-<T Aor. grft;fro*ffiT-% des. 

gj* 1 A. arg^tf!^ to weave, to sew; &qft pre. grqT^* 
arre pert grfqwr p. fit. grftsqlt fat. 3?jrfirwr<r con. 
aor. grf^fte ben. Oau 37^^%% pw. g?<r P- fir 
1, 10 U. ^JJrrorwr: to strengthen, to live; 

2 U. srrsgrr^ to cover, to hide; gruffer, 37ourar or 
pre. 3T^rr^--5Tf or g^^% perf. grafftfTT or 3J^fr%c!T p. fat. 


or ^ro aor 

ben. Oau 3rafan<t-% P re - aft'^W^-cf aor. Pass. 
P'e. g^fg^T perf. gfrotf^ aor. grfjrfsRTT, groift%c!T or 

p. fat- g>o?fWte, gcrri%^te or gnjjf^fre ben. 

1 A, to sport, to play ; gj^^ pre. ( same as ^F, ) 

P, 5*fr?n^ to be diseased or disordered^grtfer P'e. 
^RR &e. perf. afWfa; aor. grfqf p, p. 

1 A. (sometimes P.) itcT$ to conjecture, to reason, to infer; 
pre. 3?f5?r imperf. 4M& &c. perf. ^^5TT P- fnt. ^ff 
fut. 3?ft3*reT con . 3?nt^ aor. grT>Fr^ ben. Pass gj^ 
pre. 3^f| aor. Oau gr5qi%-ai pre. ^Bf^-rT aor. 
p. p. grftf^T ger: 

1 P. merqnoi'ft; to go, to get; ^^rfar pre. \ 

P er 
p * 


fat. ^IK^tT con. g^fac ben. Pass. irffa pre. 

fat. airrf^fte-^fre ben. Cau. 31^-% pre. 3n<FT^-ff aor. 
arftfof^ des. sir?T ( also ^or debt ) p.p. 3R^f Ger. 

6 P. ?fgcfl- to praise, to shine; %^|d pre. 3TR^ perf. aireff^ 
aor. g|rf%rT p.p. 

P. *mn^l H d*J gnrerq^ to become hard, to fail in 
faculties, to go- SR^^rff pre. 3O^^ Imperf. 3TR^ perf. 

^f^rr p. fut. sjtf^grrnT*ut. 3^^^ Aor. Can. 

Pre. 3ni%^a;-g[ aor. %Ml^MfS des. ^tf^5?T P P- 

1 A. *TT?ft*ITsrnfcT<n^$ to go, to acquire; 3nfo pre. 

perf. arfsTrfT p. f at . ^fSl^^ ft. arrfSfarT con. arfsf^ aor. 

3llSff^^ des. arf&fre ben. Pass. ^r&j* pre. 3rri3r aor. 

Cau. 3T*TI%-^ pre. mifdafd^ aor. SR-fsf^ p.p. 
8 U. to go; ^nnn^-^t^.3wfl^-3f|^pre. 3TRof, 

p. fat. Blotter, 3rrf3iE-Cr# Aor. 3n%|OTW^ des. 

mrt ^r to cenaure, to be compassionate; 
pre. sfctftaNrH? &c. or srnrS perf ^ttflffrflr or 

p. fut. sirfirnrwT^, ^rfii^riir fut . ^taVRrTi^-^tf'ng: ben. 

or Crater aor. 

p. f^ to prosper, to please- ^wiff pre. 3HTO perf 

, P. fat. arr^Ta * r - Tf%ivfrf^, f?^ft des. s^ p. p. 

5 P. to increase, to prosper; ^-^11% pre. 3Tl^ aor. ( For 
the remaining forme see the root ^pJ^4 P. ) 

, ^WK* 6 P- to kill* *&*$<, &*ft Pre. Wffc 
&c. perf. 

6 P. approach, to injure- ^qf% pre. STTsrJ perf. 
fut. arfttq-lTl fat . ; smTc5; aor. sj^ p.p. 

*This is not in the Dhatupatha but it is given in the 
Sutra 3E?|fpT^ " 
E. 8. G. 37 


9 P. to go; to move. s^OTTIFT p*e. ^flo-^l^R &o. p if. 
or 3T?KTT P. fat. Hf^qift or arfpaTRT fat. Hlf^ aor. 

1 A. sfnff to shine, P. ^R^ to shake; <T3T% ft pro. 
imperi. ir^rregj-^r^ perl. irRrrar P. fut. frf^si 
^r^q-ff^con. ^nre,-^*^ aor. irf^m PP. 

1 A. rTOrar to annoy, to resist; ir^ pre. iff^ pp. 

1 A. ^[jr to grow, to prosper; ir^ pre. 

perf . <rRrffT p. fat. ^rfvr^ fat. ^fai?r con. ^f^r aor. 

<rr^Rr?% des. irRrfi^ Ben. Pass. iry^ pre.^ aor. Oau. 

cnwm-%. ^f^-^T Aor. irfof p.p. 

1 A. to go; ipf^ pre. 

1 P. ^oiRyiTWr: to be dry, to adorn, to be sufficient; 

pre. aftm f wrc -g^r-^mr perf. ^r%?n p. fat. 
fat. afrftr 

Can. aifcrei%-% pre. 
^ 10 u - ^?Srtft to throw up; aTRytrg-gf^-^ pre. ^Tcyf^ff p.p. 


to wish to be proud; ^T pre. ^,% parf. 
P. fut. ^^sq% fat. 3T^fi?Tff con. sr^f^ir aor. 

P. f^T to laugh; s?<3fer pre. ^^TW perf. cpfaffr p. fat. 

f it. 3Tf?ftr*r? con. gr^r-s^n aor. 

* with OT = ?f . t With sr = 


1 A. to go; qfofr pre. ^fc perf. fcfttTT p. fut. 
aor. $r%ff p.p. 

1 P. ;3> to sound - g?^ft pre. ^^T^T perf. ^r%?fr p. fut. 

^Rr^rnt fut. 5T^f^wT?r, con . ^Tfj-OT-^r^ aor - 

1 A. *e\i^ to bind ; ^ft pre. ^fr% perf. 3n%^r p. fat. 
con. 35B'T aor. 

or q^g^l P. to go . ^^ffr or ^m pre. ^^RT or ^fe perf. 
^TffcTTor qlfecTrp- fut. ^f?qTff or ^fe^i^ fat. 
or 3^^%^g con. 3T?T or 3&tft aor. 

P. g-ttTw% to live in difficulty ; ^?r P'. |j^frf fut. 

P. 10 U. atre^TM to remember with regret; 4>- 
fT Pre. ^r^r, gfenNqnT-^? & e - perf- ^<TT or 
p. fnt. ^fysufar, ^1^5inff-?r fnt. 
con 3* - aor 

q^ig; 1 A. *>ff% to be anxious ( with g^ ); 5^3^ pre. -rjcfc^ perf. 
P. fut. 3TOTS"? aor. 
^ to be proud; ^-ftf-fl pre. ^qfrg cr ^^3% perf. 


10 U. H^% ( *r^ l%g^r^TOT ) T^for ^r to separate the chaff, 
to protect j $>4gr*TTW K pre. 4j?nTF?i^H[~xiiiifj &c. perf. ^^~- 

1 P. 3UrK7f to cry in distress ; ^ori% pre. =^^rir perf. 

p. fut, qpf^t^rffT fut. 3i3)lui&tr<^ con, 

10 U. ntficg^ to wink ; ^rorqf-?r pre. 

1 TJ. JTrgrfw^nftt to rub, to scratch ; ?Ff qrff -^ pre. 
Aor. rrr, ^gftffB' ben. 


1 A. sgrerqrn to praise, to boast; q??^ pre. 

p. fut. ^/rfercq-ft fnt. $rer|?$rs*i?r con. chf3aft ben. 

l?sre aor. n^f&PKT des. tfrf&m p.p. 
U. cnrcHfWq- to tell; s&snfii-^ Pro. groqi^TC, &c. Perl. 
P. frit. ^UHJ*<ff*T-% fut. 3T^Tf^T^-cT con. 

1 A. %& to grieve; ^& pre. xf^ perf. cn^cTT p. 
aor. ^ffe ben. 

1 P. aifiteT??cf*ri^5 to shine &o. ; ^fft pre. ^T^R perf. 

P. f ut - 35sft^ aor - 
denom. ) cfe^Rr pre. 

1 A. ^TFcft to desire ; ^rT^ pre. ^^^ or qewit^fr &c. 
perl, cpTfTT^frT or spTTOT p. fat. ^wRl^far or $rf&*qfr fut. 
or 3T^fHTrf con. CTtTTO^fe or cblH<(|? ben. 

or a^^^^y aor. Pass. ^TRraf or ^q% pre 


aor. Cau.eCTOTfiT-flr pre. ^fr^ p. p. Kffirccrr-f?RTr, 
ftrw ger. 

A. ^ar% to shake, to tremble; *q^ pre. ^rCT perf. 


p. fut. ^TM^d fut. T^if?^T?f con. ^rfiC" ben. arofqs aor. 
Pass. gjcgfr pre. Oau. q*n1Ht pre. 3r^JWT^-?T Aor. 
f%'ffM^ dee. 
P. to go; q?HT% pre. ^(^^ perf. ^T^cir P. fat. 

to pierce; *uuift-% pre. ^UNJ-q^K-^ perf. 


10 U. ;rf$i<vq' to slacken; effctqi^-^ pre. 3T^^sn9[<T Aor. 
1 A. ^T^^TR^T: to sound, to count; ^3% pre. ^r^ perf. 

p. fut. ^f%c<q[^ fut. 3tcfo|<i0ui(| con. ^T^TT? ben. 

aor. gpfOT P-P- 


10 U. naf *tem^ ** to 8> * c <>ant; SOTlS-fr pre. 

perf. cj^facfr p. fat. fedft&Jjft-W fat. 

fT COD. 3r3T*^-a aor. ftregftvfiKt dos. ^rfita pp. 

JiriS*-*r pre. fcl^MfrU &o. prf. 
. 3<4l*gra;-?T Aor. fafrMmft-fr des. Pass. 
Aor. ^n%ff p. p. 

1 A. f^fft ^ft^r ^ to praise; ^ft pre. ^^ perf . 
fut. ar^ftw con. 3TT aor 

p . ^it to 80und ^^rfir pre. mchsHd, 3TT5na; Aor. 

A. irifl3IHH<ft: to go, to punish; Cff P'e. ^^t 
^f|rTT P. fat. ar^fjrc aor. 
1 P. -^oir to teat, to soratch. ^rr pre. ^^r^ perf. ^wr P. 

fat. *rft*rf?r fut. sr^f%5^ con. aretfis-srarrfrs aor. 

f^tfT des. sjftf ( ^^ painful p. p. ). 

1 P. to go ; ^^ft pre. ^r^RT perf. OT%HT P. ^ -. 

con. 3T2Fm'hi:,-^^ft3: aor . f%W?f%*ft des. Oau. 
pre. 3r3ft^ET^-ff aor. 

2 A. irffl^i^T^q'Y: to go, to destroy; ^ pre. 3ren%ff Aor. 
( Also written qp^ . ) 

P. ^t^mif to desire, to wish; OT3TW P'e. ^^RT perf . 
P. fut/rtf^rft fnt. mcfeifama con. 3r^fft^ aor. 
ben. f%$tf%r?ffr des. ^f%ff P- P. 

1, 4 A. qfrjft to shine; ^rjTff or ?^?q% pre. 
P. iut. ^rfircirW fat. 3Tfe|f$tUJA con. 

^?t de. 3^?n?irar aor. Oau. OTsnrfSr-fr P re 

pre. cfdi^m p.p. ^T%^5TT, !^I^T ger. 

1 A. ^s^f^rnrra to cough; cm^ pre.-^mN^ &c. perf. 
P, AUC. ^rft^?t iut. 3reTT%ra con. 3r^fr%7 aor, 
es. srftr^beD.Gan.-$re*riiT-ft oT^^RT-ff aor. 


1 P. *h*T^ flMSH3r ^ to suspect, to cure; 

. perf. T%fin?nn p. fat. f%|%tcqtq(d fat. 
aor. Pass.-f^T%r^r% pre. Can. 
s. ( Also A. f%T%?^% pre. 

1 P. fx^rprt to desire, to live; %m?r P*e. f%%?f perf. 

10 P. f^T% to dwell; %<rom pre. 

1 P. 5^fWTl^t: to become white, to sport, i%^ri pre. 
perf. %fTT P- fa *. %I%^T% fut. 3wfam<| COD. 

P. r?g% to bind; ^iffiJT% pre. f%hy peif. ^tf^fTT P. 
aor, f%^Tlf^^m des. 

1 A. ST*^ to sound; gp^ pre. ^3% peif. ^RfT p. int. 
fot. 3T con. 3 aor 

2 P. to sound; gpjfrm pre. ^?rw ( 5^ft^I, ^ito 2nd sing. > 
perf. 9JfcTT p. fut. ^t^TTff fat. 3T^t^ con. afT^t^ aor - 

6 A ^r*^ ( 3TT?f^: ) to sound, to moan; 3^ pre. 3$% perf_ 
pTT P. fat. 3Tf7T aor. ^f^^ freq. 

1 P. ?&* ?TK ^M^^H%y??fft<>a4-MHft^H^ 'ST to sound 
loudly, to come in contact, to ba crooked &c.; ^n7f% pre. 
P. fat. aFTi%^^ fut. 3r^t%l^ con. 

6 P. ^N^T ( $STft ) to contract; ^rffi pre. ^t^ ( 
2nd sing. ) perf. 3T^r^ aor. T%f%VH des. 

6 P. to curve, to bend; ^nr pre. 5^7 ( g$feq| 2nd sing. ) 
perf. ^f%ffr p. fat. ^T?^T^ fat. S^fS^g- con. 
pre. ^i%?r p. p. 


6. P. ^TOfta^'Wii: to sound, to support; 
perf . gffm?u p. tut sreftur?^ aor. $f8r?T p. p. 
1. p. jrnhrnt to be blunted. $u*f?r pre. ^u<f|^ aor. 
10. U. qreSr to cover; $Udmd-fr pre. 3T^f!i^-?T Aor. 
10. A. 3T-r$r<nfr to abuse; $rH<Jd pre. cpnqMcfe &c. perf. 
fut. ^r^cT aor. r^Rr'frS' ben. 

1. P. frHT^TTOr: to kill &c.; ^rfif pre. ^^pr perf. 

con - 

4 P. ^r^r to be angry; $t<iffr pre. ^5^T Prf. qftftff p. 

fut. ST^/^r^ con. gr^r^ aor. 
dea. ^OTT^ ben. ^fta p.p. ^tftg^ Inf. 

10 U. *nwwf Wr ^ to apeak, to ehine; 

<rar?r Aor. 

l A. ^VWT to play; $$* perf. ^^ perf. 3T^f^r Aor. 
10 U. 1 P. ^nft to shine; f^TT^-%, $5H* P'e. 

^rifr; ^^^r P 6 ''. ^ftiNdi, ^RMT p. fut. at 5^ 

9 P. f^s9 to tear,to expel; foiTTnT pre. ^tw* perf . 
p. fut ^Ftf^n^ fnt. 3?^^ aor. 

des. Pass. ^sq% pre. 3RFn% Aor. 

4 P. ^rs^t to embrace, f^qrft pre 5?^ perf. <fe)ftm p. 
fnt. ^tfwisq-i^ fut. ^^if^^d. con. f^t^ Ben. 3Tf^nj^ aor. 
des. ftw, qFrt%rrT ger. 

10. U. l P. ^rnrnyt to speak; f^nnft-fr, ^m pre. 

* With % this root is Wet; fwsrfaf, fro^t* 2sifig. perf. 


10 A. frwroi* to astonish. %&ft pre. $^M&, *c. perl, 

6 A. 3^ to sound, to cry in distress: ^q% P f e. 
$f%?fr P. fat $f*^ fnt. STfRrsqa con. sr^ffe aor. 

U. sn% to sound; qprrA-afilt pre. *ft*rffr% fat. 
arefoff Aor. 

1 P. 3i^g-% ^T^ to make an inarticulate sound, to coo; 

$tfrm pre. ^^gfr perf. ^fSmr p. fut. ^r9rn% f ut. ar^fit^^ 

'cou. 3?^5ng[ aor. ^3*nc3" Ben. Pass. ^qw P'e. 3T^j% aor. 

pre. ^frc*T ger. ^i%?f p.p. 
to be firm; ^5 pre. ^^y perf. ^fofr p. fat. 

10 U. 3TTn^ to speak, to converse : ^jrqrf&-% ^ 
10 A. 4*NH to close; ^q|ir^ pre. 3T^^or?T Aor g^ORT p. p^ 
1 U. {tTKNli^ to jump, to frolic, ^|%-% pre. $f$j p.p. 
1 P. oTT^oT to cover, ^^r pre. ^^y perf. $i%ffr P-s fat - 

fT . U. ^'fmrr^ to hurt, to kill; ^uftffr-^^r pre. 
& 8 U. ^?dr to do; ^^-^?r pre. ^rerc-^ perf, *rf p. 
f ut. 3T^T<ir^-?rcon. 3T^nff^-^T^?r aor. 
Ben. Pass.-|%a>r pre. arerft ( 3rd dual 

P. fa 

R*nT con. Oau.- 
des. ^?r p.p. 
ger. ^g^ inf. 

6 P. %^)r to cut, to divide; &rffo pre. ^&$ perf. 
fat. qf%*n% fut - ^^M^d. con. 3?^a7^ aor. TrVT Ben. 

des. Oau.-q?*n?Mt pre. 
l aor. Pa3s.-$*qft pre. at^iTr Aor. ^r p. p. 
ger. tftft 31; Inf. 

to surround; ^urt% pre} for perf. and other 
iorms see tb above root. 


4. P. ?m;ETar to become lean or thin ; &&ft pre. 
-perl grfirsq-KT fat. 

1 P. fcz&ft to draw, to pull, to plough; cfft pre. 

perf. 9JST or TOTT p. f at. q^hff or a^nfer Int. 

^T^con. areTSffa; or 3TBaK*frg; or sr^g; aor. fyffi dee. 

Can. ^rft% pre, 3^fT^T^-?f or ^^^-<T aor. 5^ p.p 

ffljr Ger. Pa99.^q% pre. 3T^rf% Aor. 

6 P. A. H^jtH to make farrows, to plough; 

^5$-^f^ perf. 5ir^ or *ROT P- fat. ^^faf-% or 

fat. Sff^^I^-tT > 3T^f^n^-?T con. 

aor. U^n^'^ft^ ben. T%fRTf?r-?r ^es. w p.p 

6 P. f%$r^ to pour ont, to scatter faifa pre. ^|< perf. 
or ^ftfff p. f u. gsf^rfir-^tl 1 ^!^' fllt - 3^4?K*^et-iifl- 
con. ar^T a or. tfirf ben. f^R^Rr des. Pa8. 


| 9 U. ffm^fic to injure, to kill } ^nm or f?oft?r 
perf. 3T$[fl<, 3T?FfT-fT-fT 3?^f* aor. 

10U.%5i5^rtoname,to glorify ; 

^f perf. ^frftrffr p. *ut 

con. afrr-^^TO; Ben. 3TTf|d^-<T aor. Pass ^ffe 

1 A. *rm%<f to be able or fit for. susq^ pre. -B|H^ perf. 

p. fnt. ^TBiTa', ^c^IW-1 
aor. ^f^qqt^: Scstfte Den - 

des. cpf^rr, ^?^r ger. 

1 A. cfiwnr to shake ; %q^ pre. f%%^ perf. 3?%f^r aor. 
1 P. ^-55% to shake ; %5J1% pre. SR%^ aor. %rg?r p.p. 
1 P. sr^ to sound; ^mf% pre. ^r^jr perf. ^T?fr p. 

int. 3^^r^i;con. 3T^T^tg[ aor. ^ppn^ Ben. 
des. Pass. - 


1 P. 10 U. ffcnnn to kill; ^n%, a^nrfar-?t pre. 

9 U. to sound; 7q*nrff-73?ff% P*e. 
. A. 5T5% 3^ ^ to make a creaking sound; ^3^% pre. 

3<Hi$ P erf - ^irfifaT p fat- ^flfara fut. 3*^jf*re aor. 
Can. sEmft-iT pre. 3^3^-^ aor. ^^j5q^ des. 

1 P. fr^Jt, 3Trgl% to civ, to weep, to call ; aF?fT% pre. 
perf. ^fr?^fT p. fut. 5RT%*<im * 
ben. 3T?F?fr^ or. |%SRT^TI% dea, Oau,-^^r^m-fl pre. 
Aor. Pass. -gpRi?t, inf^?cT P-P- (Also Atm. 

10 U. ( gs^ ) fiTrlHr to cry continually ; generally with 

p*e. ^^iirm^r-ir^r &c. perf. ^^^f^crr P. fot. 

^t. ^af^T-FT con. arecfcr-fr aor. 

1 U. & 4 P. trr^R^ to walk, to step } ^7Rm, 8FTTl%, 

pre. -dsfem-^gfw perf. ^(Har-^^TT p. fut. ?Rm 

fut. gRgK-wc^q, 3iarcq?T con. ^q-rgr^fl^ ben. 

aor. i%arfwTT%, T%3T^% des. Oau. ^jrufir-fT 
aor. Pass, g^int pre. ^j?cT p.p. 9FffWf^T 5ET?PSrT, 

9 U. ffwrfrffm^to buy, to purchase; ^mn% or ajM^ pre. 

f%aft^ f%i%^ F e 'f. l&cTr p. fut. a:^^-^ fut. afnrrg;, 

ben. 3?^ftg:, 3?^ aor. f%a?t*ft-ft des. Pass. 

3Twn^ aor. afn; p.p. Oaus. arnrom-%, ^T%a?T^ Aor. 

l P. mmrra; to amuse oneself, to play ; an^lff pre, 

perl gfn%aT p. fut. afifir^iff fut. grafn%r^ con. 

ben. ari^f^i^ aor. T%^rT%7Iff des. Pass.sp|?Rrff 
aor. Gau. ^T^rfff-ar? 3n%RT^ aor. 5fiffir p.p. 
ger. ^TOp[ inf. 

4 P. ^ to be angiy ; ^rm pre. ^ahvr perf. fftraCT p. fut. 
fat, gR^r^g^con. ffE?rr^ben k 3^\r^aor. f^[ p.p. 


pre. 3f^tft aor. Oau. 
Aor. ^jfcVtffl des. 

I. P. 3*nt% TT5* ^ to call, to cry, to lament; aft^rm pre. 
^sfetel perf. gfrer P- fat-. ^m% fut. ajsIJt^a; con. 
ben. BTr^Tcl aor. Pass. fr^fT, HafhST aor. Can. 

aor - 3^rm des. $7 p.p. wrT ger. ^!^ inf. 

. A. OT% to ierve; %^ pre. f%^% perf. ^T%T P. 

1. P tft^ to lament, to call; sfcm pre. ^tf perf. 
P. fat. 31^1 aor - 

4 A. l^^r to be confused: &fo pre. ^l^ perf. $ftTT p. 
fat gE aor. 

10 U. 3!oiTTp^r^ *o whisper; ^T*rift-% pre. 

p. fa aor 

1 & 4 P. T55Tifr to be fatigued or tired; fmf?T & WiWlffif P re 
erf. ^mrTT P. fat. ^5^Tzrf?r fut. 4i0HI<l ben 
aor. f^cRJm^flr des. cF7T??T PP. 

4 P. 3ttf$r*r> to become wet; 7% 

P. fat. j^wrfiir, tariff fu 

aor. T%^T p.p. Pass. 1%^, ST^ft aor 

perf. T%^ffT P. fat. f^^cqRT-W fat. 3Tf[^-fT con. 
f . Pass. 

4 A. ^qm% (rarely P.) to be afflicted, to suffer; 
pre. i%r^^t perf. n%?rr p. fut. sf^Ttsq^ fut. gRf^T*r<T con 
ben. sr&fte aor. ftffcftl^, Ptf%^, d es. Pass. 
pre., 31^% aor. f|^r or i%ftm P.P- 

P. feniq*l to torment, to distress^ f^%m?r P'e. 

perf' fsrar, j^r P. fat. ^r^m, *??^r fat. 
Ben. 3TfT, srf^T^ aor . 


des. fef^lrf or %5T p.p. 

1 A sroisS to be timid, jf^ft P*e. f%fft% p^f. fffftm p. 
fut. arffjfTO aor. 

. A, srsqjEWi *rf^ to speak inarticulately; 
perf. ^TrTF P. fat. &%*r?|- fut. fafefina des. 

1 P. $H5qTfa3l*> to hum , to tinkle; UOTI^ pre. 'g^rnr perf. 
P. ^ u t. grfBr^i'^ fat. gnirfihuj^con. g)u<4ia^ ben. 
aor. 9)fvTfl > P-P. 

to boil, to digest; u^rfir pw. ^RCTOT perf. 
P. fat. ebfa^fo fut. ^^T^Mjr^ con. i)%eno; Ben. 
aor. P^i^^fa des. 

1 A. cr^ to kill, ^nr^ pre- gjfitmfr fut. gr^I^TS Aor. 
1 A. lift 51% ^r to move, to give; q&ft pre. ^iT perf . 

STnren P- fat . ^^i%: aor. ( Also 10 U. i. P. ) $f3nii%- 

^nlS P'e. $fcrf3W? ^iNini p. fut. 3T^^i*yH?T-?T, ^^i^ftd, 

8 U. ft^nrf to hurt, to break, to kill? srutrfjr, ^J^ Po. 
IW* 2nd sing. Impera. ^rror. ^if^r perf. ^rf8r?TT p. 

rforori?Mf fut. 3T^fBin^-?T con. 9r^nfr^ 
aor. Cau. ^rnrrirfff-^ pre. (%^fanrm-?r des. 

10 U. ^^nf ^ to send, te direct; $r<r?rft-% pre. 
-^* &c. perf. $i<rrq!TT P. *ut. ^trf^rfir-^ fut. 
con. a^^nrgc-JT aor. ?%^nfir^f%-% des. 

1 A. *$$[ to allow, to suffer, grwff pre. ^fT^ pe^ 
p. fut. srfftwm, ^r% fut, 3TSTm<STg;-3 con. 
ben. 3I$Tfire, *X$tt aor. f%^finW, f^f^l^d des. Oau- 

^ra;-fr aor. $nnr, ^fi[?f p-p. 

ger. Pass^ ^r^ 3^rr% aor. 


P. *cf% to endure; $rrrf& pre. ^m perl $rm?TT or 
P- fot. srft<*fi*, stwffr fut. STSTWWJ^ uiqtai^ con. 
ben. arrir aor. fTftnTlff, f%$Nrft des. 

to flow - to diatil ST*ft pre. ^frr? perf. grfarr p. 
. ^rf?q-|1r fnt. 3^1^- con. ^Twrft^ aor. ft^ffiffi dee. 

P- P. 

10 U. ^ft^r^wflt to wash, to cleanse, &c. ; STT3^rfilr% pre. 

P. fu 


P. P- Sometimea 1 P. also. 
Aor. f%n% dei. 

1 P. ^ to decay; ^rf?r pre. ^ r%9mr perf. ^ff p. Int. 

5. P. fismm to destroy, | ^qT^T fat. w^sir^ 

%tntftr pre. con. qfrqTT ben. ^ft 

? aor. T%rffrTff del. Pan- 

OTnn < 8-?t, 

6 P. ftmwfrto dwell; Aor.i%jT, 

pre. J ger. Pas 

to kill. r^oftiS or ^oftft, f?r^ or ^^ pre. 
or r%l%ot perf. iofeir p. fat. ^forsq^-ff fut. 
-?r con. 3T^^ or 3TfiTO-3rf|rff aor. 

P. ^ot to throw, to cast; {$wft pre. f%^q perf. |rHT p. 
fut. ^c^rfff fut. swc^ con. g?^c^ aor. %cqrr^ ben, 
Pass -rcqr^-3ri^ aor. Oau -<nrf5r-%, 3TT%r%-?T aor. 

U. to throw; fifm%-% pre. rMfa, ftr^ perf. |nrr p. 
e^r^r-% fat. 3^c^, &{#* aor. T%fraf3r-ft des. 

1, 4. P. fWjfr to spit 5 ^ft, ^N?n% pre. R^ perf. 
fat. aifra Aor. f%ftfatir lf& des. 

4 A. ft^rwt to killj tfiifif pre. f%%> perf. 3i$fe Aor. Oau 


8 fr 9 P t,> kill; tffarrfir pre. f%$rnrperf. ^<n. p. fut. arfft fat. 

con. mn ben. 3Thf? aor - 

1. P. 3*5q%i$T3 to Bound inarticulately; gfrsrfJr P*e. 

perf . $?fh%(tt p. fat. smsfanefr fat. arsfrrstaig: con. 

ben. arsftefc* aor. ftsnRftffr des. Cau. $fnPri?Mr, CT%- 

A. *% to be intoxicated., ^^ pre. faffr perf. 
P. fut. ^frf^q^ fat. 3T$frf3re aor. cau.-afr^rf^-% pre. 
$fWT-T aor. T^r^TRr^ff des. 

1 P. f%^% to spitj $ffWT% pre. f^fhr perf. ^fifiRTr P. 
3T$foftff aor. 

2 P. 515^ to cough; rfn?T l>re. ^TTeT l>erf. wf^TT p. fat. 

ft^g; con. arsnCr^aor. ajirr^ben. 

rsrrfir aor 


7 U. *mot to strike against, to pound; grnrffT, ^J%. pre. 

5^r 39ft P erf - wfif p. fat. ^ffcf?n%^ fat. ^n?^. g^te 

ben. 3Tg?fT, arefaftv , 3?^<T aor. 5^?5Er%-% des. gwir p.p. 

4 P. $$rnri to be hungry; ^WM pre. ^ff\-r perf. ^ff^r P. 
fat. gfiTTOnft fat. s^HcWri; con. ^mg; Ben. ar^ra; aor. 
Cau. $fi\|qra%. 3T^^ra;-tT aor. ^fvRT P-P. ^ftf^T> gl^T 
ger. Pass.-^t^ff pre. 3T$frft aor. 

1 A ff^5J% to be agitated, to disturb; $ffiTn pre. ^JH I>erf. 
p. fat. gftfteqftr fat. 3T^ntWT?T con. M"ff*nffe Ben. 

Aor. Pass.-v^ff 3fTIM[ aor. 

4. & 9 p. to tremble; gpRrfr & H^rf^ P^e. ^RTfH perf. 

P. fat. sfrf^ilf fat. 3?^ftf*i^T5 con. gprar^ Ben. 

4 ) ar^r^frg: ( 6 ) aor. gs^, ^m?T p.p. 
6 P. ft^fcft to scratob or draw lines; ^fSf pre. ^^ perf. 
P. fat. aisffafa aor, 


1. P. STO to waste; smnrpre. ^frperf. ^ftff p. fat. 
fat. 3TSm*q; con. grafts aor. Can -^Wm ? 
Aor. fesmrra des. ^m p.p. 

2 P. ^fsT to sharpen; ^nVf^ pre. ^qfOTW perf. ^orfirtTT P. 
fat. $omr*jf?t ^t. 3*$oiftg^ con. ar^OTT^ aor. 
des. $gj<T p.p. 

A. ft\j?f% to shake; ^HTff pre. ^$*W P erf - 

aor. f%^RTm^ ties. ^RTI^?f P.p. 
1 U. 4 P. ^m^R^ft: to be wet, to release; 
^|- perf. ^T%ffT P. 

con. aifi^g;, 3T^^t%ei 3rf^i^ aor 

or ! p.p. 
1 U. 4 P. *>5?TRr^nfr: to be unctuous, to release., 

^, %?rm pre. f%^, f%f^r^perf.^f%?rr P. 

fut. ^%f^^ ffcon. 4 P. 3*f$*^ 

aor. r%l$^TI%-^; T%^%ia-^, des. f^uor or ff p.p. 

to tremble; $tcJi^ P^e. f%^gr perf. ^TOTr P. fat. 
<>r. Cau. $%$jqrrt-?r> 3Tl%^$y^ cf aor. 

P. 5 ^ to laugh; ^FwfSr P^. ^I3^^ perf. ^rfqp^Tf p. fat. 
fut. ac aor - Ben 

9 P. -^srr^gr to be born or produced again; ^T=jf^ pre. 

^TWT^r perf. ^-f^ffT P. fut. jjrfacqfif fut. 3?^^g[ or 

aor. T%c^r^Rf<T des. 

1 P. ( T-rjrft: ) R-^ to churn, to agitate-, ^3Tf?r pre. 


1 P. *rf?l%^q- to limp, to walk lame; ^ymw P'e. 
perf. ^i3TcTr P. fut ^T^cq-ja fut. ^f^q'ri; con. 
Aor. ^?n^ Ben. ^r%(T P- P. 


I P. +HJHN1H to desire, to wish, to search; 
perf . ^feTT p. iut ^f|n% fut. aTOTf*T5 con 

10 U. ?fo^r to coyer; *3f*riS % pre. 

A. Srqpr to break, to disturb- tf&t pre. ^r p.p. 

10 U. also. ^-D^qfH of pre. 3RT^U^^-ff Aor. 

1 P. ^qrf^rr>^n|^ to be steady, to kill, to eat; ^^% pre; 

fut. 3!^T^ con. gf^fh^ 
pre. 3^m% aor. Oan- 
Aor. RmQ^(& des. 

1 U. 3TW^Rft to dig; ^fjJr-% pre. ^3T5r or m perf. 

p. int. jarf^rrar ^ fot. a^f^^^ ^ con. au^du 

aor. ^f?ng ^wra ^M*T^ Ben. Pass. 

des. OT3 p.p. ^Tf^r or ^rf5?^T ger. ( with 

1 P. im> to go; ^^fif pre. *r&fo perf. 

1 P. ^Icq^q^t: to worship, to pain, to be uneasy; 

pre. ^ronsr perf. w?rarr p. fut. ^n^rrar fut. gnafaMTfr con 
^^rmq; Aor. ^fim p.p. 

1 P. **&& * bitej^ft pre. ^^ P f . ^*TT p. 

1 P. ^ to be proud, to go, to move; ^?r pre. 
perf. arorifat aor. ^ff&t p.p. 

IP. ?3PR, ^g^r xf to move, to gather; ^cJia 1 pre. 
perf. ?^%?fr p. **t. ^l%^lfe int. 3WTcfl^aor. ^y?r p.p. 

9 P. ^nn^rfftr to come forth, to purify; Mlft pre. 
Another reading for 



pre. ^JT* perf, 
COD. HTT < aor 

we i P. ffrmn* to kill; 

If H[ 1 P. *$rfr to eat, to devour; 
p. fat. OTT^crfff fat. 
Ben. tml^n p.p. 

6 P. <rfhm* <rffrft ^ to strike, to afflict- 1%^ pre. 
perf. $WT p. fat. ^qfa fat. s^fr^ con. 3d^ffi?j; aot. 

4 & 7 A. \*r to be depressed, to suffer pain or misery; 

or. rtr p.p. 

6 P. ?T^ to glean- 

1 P. 4^^l^<u| to steal-, r3Tft pre, ^pr P-P. 
6 P. ^^ to cutj ^^ pre. 3^fi^ aor. 
1 A. afNTTTOC to sport; ^ pre. 
1 P ^ to shake, to move to and f ro ; 


P. fat. 
aor. Can. ^ynfir pre. 


oon . 

to sport; 
p. *. a 

1 A. q% to serve; ^r^ 
Ao-. Oau ^^rfir ft. 
IP. $5^ to strike &c ; 
1 P. irfiisrfii^T^ to limp; 



&c. perf. 





* P. JWI^ to relate, to tell, ^jgrfft pre. 
3rd pi. Imperf. ?sqTcT p.p. This is conjugated in 
Oonju. tenses only, According to the Nyasakara this is 
nied with the prep. 


1 P. ^r^ n$ ^ to roar, to be drunk; 

irfiwT p. fat. nnf!^, aronfis Aor 
H. B. a. 38, 




1 P. to sound in a particular way; ipRTft t>re. CTmff perf. 
irfsiaT p. fut. 3T*rafttt aor. 

1 P. *RR to distil, to drawj inrtaf pre. snai" perf. 
P. fut. 3T*r|><T Aor. 

10 U. STTOTFT to count mimerate : ironrffHf pre. 
-^ifr &c. pert. irorfgcTr p. fa*. TOTKtariir ^ fat. 

?rcon. anfmoiri: ?r, ^snroi^ n aor. 

BeD. f 

Pass. IT.TJW ( *iunm<i according to some) pre. 

1 P. SJnfTOT ^lf% to speak; IT^I^ pre. snTT^ perf. irf^HT p. 
fut. nf^CTia' ^ t. 3TTf%W^ COD. W^ll<Ht, 3TTnfi^ aor. iRTT^ 
ben. (Snrf^Tfr ^es. Cau. ^ll^U'Tf % pre. 3nft*T$^ W or. 
Pass. nre P'e. snrrRf aor. fF%rrger.Ti%5irinf 

10 A. 3^^r to injure, to ask, to go } ir^snr^ p r e. 

1 . P. irrfr to go 5 if'SSfffr pre. snTTO per/. ip^T P- 't 

fut. 8fnRr^con. wmr^ aor. irwrn* Ben. f>Mfl(im des. 
Pass. 11*0%, snnuT aor. Cn.~ 
im p.p. Tf^T ger. 

1 P. ^r^ to thunder, to romr; ?nif7r pre. 5HT5T perf. 

p. fut. *THT*qrcr fat 3Tir!%7^ con. snrifnt aor - I^T^ Ben. 

10 U. to roar} ngieTff P f e. STaTiT^ ^1 Aor. 

1 P. ^ to ocnd, to roar^ jnfrd pre. arirf perf. 

fut. an*rfn* Aor. 

10 U. to sound. Tf{<rui--% pre. ir^l^^^Tf-^R &c. perf. 

10 U. ^mr^f^TT^f to wish^ir^r^r^ pre. ^I 
&c. perf. arar^ % Aor. 

^ 1 P. to go ; irir% pre. 3T1TW perf. ifftfu p. fut. iriS^qYR p. ml. 
1 P. 3$ to be proud; irW?T pre. snrf perf. nfir?fT p. fnt. 

" Aor. 


10 A. ur% to be proud; iTTCft pre. anmwff Aor. ftrrrefr 

1 A. ^cfTm to blame; *r$% p r e. *riif perf. irffflT p. fnt. 
fut. 3yj|f|njH con. snrffe aor. jrfi<fte Ben. Can. 

pro 3nrrr?i-?r Aor. 

10 U. 1. P. frfa?^ to censure, to reproach; 

TfPr pre. ir*ra*rr ^SK &c. mif perf. njj7j dr , irftwr P. 

fat. ir^f^r-%; irs^m fat. 3!3fir-ff 3HT aor. 

1 P. *$m ^n% ^ to eat, to drop, to fall down; irjyfir pre. 
perf. rfOTT p. fnt. Jifa^qfff ^Q*. 3Ti?%^ con. 
tor. fsnrfOTf^ des. Paaa.-ir?^ pre. 

10 A. ^TO to ponr out, to filter; 'irrgw?t pre. 
perf. 3fafnr5T?f Aor. irferf p-P. 

1 A. \TTCT to be bold ( generally with * ); ir^rar pre. 

perf. 3TX|QI^ Aor. fffirf^Wir clea. 

10 a. nr<fvT to hunt for, to seek; qftwT 

&c. perf. 4|^^[f^dl P- ft. *r%Tfq^Td ff fnt. 

aor. ^ftw p.p. nT^fir?fT ger. 

4T|[ 10U. iTf^r to be thick, to enter deepy into; ir*7m ?r pre. 
TqTS^rT ^ &c. perf. 9T3mf ^tT Aor. 

*TT i A. to go ? irm pre. 3Tt perf. irmr p. fut. irr^it fat. 

con.' 3TTTW aor. iTTrer Ben, nrm&fr ^es. Can. 
pre. anaffnqqN ff aor. Pass. irr^rfT pre. 3TT?f^ aor. 

Tf 3 P. to praise; fsTOTm pre. ( Vedic. ) 

1 A. snffOTfS^qrhf?^^ to stand, to seek, to compose; 

pre. 5TOT^ perf. irn'V'en P, fnt. JTTfvrc^ fut. 3mmr? aor. 

mTvitrhr Ben. Pass. irrarft pre. 3firtf^ aor. Oqrf^wt des.. 

1 A. fcrfHM to 4ive into, to bathe, i^ir pre. sntTf perf. 

or n?r p. fut. nrf^r?T; ^r^ fat. 


Con. wrrife *nn* aor. nrfWte* *r$ft Ben. 

Can. rr5*rf?T-% pre. *nftT5^ ff aor. ins, irrf^r p.p. 

trftffT, or Tf$T g r . *III?$H 9 ITfJ in'. 

1 A: 3f3T% 5T^ *nft ^T to sound indistinctly, to go; 

pre. ^g% perf. ^tWT p. fat. ift^ fat. nftigiT COD. 

aor. ifrfhf ben. ^glRKt des. Oau. m^mS- 


6 P. 5^*^nf to void by stooij OTft pw. ^Tra perf. 

p. fat. QvcrA 1 fat. 3fgeq7j con. H^ft^ aor. ij3f p.p. 

1. P. &S& to hum, to buzz, ifftffo 9^^ pre. 

perf. ajgsfta^y H^fh^ Aor. 

6 P. ^t to protect; 55% p*. syifre" ( ^^f^vj 2nd pers. 
sing. ) perf. STOTfa Aor. 

lOU.miWWtto invite; to advise, to multiply; gonrr%?r 

p*e. yuH4|o^4CTT ^%r P''. SUffiRir P. fa*. ^Ulf^^lf^l fut. 

3K&u|(i)iq<l con. ^v^U|^ ?T aor. ^pjnrftqTff-a' des. 

10 U. ihB^ to cover, jto enclose^ 9037^--% pre. ar^^u^-rr 

Aor. ^ueP>^ffi ^ des. Also 1 P. &izfo pre. ^jrry perf. 

5ftW p.p. ( Generally with 177 ). 

I A. nfhflirn^ to play, to sport; ift^T pw. %&% perf 

3Tftl^ Aor. frf^fr p.p. 

1 A. to sport; ?ft^ pre. 355^Prf. iftAVT P ". ( the same- 

4 P. qftStesT to cover; 5Wft pre. ^ifh^ perf. 

9 P. ^% to be angry, &snfa pre. ( See the above root. ) 

1 P. TSrfr to defend, to protect, to conceal; irtqwA per. 

. perf. iftqrfirar, *fh?ar, fhrr P. fat. 
fut. ariuqnTT^, 3nr>^ aor. 
es. Oau. 

PM. frn^^ QCQf^ pre. Ji^TlfficT, OT P-P- 



1 A. f%?*Tqn* to censure, ^ygi^rfr pre. ^MH)*fe Prf . OT' 
P- fat/ ^Juf^^J/fc fat. 3T5>jf^r * or - ^ll^U^te Hen. 
-3jsc^rft pre. 

4 P. nn$<g% to be confnsed or disturbed; gcxrft pre. 
perf. iftf^TT p. fut. anjq^ aor. Oau.-^rqfS-^ pre. 
ff or. ^Qf^ffir, 4^IMV?d dee. gf^f p. p. 

lOU. itrnrrat^T^ ^ to speak, to shine; ifrq*fiH* pre. 
-^ parf . ift^Tf^nr p. fat. H^TT^-ff aor. 

des. iftftw p.p. 

6 P. jpSf to string together., 3^, 
P 1 "'. *ftftHl r <iP*cfr p. fat. sJHftlTltil, ST^^fh^ aor. 
Qffofifl p.p. <|f%cHI ger. 

( $srf^ ) 6 A. ^m^ to make an effort; &ft pre. ^jsfr perf. 

3i?m p. fut. sff^Tr fat. rofr*m con. ^Rfte Ben. *rofi* 

aor. Pass. 5^ pre. mtft aor. Cau.-ifftirft ft pra. 
H^JT^-tT aor. sraf^WT des. oft p. p. gj^p; inf. 

1 A. a^^nrt to play; ij^ pre. !J$*rr ft. 8?n^ aor. 

10 U. Q$^ to dwell; irf^fir-% per. HJni^U-^ &o. 
fat. 3Tic-fT aor. 

1 U. wt to cover, to keep secret; Iftm-ff pre. ^ijf OF 
or ift?T p. fat. ?rj5gtH-^, ^t^rtS-^ fat. 

V) arws-a- or ***& 

or 5 ben. ^prf%% des. Pass 
aor. an -Uf*rfo-%, 8T^f^-?T aer. ny p.p. 

4 A.ffcnrt'fr: to kill, to go; n^ pre. ^r^ perf. qJf^T P. 
fat. Hijjfo aor. ^i^^ des. qor p.p. 

10 A. ^TR% to make an effort; ij^jfrT pro. 3T^9^ aor. 

10 U. fjifr to praise; nfrrft-fr P'e. M^H^-ff Aor. 

1 P. %g% to sprinkle, to wet; ircfiii pre. gnjrf perf. iR|f p. 

fat. nrnfi Aor, 


1 P. sr^ to sound, to roar- imf^ pre. gnrsf perf. 
Aor. Cau.-ir&n?r% pre. STSTHZST^-tT, 3nfT&T;!T Aor. Also 
pre. 3Tqsf perf. ar^^fa; Aor. 

4 P. arfa^teRr** to covet, to desire; ^wra pre. snrS Pri. 

p. fat. STS^ aor . Ca 
-rT Aor. i%J?fSrtfiT des. q^[ p.p. 

1 A. g^ot to take, to seize; Tf^ pre. 5fq^ perf. 

p. fut. rfir3r, ^?r fut. ariTf|q > ?i-Mv^m con. 

Ben. STnf, 3T^Tff aor. f^finq% mf de^ Cau.- 

10 A jrfnfr to 8wzt, ^jf g^r pre. 

6 P. R^ot to swallow, to devour, to emit; fittffr or 

pre. 5THTT or STSTlcJ' pe^f . JlRrTT, iffar or qfRTT, TcfffTT p. 

fut. iri?**na-, irfi^fff or *i%iffir, *T3fTan%, fut. arwicr r 

. Orm?TfS or nTTT%^ des. Cau. 
r. Pass -ift^^ pre. grmfr or gmT% aor. 


9 P. ^TS^ to call out, to speak; ^rrf^ pre. ^TTT perf. 
iftm P. fut. nfrarfSr, ^T^rft fat. griTI^ aor. 

^ pre. snTriT^-tT aor. 
P. p. 

1 A. %g^ to serve; it^ pre. fSr*t% perf. s?TH^? Aor. 

1 A. grfo^raii* to ieek ; t^% pre. f%ift perf. %ft^% fut. 
9|9ti^e- Aor.irsorp. p. 

IP. fia^" to sing, to speak in singing manner- trrirft pre. 
m P. *nt. nwfS *nt. ^Hl^dL c <>n. ^n^ aor. 
n. finTT^T% des. Pass. fafrf pre. 3mrt^ aor. Cau. 

p^e. f5fhnrg:-?r aor. ifar p. p. ift^r ( with a 

preposition iprrtr..) ger. 

1 A. ^?n% to assemble; ifttf% pre. ^iftt perf. 3i*ftfS^ Aor - 


1 A. *|Q^ to be crooKea; tf*j^ pre. 5fa$| perf. tffw&WT p. 

fat. irfw^q% fat. 3nrf?sre aor. fsrarforo* des. 

pre. 3nrp*T aor. rf?sr?r p. p. 

9 P *r;^3 to put together, to fasten; ff^TTff pro. 
2nd sing. Impera. snr^T pe* f . vfSqCT P. fat, 

aor. freqrg; ben. Pass-ffwrfr pre 3Tflf^ aor. 
pre. 3T*Tr?^-<T aor. i$nTi?*rTto des. jrfsRT 

p. p. irRr?5rr, irf^Tcgr ger. 

10 U. ^?vi^, 3?3?T ^T to string together, to compose; 

&c. perf. u?jf^fTr P. fat. 

aor. ipvqrrri, TOrw^ ben. T%ir?srf^m-?r 

Also 1 P. !r re 3^c Aor 

1 A. 3|^% to swallow- ircKlr pre. 3f3T% psrf. ammT p. fat. 
nn%^ aor. qT%^f?^ ben. Can.-qr^nTl% ooly pre. 
Aor. nTSTTftfTaf des. i^r p. p. ufiff^r or q^*T ger. 

10 U. jr^oT to take; !TnEr<U-ar pre. 3UWTCra[ T Aor. 
9 U. *m%ft to take hold of, to seize; ^fipfiir, q^r pre. 
2nd sing. Impera. ^Tin?, 5f^ perf. jrft?!T P. f ut. 
rt f Q t. 8?? Hq aor. l TWm ben. 

% des. Pass. -^RT% pre. armft aor. 
pre. arr%!n r ^-?r aor. qtf<r p. p. jrfr^inf 
10 U. MTfl^t to invite; UTH^m ^ Pre. 
1 P. ^?nr^t JTifl- ^ to rob, to go; ifrenr P'e. %pfc* perf. 

P. fat. STlft^i:, Wt^aor. g^n^ ben. 

fd des. Oau. ^ft^iHff ^ pre. H^^^~?T Aor. 

i A. sf^- to take- i<t*& pre. *&&$[ perf. ^f^MJft fat. 
fT^jfTO Aor. J5J^r p.p. 

1 A. ^TT^R to take; j$yf ff pre. ^155^ perf. BT^fi^ Aor. 
1. P. KT<jqa<ui iHV ^ to steal, to 30; i<l*lf8 pre. 
perf. T^tf%f T p. fat. ?^F P. P. This root is the same as 
1 P. to go ; J^yeHd pre. ^^^^ perf. T^fom p. fat. 


1 A. ^r*fr $u<3 ^r to be poor, to tremble; igfrq^ pre. 
per*. Tnjj \| MJ n fut. 34Jm(uv Aor. 

perf. T^foarfr fat. srr&ft'ff Aor. 
l p . %ST^ ( IJ&ft vrqjsro: ) to be weary; JaNfft pre. 
ST*^ perf. TSJtflT P. fut. TgreTUT *nt. aT'cCT^ con. ^111^. 
Ben. a?Tonrgt aor - fsfitsrera des. Pass.-ToynT^ pw, 
aor. Can. T^yqrrfff-^r, 5JTqiTr%-^ pre. T5JR p. p. 

1 P. $*% to laugh, to mortify; ^nn^ pre. snrnr perf. 
snrr^^ Aor. 

! A 5%^niR to be busy with, to happen; 'ER^r P*e. 
perf. ^fScTT p. fut. 'En^uw ft. '?rf^^ ben. a^rf^r ax>r. 

, WCTT P. fut 
con. a^rrfir, ^rr 

aor. Rf^RT^r des. 

10 U. ^FfRt ^^rm ^ to speak, to collect together; 
, &c. perf. BT5fhr^-cT Aor. 

I A. ^55>r to shake, to touch; *rf^ pre. 5nsf| perf. '?r?IT p. 


10 U ^gy^r to stir, to disturb; ^j^r% pre. 8T3nr^r Aor. 

ii^gi*rTiS-?t des. 

10 ^ >iTmTOt to speak; quaqft-fr pre. n>HMUdd.-<T Aor. Also 

1 P. V^ P'e. ar^r^ Aor. 

1 P. to eat; qqfy pre. ar^ra: Imperf . gnrTST aor. 'q^TT P- f ut. 
^f^% fut. grtrc^i^ con. af^r^aor. ^T?Tff des. ^c p.p. 

1 A. irjut to take; f^ro^r pre. ^n%ot perf. ari%ioiire Aor. 

*This is a defective root and is very often used for the 
root ara\ It is conjugated in the Perf . as an optional substi- 
tute for a^. 


1 A. 3T*^ to sonnd , ^ffr pro. 355* perl, gnfte Aor. 

de8 - S?T p.p. 

1 A. <marfl^ to return, to exchange ; ftefr pre. ^y^r per*. 

31^, arotfro aor. iftfl p- p. 

6 P. tfihrut ( fCTT? ) to strike against; gsfft pre. ^fte 

( 3}gQ^ 2nd sing. ) perf. 3^<Jld Aor. 

6 P. to strike ; ^Q pre. ( the same as above ). 

6 P. %nTTfr to roll, to turn ronudj ^orf^ pre. ^vjlm perf. 

sftfadi p. fat. ar^itnftg; Aor. gfdnr p.p. 

1 A. HJTOir to roll, to whirl; ^Rt pre. ^ot perf. gnfH^ 

A. jjfot to take, to receive; 50-01^ pre. ^^uot pert 
p. fut. atgfoor? ao r - sPuicf P. P- 

6 P. ^iwnf^TS^ft; to be frightful, to sound ; gffif pre. 
perl ^tftTT P- fut. ^rft^ fat. H^tR^T^, < 

1 P. 3ffi^rs;^ ( ^r^ f f^r^r ) to sound, to declare ; 

P erf - ^tf^TT P. fat. mfWH% ^at 5^H^ ben. 

r - Oau. ^^nt% pre. sr^g^ aor. 
des. ^f^, ^rfor or 53- p.p. 

1 A. OTreTOHCT to be bright-, ^tq% pre. g^r perf 

10 U. rar$TS3% to proclaim aloud 3TT + f^=?f^^rnr^.to cry 
continuously; ^^rfir-^r pre. ^tqqio-TlcfciT-'TO &o- perf. 
P. fat. \rtsflui Q% ^t. 3i^T5-?T aor. gftr-fe p.p. 

4 A. f|^H^^|^i|: to kill, to become old ; ^ pre. 

6 U. OTof to move to and fro, to whirl ; ^Trn^T, ^jS^ 1 pre. 
, ^qJ Perf. ^fSrfiT p. fat. ^f$t*rft-fr fat. 


con. aj^oSfe aor. ^nffcqQ-fr dee. Pass. ^info pre. 
aor. Cau. 'gjforft-% pre. ar^of^-ff aor. ^ffar P- P- 

IP. %*g% & 10 U. TOratJj- ^T^T ^T to sprinkle, to cover; 
^m% & *TITm%% pre. 3TW, WITS^^TT &c. perf. 
*rr*fonT P. fut. snTRTg;, *3fT^-fT aor. *a, ^nftrf p.p. 

8 u - frHT to shine, to burn . gofrf^, wTl% & 
pre. 3!^rf, 5j^T perf. ^fSlfTF p. fut. V||oiim^% fut. 
anrffe, *Fgl, aor. fsrqrfoi^-^ des. ^ p.p. *jfor?*T, ^T ger. 

1 P. ?t^ ^T^lt^ to rub, to crush, to rival, ^Hm P'e. 
3re$ perf. ^nffor p. fut. ^rfts^ fut. srqffergt con. 
aor. ^JT^ ben. firqfW^ des. Pass. TOT^ pre. 

& ^T ger. 

IP. i?^Nnn^r to smell., nwm pre. ^nTr perf. srrar p. fut. 

ben. fsrsrreffT des. Paes. jrr^ pw. ami? aor. Cau. 
pre. 3Ti5TSr<T5:cT, aTf3TflnT?T ,-?T aor. ^m, Win? P-P. 

1 A ^T^[ to sound ; ?r^ pre. ^% peri far p. fut. 
aor. #iifte ben. des. 

1 A. ^ xrfJmi^ ^r to be satisfied, to resist; ^^ pre 
^TT%?TT P. fut. ^fomd fut. 3T^%r Aor. Oau 
pre. 3^fr^T^-?f aor. f^T||1H des. ^tfca p.p. 

1 P. 3*ft to be satisfied} ^fir pre. ^p^r^ perf 
lut. 3?xi^ , BT^T^ aor. Oau- ^^rr^-% pre. M^ 
dee. Pasa. ^rf^ pre. 3T^f%, 3i'3rT% Aor. 

2 U- 3fnft to shine, to b prosperous; ^^|Rff-^ pre. 

rifi c. perf. ^-^rftifTT P. fut. ^rmwrlr fut. 

con. 3T^r^T^fr^. 3R"^rf%?r aor. Can. 


aor. ^reiflm p.p. 

ger. ^^Ti%5^ inf. 
2 A. ^f^m *Ti% to speak, to tell, to say, ^ pre. 

^$r p er * <$*jifli; TOTRT p. fat. 

aor. *$<n<J|<l, ipfrlRi) Jjin 
ben. Can. ^7nroiff-?t, ^TFW/S-ff pre. 
aor. f^TT^fir% des. 

1 P. to go ; to jump; ^^ pre. ^Tf^r pert ^%^m p. fut 
aR^o^fi^ aor. ^f?3|<r P-P- 

,l P. gqfcwqt: to break, to cover-, ^reifT pre. 
p. fnt. 3T3r^ aor. Can. ^rjq"ft-? 

U. it^ to kill, to injure, to break; ^r^m% pre. 

, &c. per/. H<*Rl^> P- fat. sjdfqmft-% fat. 
con. aTrfNE^-?T aor. ^ft?r p.p. 

P. ^ i\ ^ to give; sgrom P'. 'g^TOT perf. ^-ftmT p. 
ut. STErtfTrT, HWfofVfi: aor. Oau. ^ropTm-n', firaflr^ffir dea. 
1 A. to be angry; ^737* pre. *?**% perf ^rfuTBT P. fat. 
^^fo^r aor. Also P. V^fff P". M^a/i^ aor. 

10 U. Tju^qi^-^ pre. ara^u^-ff Aor. Ri^u^^ffi-^ dec. 
1 U. q-r^^ to ask; ^r^ft-ft pre. ^r^fTf-^ perf . 
fut. 3T^T 3T^I? Aor. 

P- ff^rm to kill, ^Rm pre. ^5TR perf. ^Mccrffi fat. 


10 u - H5T^!Wt: to believe, to itfike; 
-?T Aor. 

l P. 3TT^ ^f A ^ to be glad, to shine., ^r^fit pre. 
perf. ^i^m P. fat. 3lfefH^ aor. fe-jPaqfa de, 

'"This root is defective in the Non-con jngational tenses. 
When it means 'to leave 7 it does not substitute 


I- P. srir*rt to console; ^ref^ pre. ^m pe*f. <*PhTT p. fat. 

% pre. f%r^fq<TT% des. 

' U. ilRtfecrift to grind; ^refif-% pre. Trmis^pC-^rifc pef . 

'^nfifcrc p. fit. aH-JNMfl-fr aor. 

r 10 U. to go, to move; ^Fqm%-% pre. f| 
perf. ^tqfttrr P. fat. 

W 1 P. 3*5% to eat ( with an to drink ); ^rwf% pre. 

p. ^l*c9T or 

1 A. to go- ^q^f pre. pperf ^^rrTT P- 

1 p. jj^ to walk ( with air to perferm ) ^nrr% P T e. 
perf. 5^rfttTT P. fat. ^rR^rft fat. gRxrR^g; COD. -^g; Ben. 
r. M^Rqfif des. Pass. ^i% P*e. ad^rft aor. 


10 ^, ^f5T^ to doubt; ( with ft, 8T^> to remove a douU ); 
^TT*n?T-% pre. ay-Jf^^-ff *<>r. 

1 P. trfbUquiUJmri^S, to abuse, to discuss; ^f^ pre. 
perf. ^f%TT P. fat. ^f%^^TI% fat. g^rf%q^ con. 
aor. ^f%<f p.p. 

10 U. 3TOT*R to read over, to study; 'sHpj'fr-iT pre. 
&c. perf. ^RfrTr P. fat. 3^^^-^ aor. 

1 P. 3T^T & 10 U. ^^rot to eat,, to chew ; ^^rt & 
pre. ^5rf & ^TToTT-^ perf. ^tTF & 

1 P. ^q^| to stir, to shake; ^^ pre. ^5n*ra perf. 
fut. 3Fsrrafa aor. Oau. ^^n%-% ( s *TOTTlr% ) pre 
aor. ^fgpfr p.p. 

6. P. Rtf^ to sport, to frolio; ^r^(% pre. ( see above for 
the other forms ). 


*r 10 U. j|ri> to foster; ^55^%-^ pre. ^TOTfo^STT^ &c. 
peif. 3?WTO5^ Aor. 

to eat. ^Ti%-?T pre. ^^^, %% perf 

1 P. & 10 U. <rfw?^r to .a wicked; ^51* & ^f*rf?r-?r pre. 


U. SHTFTJimsTOT: to worship, to ob3eive; ^rqft-^ pre. 

perf. ^rpRn p. f ut. ^rRiirf?r% fut. 

aor. Oau-^rq<jfff% pre. ^^^rzr^-^ aor. 

f% 5 U. ^j% to heap up, to collect; f%;frpr, T%g% pre. 
f^nr, f%?fq-, l%^> perf. %cTT p. ^. ^ir1 
con. 3T%rir^, 3T%?r aor. ^fnHfT , %<fte ben 
Pas?.-^ta pre. 3i^rft aor. r%rT p. p. f%?^T ger. 

ft- 10 U. to gather, ^snrffHt, ^Rm%-% P'e. 

P. & 10 U. 7^5^ to send out; 

&c. perf. %^T, %2fI?TT p. fnt. 

P. frqn^r to notice, to understand; %frf^ pre. f%%ar prf. 

p. fut. %raifr f^t. ^%rW^ra: con. 
ben. f%rf%faTfff, f%r%f?ni 

pre. 3T^tf%fl^-?T aor. Pass. 1%?^ pre. 3t%fif aor. 
P. P. f%Rf*rr & ^T%r^T ger. 

f%?r 10 A. ^HicTJf to perceive, to be anxious; %flir pre. 
f^RTcT Aor. f^^Tf^T^ ^es. 

10 U. f%^^ur 3T^fT^^ ^ to paint &c. ; i%5Qfff-^ pre. 
3T^rf%^g;-cT Aor. f%r%*fftruHt de?. 
1. P. tbink, (%cTft pre. f%{%T perf. f%ftar p. <u 
P. p. 
to tbink, to consider. Rram'S-^ pre. 


-^5F, &c. pert. f%fffinTr p. fut. 
& !%<ffirif? ben. Pass-f^Tff pre. Hf^for aor. f%ft?T P. P. 

6 P. q-^jf to put on clothes, to dres?. r%fft pre 

perf. %RRTT P. fut. 3T%gfh* aor. 

I P. srfiretr to become loose; f%grra pre. f^TST perf. 

%%?rr p. f ut. arfTrfra; aor. f%r%er P. p. 

10 U. l P. 3TTirfar to suff ar ; r^of^-?r, ^nFrlr pre. 


1 A. qp?^;r to boast, sfwr pre. f%^fr% prf. 

1 U. aTr^rTO^fnff: to take, to cover; ^r*f?r-jfr pre. 
% parf. ^ffirrTF p. fut. 3T^r^f^ & af^rfif? aor. 
10 U. HHTRTT 3fr?fir xf to speak, to shine; 

1 P. STfW^ to bathe; ^qf?l pre. ^^T perf. 
fut. atfh Aor. 

6 P. ^r ( f arf% ) to cat; ^ft pre. ^f* perf. rcfT p 

6F. **m (f?rf^) to conceal; ^-f^ pre. ^t* perf. 
^fjTffT p. fut. 3^ jr^ or. 

10 U. 1 P. ^"^ to cutj ^gjirft^, ^(Idld pre. 

10 U. ^%r^> to direct, ta tnrow; ^r^nff-fT pre. 

c. parf- ^r^ftffr P. fa*. %l$fimfft-ft fat. 

con. a*^5<-<r aor. ^f^iWlr-ar de8 ^rf^cT p. p. 

1 P. *^r*TT Tar to move slow^ s ^tqf?f pre. ^iw perf. 
P. fat. M^w?j aor. .^.f^nTi des. 

1 P. 9qp9ff<Tnt to kiss; 5^f?r pre. ^^^^ psrf. ^fHWf p. 
fut. H^f l? x aor. xr^^fgr dee. ^^?T p. p. 


^*^ 10 U. fttfFTTH to kill ; ^f^rra% pre. 

perf . ^rre<rr p- fat. 3*33*^ a r - ^fo* p. p. 
^ 10 U. ^^ to steal or rob, to take- ^Rgf?r-?T pre. 

^R-^ff, &c. perf. ^ff*%IT p. fut. ^rrErqT*HT fat. 

aor. ^RrraL, ^tTmT^ ben. ^xrma'Tnt-Jt des. Paas. 

g^rf* aor. ^tf*<T p. p. ^TTTOcSTT ger. 
5?5 10 U. fr^'B^T to raise . ^r^^-% pre. 
% 4 A. tfr to burn ; *gfe pre. ^r perf. sr^ffe Aor. ^ p. p, 
U. "^TOT, ^C^M'H to reduce to powder, to contract; 

&c. psrf. ^uif^frr p. fut. 

fat. 3Tfpfrq^^-?T ou. a^pijifo--^ aor. ^roirT p. p. 
1 P. <n> to drink, to suck ; ^rrff pre. ^^5 perf ^<Tr p. 
fat, 3Tffr^ aor. 'g^r^ri^ des. *n p. p. 

6 P. fjmir^qr^.* to hurt, to kill, to connect .; 
perf. s^rftfTf p. ft. 5?^^firT aor. 

10 U. ^2fn% to kindle; ^rnf?r-% pre. ^rqirr^^^rT-^flF &c. 

perf. ^ftdl p. fat. ST^STT^-rT, 3F^r<fej-rT aor. Also 1 P. 
^qfa pre. SR'lffr aor. 

^l P. ^y?r to move, to go ; %^r% pre. f%^ perf. %f&aT 
p. fut. 3T%WT^ aor. 

1 A. %CT^t to stir, to make efforts 5 %CT pre. f%%f? perf. 
p. fat. %fe*r% fut. 3?%r%^ aor. %[%fr? Ben. f%%- 
des. Cau.-%?q-rff pre. 3TfV%^[, 8?^%?^ Aor. Pass.- 

. %ffe<T p. p. 

1 A inft- to go, to drop down ; ^q-^r pre. 
p. fut qT^ fut. 3^lt aor. x7Cfr? ben. 
^^frrdes. xjcTp. p. 

1 P. arrir^r to flow, to drop down; ^fi?fi% pre. 
perf. ^fn%rfr P. fat. niW<VRT fat. H^g?!^, ST5?fi?T?^ aor. 
ben. Cau-wrffm%% pre. H^5^-?T aor. 

, frftf^rfir des. ^5?^, ^ftmer P. p. 


1 U. 8TT^n^?r to cover ; ^[<t% pre. ^^|$, ^xgr^ perf 

p. fut. ?^^Tct., 3rei<iq;, sr^Qvi aor. M^- 

-?T des. TO p. p. Pass, g^, par. s^Slf^ aor. Oau.- 

10 U. to conceal j ^r^11%-^ pre. OT^TTSxr^-^fr, &c. perf. 

p. *ut. 3Ti%5^g--?T Aor. 


1 P. 3T^% to eat ; &t\% pre. ^^m perf. ^ffldl p. fut. 
iMJItfta aor . ^T^?T p. P. yfftf^ll, ^r*ri(| ger. 

to vomit; ^na-% pre. ^iTr5xr^r^-^^ perf. 
%^^-?f aor. T%^^f^T[^%des. ^f|^ p.p. 

7 U. %vgfi^?ot to cut, to mow ; f&tft & f^% pro. f%x^f, 
perf. ^rVT P. fut. %r^rf^-^ fut. aidHqfrcT con. 
Ben. 3rf^^^? Sf^d'^'h^ & 3TT%^T aor 
% des. )%^ p. p. 

10 U. M3{% to bore; f^OTn*% pre. aTf^rr%{f c^-cT Aor. 

to put; j^ pre. 
p. ut. 

P. 5pr$ to touch. |prf?r pre. ^x^T perf . ^ftrr P: fut. 
fat. 35>con. ^Tttfi aor. 

6 P. ^r^ ( f ?lf? ) to intermix, to cut ; grflr pre. 
perf. ^f?^ ^t. 3^f?Tat Aor - ^ !S ^^ de *. 
I P. & 10 U. $rft to kindle; ^$^, rf%-?t pre. 


7 U. ^KS^raft: to shine, to play, to vomit; 



aor. t*j|<, ttf*U? & 


10 U. Stfta*of to divide, to cut; $*qm-?* pre. 
arf^d^-cf Aor. 

4 P. ^^ to out; ^rffr pre. ^^T perf. 3TcTT P. fat, 
fat. 3^ffK*7^ con. 3^53T^, 3T5*n-tffc* aor. fH^mf^ des. 
fir?T P- P. ^Tf5TT> fe^rr ger. Paas.-^n* pre: ^^|(^ aor. 

P. ^TTfH?T^t: to eat, to consume, to laugh, 5TT%iS 
T3W^ 3T3T^ff^, imperf. 3nr$T perf. oTWITT p. fat. 
fat. 3nr%^?i; con. an^fr^ aor. 3T$qr^ ben. CaD. 
pre. anmsT^ aor. i3nn%^f% ^es. ^%ff p. p. 

1 P. 3% to fight., 5T*Tnr> snsir'S pre. ^nrnr> sfinff prf. 


1 P. ^rfit to clot, to become twisted; 5T?i% pre. 

3ffl<TT p. fat. 3T^f^> BT^TRfr^. aor. 

The same as above. 

4 A. 3H5n% to be born- 5Tm% pre. 5T^t perf. Tn^ffT p. fat. 

fat. 3T^f^rnr con, anr^-ann^ aor. 3ff5^ ben. 

f^qirT des. Pass. 3Tm or 5TnTrT pre. gra^ Aor. Oau.- 
pre. 3T5fT5R^ aor. fHMI^^ des. ^mr, tfsT^r, srf^rT 
ger. 5TT?f P. P- 
1 P. WtBWf ^Tl% IH5T& ^ to mutter; 5TTft pre. sfnTTT perf. 

grftrfT p. fat. sTftwror fat. ^^ffmd. con. 3^1^, tnrrfr* 

or. gr^TT^ben. f5T3Ti^TI des. Pass. sre^ pre. arorft aor. 

Oau^-5rnwrj?r-^ pre. adrfjsf^-ff aor. ^n^ p. p. 

1 A. iH^rfirTT^ to yawnj 5W?f pre. 3T3T^ perf. 3TTWT p. 

fat. (Snrfnre aor. 3T^^ ben. fnri**rot d 

^rf% pre. a?3T3T*H^ aor. Pa89.-<3T^, aR[3nT aor. 

1 P. 8?^ to eat; 3THI^ pre. 5nT!T perf. snftm p. fat. 

ifhr aor - n?!i p. p- 

H. S. G. 39 


1 P. 10 U. ;rrcft to destroy; Sfwrfo, 5Tinn%-% pro. 
&c. perf. arsTwfjg;, anr^nrg; Aor. 

1 P.- ^TlrR to be sharp. gr$rf% pro. 3HTT^ra[ Aor. 
10 U. amndr to cover, gfT5nrfS% pre. mil^g^ Aor. 
P. bOTfcWJ srrfe 1 to murmur, to prattle; sreror pre. 

perf. *rf5<raT p. fut. gfrf^n^ fat. irarfiqani COD 
aor. f*rai?q<n% des. Paes.-^ar% pre. 3T3f^T aor 

1 P. ff^nrr to hurt, to kill; 3T^f5f pre. 5nrr* perf. srf^fir P. 

4 P. jfteTdr to set free- srernt pre. 5nrrfT perf. 3TT%cfT P. 
aor. 5T^f p. p. 

10 u. i P. frnrf ar^r ^r to hurt 


&c. srerrcr perf. ^r^f^cTT, STT^IIT p. 


10 U. 1 P. ?$r&T jfr^ot ^T to protect; to release; 
3fam pre. ^^nf^-rf, 3T3TOT5 Aor. 
2 P. f^ffT^TQ' to awake; 3ffrf?T pre. snTTTTC-TT & 
perf. STTHfTfTT P. fit. snw^fff fat. 

aor. ^rrT?Tr^ ben. f^gnirt^Tfit de*. Pass. 
pre. 3T4TTirTft aor. C*u.-3nnnrni-ifr pre. 5mTK?T p. p. 

1 P. 3T^r 3riw> ^ to conquer; swfif pre. ftm* perf. 
p. fat. 5H?n% fat. g?^T^ con. 3T^?r^ aor. ?fhn^ 
des. Can. 3Tmffr-% P*e. 3f3fr3Tq^-cf aor. 

^3Tfa freq. t%pr p. p. fir?^T ger. %^int 
P. sfmi^r to please; fs&wfo pre. ^rnr^perf. snft^fta; Aor. 
i P. 10 U. vnrnrt to speak-, M^M, ^nvirft pre. 

&c. perf. fsii^ir, fSF^ftcTT P- fn 

* It is Atmanepadi wLen preceded by % the prepositions 


1 P. ir$r5t to eat; irm% pre. ftnm perf. a^rfr* Aor. 

P. to kill; ftrftomTir pre. ( Vedic ). 
1 P. *N% $*^ <% to sprinkle, to serve; ^fR pre. 
perf. irfau p. fat. ^irr^ fat. 3T^fa; aor. 3*nvTrT, 

1 P. srr*rtJK$r to live; gffakf pre. fsrsn* perf. sftroTT p. fut. 
int. 3nTTT9Pnjcr COD. 3nfhffa[ aor. Pass.-^frsir^ pre. 
aor. Oau.-^fr^^-^ pre. zftfifti ger. sfff^jn inf. 

6 P - ( fCTft ) V^T> to tie up or bind; ^ft pre. 

6 P. inft to go; ^37% pre. 3Tfff#T?x; Aor. 

1 A. *rm^ to shine; ^r<tfr pre. ^Tf^WT^ fut. ^T^fn%^ Aor. 

6 A. sFrfn%^5rfV: to like, to enjoy; ^q?f pre. ^% per 

p. fut. 3nfff% aor. Pasa.-^^a- pre. arenft aor. 

irfS-?r P'e. af^^MT aor. ^fnTOT, ^^fr??T des. ^y* p.p. 

1 P. & 10 U. qR?T*ar ^RrT^ot ^ to think, to examine, to be 

satisfied; sfrrof & ^nmm-^ pre. ^5TT^ & ^TT^irna^TT-^iff 

perf. ^frfcr, ^r^f^rTT P- fwt. 3r*T<ftcr & 3r^^-?l aor. 

-W des. ^ p. p. 

4 A. fJhrreq'rfT^r. to kill, to grow old, ^tf* pre. 
perf. 3T^|R^ aor. 

1 P. fifaret to kill. *tft pre. 3r3JTfa[ Aor. 
1 A. JTTSrftrfRr, to yawu; gjwi^r pre. 3nj^T perf. ^f^mr p. 

fut. nfriwer fut. 3T3fr*re aor. Rnrf*i^ff des. *i*w p. p. 

^3T 4, P. ^frfTsTr to grow old. sfroft pre. ^inT perf . 5TKfft or 3Tff- 

^ p. fut. 3TK*QrriT, 3Tfr^rf?r, fut. ^^HU^ , anrfrni^ con. 

. Cau. STOrfcrft pre. Pasfl.-gfrqft pre, ^ftof p. P 


gj I & 9 P. to wear out, g^ffr- sromfft, pre. gnff* perf . 

p. fat. anrKhj- aor. Cau.-3rre*rra% pre. 

10 U. to grow old; 3TTTm<H* pro 

perf. STRfifrfT p. fat 3T^TT^-rT aor. iQMKftqfa-fr des. 

1 A. to go ; 5R7T pre. fsrift perf. ;r?<fT p fat. ar^ft? aor. 

1 A. snrr jiRft ^r to try, to go; ^ pre. faSffr perf. 

p. fut. 3|iHf7 aor. 

1 P. ^ to decay; srnrfir pre. 3nft pe?f. grnn p. fat. 

aor. |<4ld, ben. fn^H^ft des. 

10 U. ^rrar 5m% ^ to know, to cause to know, to see, to 
please; ^rmft-ft P*e. 5n*TC9CTr-^r&, &c. perf. ^rtrfafr p 
fnt. 5rri5q^r% fat. 3f5Trftrs-?T c n- 3rfif^rr^f aor. 
-^ dee. Pass.-srfq^ pre. gr^, gn^nft aor. ^reff, 
p. p. 

9 U. 3TTOta% to know; 3TRnS, STTsflfr pre. gf^ft, 5rfr perf. 

^rnrr p- ftit. ^rrf^rfft-w ^ a 

aor. 5fnrr^, ^n^ ^mfm ben. 
^rft-% & ^nnn'S-if (in the sense of ' to gratify, "to slay or to 
cause to see, ) pre. 3inqTT^ ?T aor. Pass.-^rnnf pre. 
or. ^nsn inf. ^TTRrr ger. STRT p.p. 

10 U. froftr to direct; 5rnrinS% pre. 

p fat. 3n<rfoQui-?T fat. Pass ^rrcq^. ^n^ p.p 

9 P. ^5Rr to become old; t%m% pre, nr^ perf. 
p. fut. ggTWTff fat. 3THHW5 con. ai^nfft^ aor. sffiTRt ben. 


pre. gfrr p.p. 5ft?fT ger. 

33 1 A. to go ; vpr^ pre. ^53% perf. ^ff^T p. fat. 3^?tfc aor. 
f^r 1 P. 3tr 3?nm> ^ to conquer, to defeat. OTfir pre. 

perf. ^f|T Pr fut. ari^fta aor. 

7% 10 U. *ift*TJV to become ol<j ; vnnmr-^ pre. 
c. perf. ^ 


1 P. ^- to be hot with fever or passion; s^HM pre. 
perf. vRftm p. fat. v?9KqT% |at. STy^r^-. aor. 0*u - 
aor. fosTft^ft des. STO} p. p. 

1 P. qfhft to bum, to glow, Scr^r* pre. 3T5^y perf. 
P. fat. v?tf&lfd fat. 3^|<;fiq; aor. Oan.-^^^M-^T, 

( with ST-iT??rgprf?t% ) pre. fsr?*/OTm des. vprf^rT p. P. 

1 P. ^rrer to be collected or matted together; 

1 P. 3r^ to eat; ^mer pre. ^TRrTf P. fat n ^^m^ Aor. 
1 P. fffaro-n* to kill; fr^ pre. 3TSTNT P crf - *n^T p. fat. 

1 U. 3Tr^T^^fonTr: to take, to put on, to conceal; 

pre. 5T5rnr, STSPT perf. ^rfqm p. fat. 


4. 9. P. ^ff^RV to become old; sfrfR, ^OfTm pre. 
perf. 5rff cTT, |m?TT p. fat. 3T5rrff^ Aor. 

1 P. 10 U. to bind, to tie ; ?g:f^, 3T|^f^-% pre 

TT- 1 ^ &o. perf. arf^fTT> 7g : T%fTT p. fat. 
aor. 2-f|pf p. p. 

1. P. IrS'S^r to be confused; j^fS pre. ^51 perf. 

1 A. to go, to move; %^ff pre. fil%% perf. %T%rn P. 
aor. Oan.^^rfir-% pre. 3Tri%^rr-fT aor. 

1 U. ^r to throw, to send; %<nrnr-?r pre. 
perf. %trft?TT p fat. an^T^-cT aor. 


1 A. to go, to move; tf$% pre. &$% peif. 

aqafiifc aor. Tfn%q^ des. 

1. A. to go, &$( pre. greif%S Aor. 

10 A. 3m% to gather, to heap; ^TT^ft pre. <SIMm>^* perf. 

CTTfoar P. fut. 3T^te<Tar aor. 

10 A. ^% to throw, to send;**^-^ pre. 

, perf. s*^1%T p. f^t. sn^n?r-% f ut. 3?^r?5^-cT Aor.. 
4 P. $ft to throw? |%c^i^ pre. T%%q perf . %ft?Tr p. f ut. 

10 A. ^Kn?t to gather; %q^[ pre. %qq|o.^& perf. ^m^dl p. 
fat. Hglfeqa aor. 

1 A. fi^T^raT Tcfr to fly, to go; ^rcr pre. ft^j- perf. 
p. fut. 5TRTq^ fut. 3^Rr^ aor. f^fr^ BOD. O 
ar, ^#nnrqL-?T Aor. |%5rf^^ dee. ^{^RT, ?& (with ^5) p. p.. 

4 A. to fly, to goj ^i^r pre. f%^ perf. ^ffa p. p. For other 
forms see 1 A. 

10 u - to throw U P; <t^l94lf pre. tt9WI9Vin^-^fr perf.. 
P. fit. 3?"5J^-<f aor. 

1 A. JTcft to go, to approach; ^^ pre. ^r% perf. 

p. fut. A%s^ fut. an^fJs apr. 

% pre. Sljiri^-rf aor. ^frfiqW des. 


1 P. TO^T fr5^ ^ to laugh, to bear-, agnlf pre. a?u^ perf. 
T%rTT P. f at. 3TH^, 3TrT[^ra[ aor. m%?T p. p. 
1 P. ^g% ( f^^R WTot ^^Tq^ ^ ) to conceal, to pare- 
perf. a%3T P- ft. 3T?T^fi^ Aor. 


1 P. |I3$TO} to pare, to cut; ^ft, flfamiir pre. ( belongs 
to 5th eonj. optionally in the Conj. Tenses ) jflfgr, P 61 *- 

m%rTf P. fut. CUSTOM, <r$^fo fut. 3T<rsfr^ aor. ?rsnrft ben. 
re p p. m%rTT, a^T ger. 

1 P. ircYTfCT?* 3>*R ^ to go, to stumble, to shake; 
pre. *a^ perf . *fif<n p. fut. arasftq; aor. jf^f p. p, 

P. to go ; 
aor. <TrE p. P. m^^r^T, cT^?^r ger. 

P. ^cjvreH to contract, to shrink; a;n% pre. ffa^^r perf. 
P- f Qt - cf^^na 1 , rlf^q7% fut; 

name as 

1 P. S^T^ to grow j ?RTm P'e. atTf? perf. ff^T p. fat. 

U. 3?TVT^ W?r^lt ^ to beat ; an^m-^ pre. 

&c. perf. dlgpJHI P. fa 
aor. Pass. HT^T^ pre. fi%?T P. P. 

A. aT^?f to beat; <&& pre. ?nrt perf. ?rft^ffT p. **. 

8 U. f%flTK to spread, to go- ?Rtfiir,?fg% P'e. eT?TR, 
JfRffT P. fat. ?fHsqifr% fut 
or. T^TTr & HM'fr? ben 

des. Pass. a^z & aro?t pre. 3TfTlM aor. Cau. 
pre. 3mhT^-?T aor. rT?T P- P. fTHf^F, cfW go*. 

IP. 10. U. rtrq^TOT^: to believe, to subserve j 
pre. 3C?Rr^, 3fTT5fr^, HfflWT^-f Aor. 

A. ^^\3TRot to support, to govern; inxrik pre 
perf. ^cw?5|?f Aor. mcf?srf^?t dee, 

IP. ^Rtr^t to shine, to heat; ^fff pre. ffffn, per*. 


p. frit. Mdictfffr aor. aujia; ben. fcamft des. Pass. cfeqfc 
pre. SfrTfT aor. Can. cTmift-^ P*e. wfhTT^-rT aor. <nf P. P. 

4 A. ^r^ to rule, to be powerful ; fluff* pre. aft p*f. 5IHT 
p. fat. ffC^rTf fut. 3M<-{qd con. 3TrTff aor. rfc^r? ben. <re p. p. 

10 U. to boat ; JTTTirfff-?* pro. mMMI^^R-^SR &c. perf. 

4 P. qn^nif %^ ^ to be anxiou8, to be fatigued ; 

pre. tffTW porf. rfmfTT P. fut. fffasirfn f Q t. 3I?Tm^^ con - 

3TtTg[ aor. frrr?r p. p. ff^f^T & rT^^T ger. 

1 A. to go ?nflr P'e. a% perf . cTfoff T P. fit. arafire aor. 

10 U. ftfT% to guess, to suppose, 
g->T, &c. perf . xkffctt p. fat. ?f 
con. aTtftT^-rT aor. rfr%rT p. p cr 

1 P. Ts&ffo to threaten, to menace ; a 3? fif pro. ?T^ p'f. 
p. fit. rTf9ran?r fat. SKfflnarg; con. 3l<nTrfi; aor. 

P. P. 

10 A. ^r?^ to blame; ff^^ pre. ^ jm^& perf. 
p. fat. aKHCTff aor. tTm?r P. P. 

IP. fr^nrt to kill, to hurt; ff^fff pro. <r?r perf. cT^ 
p. fut. aPKtffoaor. 

10 U.snflSTTt to establish 

4 P. aq^fr to be decreased ; rTFTm pre. 3^^^ Aor. 

1 P &. 10 U. St&gror to decorate, to assume . ?ffn% 

pre. cT^H, PTfnrni^K ^ pert rffffar, TOftffT P. ft. 

l A. KdHmmul: to spread, to protect; 
perf. cnfttlT p. fat. armfTO, 3fimT aor. Cau. 
pre. 3TH?TrTq:-cT aor. 


I A. to go; a^ pre. >r%cTT p. fut. vfafc? aor. 

5 P. 3U*E^ *3r ^T to attack; fa-j^ffif "pre. fifiro perf, 

P- ut. aur; aor. 

5 P. to attack; ffrsfrifT pre. faffHT perf. kfartt p. fut. 3 

5 P. fJ^TTin to hurt; i%^nff pro. f?fa^ pcrf. 

1 A. OTnir ^ to endure, to suffer with courage; 

pre. fafasrnpnrar porf. mmi%?fr p. fn^. ftfaw*ra fut. 

aor. ftnirgTTOT ben. mfin^r?^ ties. Cau.-f^r- 
-k. When it means to sharpen ( R5TR ) fTHW pre. 
3T^f%^ aor. 

10 U. M^TT% to whot; ?TT^Tff% pre. fTimFTWK'^'sf; Prf. 
%^TRcTr P. fut. 3TcfTm^?T-ff aor. 

1 A. ^dr to drop dowu, to sprinkle; ^q^ pre. ftfflft perf. 
P. f'lt. ffc^ fut.^jr^g^ con. fiirc^iq- ben. -tffmr aor. 

P. 3*15?*^ to be wot; ftwrnT pro. f^fTBT per/, ^rfffff f p. fat. 
3?^RT^aor. |%RrWTI?r, fJfaWTfff des. f^fTTfT p. p. 

1 P. iTfTf to go ; hc5lff pro. mffgr perf. iffgRff p. iut. 

6 P. & 10 U. to be oily or unctuous; f^rffr, rf^dfR-^ pro. 

hcyqTv^^rf-^r &<- perf. afaRTT, H$rf^<rr p. fut. 
, ancfrfdcJrf -ar aor. 

1 P. to go. fa&fo pr. 3?fer?f(^ Aor. 

I A. to go; jfr^ pre. fffai$perf mr%cTT p. fut. 3Km%^ aor. 
4 P. ief5| to be wet, ?fpPf ft pre. anftifk Aor. 
P. *$1& to be fat. R?^ pre. ftrfhr perf. mf^c^F p. 



2 P. irfiUrf%ft*TS to go, to *row, to kill, <ftm, <rftf?f P'e. 
3?TT* perf. ffn p. fnt. ?ft*n fut. arai*^ COD. amHjqr aor. 

1 P. nNroTO to kill, to hurt; ^Tff P re - 3^^ perf. jfif^mr 
p, fut. ararjfr^ aor. 

1 P. siTirut fsNrTOT r ^r to reach, to kill, to be powerful; 
glfiir pre. 35^ perf. gftmr p. fut. SR^r?^ aor. 

3% go^: 10 u - f^T5r5yT^T^R%r!^f to kill, to be strong, to live- 

^f^ia-ff pre. ffrsrmo^r^R-^^. &c. 

, &c. perf. cTFHf^cTT, g^f5?Tr P. 1^. 

$ 6 P. ^Wf^RIOT ( ^Tl^ ) to quarrel, to cut-, g?r% pre. 
perf. gfereTT p. f nt. 3?g?hi aor. 

9f 1 , 6 ( f 7T^ ) p - at5% to tear, to killj at^m, g^ pre 

1 P. 3?rrT^> to mortify; g|rf?T pre. 3igf r^r Aor. 

6 P. ^h%^ to curve; goifff P^. gmnr perf. efffuraT p. 
31^nif[fr aor. 

sj 10 U. 3Tnrc<jt to cover; g?i?im-^ pre. angg^rT-ff Aor. 
6 U. sq^gft to strike, to wound; g?fm-ar pre. 
perf. atwr p. fut. a^qiA-^ fut. a?^r^T^-?T con. 
* 3*gTT aor. 3?TiiT-^|rr^ ben. ggr^m-ff de 
pre. 3Tcfif^ aor. Oau -^f^qrf?T-% pre. ar^Sfr^rT aor.g^T P. P 

1 P. to search; 5??f?T p r e. gg^[ perf. gi^cfT P- fit. 

1 & 6 P. ft^t^ to kill; <rnrfiT, grifT pre. g?ft<i perf. 
p. fut. 3RU<ffar, aor. 
It 6 P. ff?=rnU to kill, see the above root; anifr &c - 

A. f^rrqt to kill. ^H^ pre. argT?T, 3*<rrftre Aor. 

&9 P. to hurt, to kill; gvgTff, gv*cm pre. gat^ perf; 
p. fut. 3ig(4) a^ftg; (9) aor. 


1, 6. ( See g<r , 5^ above ) gwnft, gwfffr pre. 

1 P. $% to hurt, to give pain; gHTT% pre. 
Also 10 U. 

S 3P.*f3rtomake haste; gtftfS pre. g<rfr perf . <ftftm p. 
fut. smtfra; aor. ( Vedio ) 

t 1 P. ff OTCrn* to kill, to hurt; gsf/ft pre. gq^ per/, qfim P. 

10 U. ?ynM to weigh, to examine; (Ttetlffr-ft pre. 

perf. ?Tr^r5<TT P. fat. cfro5f5T^-^ fut. 

Ben. ^55^^ aor. Pass. ^rfr pre. 
Aor. a'ffOTP. P. 

4 P. ^eV to be pleased or satisfied; g^rm pre. gtTfa perf. 
t?r P. fut. r$*rifT fut - 3T^tWgL con. 55^^ ben. 3T3^or. 
Can. m^gf^-% pre. STcjg^-rT aor. 55^?% des. Pass. 
3*ft pre. 3mtft aor. g^ p. p. gf ger. m^^ inf. ' 
1 P. to sound; ?fftrfr pre. gafrr perf. fftr%TT P. fut 

IP. art^T^^ to torment, to kill; cfafa pre. 
3Tnfr^ Aor. 55-^ r -i%q% des. 

10 A. ^ut to fill up; ^orgar pre. wg^cT Aor. 

4 A. ^faf^mff ^nft: to go hastily, to kill; <gfa pre. 

perf. g;ftr p. fut. ar^ft* aor. 5^^ d. 

1 P. f^c^r to determine the quantity or weight of; 

pre. gfgrorM fut. 3?(j5?r^ aor. 

1 P. to go; SST,% pre. fff 5T perf. ^fwTr p. fat. 3TJ$fr^ aor. 

5^TT^ ben. 

8 U. mfr to eat ; roffrff ; ?r^ar, 901^-90^ P re - 
perf. fffSrwr p. fut. luaTunlr i f ut - ^aorf 

aor. fiftrionm% des. ^ P- P. ^fiff^l, ^T g er - 


% 7 U. ftUMKfMT: to destroy, to disregard; gor%, ^p% pre. 
perf. fff^fT P. 'at. qflsqfi-ft, ^?^n^-% fat. 

COD. 3T$^, srarcfr^, araffe aor. <jrrnj> 

ben.. (defiant, fftgrtyffi dee. avar p. p. 

4 P. tgfy to become satisfied; rrwrter pre. <*?!$ perf. 

, 5r<iT p. fat. 

eo. ntarmfS, m<% des. 

aor - ^r P. P. 

P. sfrow to be pleased, to please; ^sfn% pre. ?T?^ perf. 

P. fut. amfrg: aor. <prr^ ben. forffara, m^^r1& dee. 

P. p. cfffer ger. 
6 P. to be pleased, to please; $<n% pre. ( for other forms 
see above ). 

1 P. &. 10 U. g^^qfr 5 * to be satisfied, to light, to 
kindle., <tft%, arfaid-fr pre. ?r?rf, dfa>5-^^l<-^T^; &c. perf. 

p. fut. 3icrir^, nni^Err wft^ra-ff aor. 

P. P. 

P. sfh%, to please; ^(%, ^P^rm pre. 3Trnfot- 
r - 

9 P. sfrorfr to please; ^RrS P'e. ^fwr^rS fat. ^^qlg; aor. 
4 P. RqRTTHi^ to be thirsty; %*uft pre. <ra* perf. afocfT p 
fut. ffT%qrfS iat. 3jm5ra; con - ^^ aor. |wng; ben. 
Cau. ?mf^-^ pre. ar?TT^^^-?r Hfffl^-T aor. m^f^ft 
des. <nr p. p. $ft^T, <fftr^r ger. 

6 P. f^TT^f to kill, to hurt; 35^ pre. ?RT perf. ?fft?frj jf^r, 

p. fat. aYi^TriT, <w??r f at. 3T?rera;, ^g; aor. 

des. Cau. (see the next root). <%$ p. p. 

7 P. to injure, to kill; ^ilr pre. ffTf porf . affccrr p. fut. 
fut. ^dfi^l con. aTcfh aor - 


Oau. ?r*rra-^ pre. 3<dd?fo-<T wft^^-?T aoi. Pass., 
pro. 3m$ aor. ^ffiT p. p. tn??*T ger. mtgn inf. 

6 P. to kill ; <jsm pre. ajf perf. ^rftfTT, ^ST P. ft. ^ 

t. 3T?jYrac, atctriEsft* aor - isns ben - fi^rfir, firt- 
<*es. ff: J inf. 

1 P. $FRctTnft: to cross over^to swim; ?rrm P'e. 
pe'f. rff%r, rTTfrTT P- fut. ?TRnf^, ?rftin'S fut. ^rnfl^ aor. 

rffan^ ben. f^m^rer, f^fft^m, mcffrrm dee. ?nor p.p. 

ger. Pass. fftirW pre. ?ft perf. mf^TT, aKtTT & ?m?TT P- 
gUcHK aor. mrfT^^, TRfh2:> & ?Mfe ben. 
pre. 3T<fm* ^-fT Aor. 

1 P. RSTM ^I5JH ^ to whet, to protect! ^H^- pre. 

perf. ^nTrrr P. f ut. 3^3ff^ aor - 

1 A. ^rrot ?pwt ^?fr ^ to drop down, to shake-, aqft pre. 

m?ft perf. ^fqrcTT p. fnt. vfafov Aor. 

1 A. "^rjf to play ; Jfcfa pre. 3?^? Aor. 

1 P. ^RT to abandon ; <q*ifo P'e. cT^rnT perf. f?npf p. 

COD. 3Tf^ffl aor. HTvRrn ben. Oao- 

pre. 3T?q7nT aor. Rr?F P. P. HT^^r ger. HJ^H inf. 

1 A. to go ; =r|Pff pre. cf5r|: perf. ^ff cTT p. fat. 3^^ aor 

,5i^ 1 P. to go ; 

^iSdr-^TfcTT p. fut. 

1 P. to move- snpft pre. c^F P^ef. ^1%?TT P. 

1 A. 5J3iHTf to be ashamed ; ^q^ pre. W5f perf. 
p. fut. 5rfq**I%, ^^^5RT fnt. 3?5ifq5iTcT, ai^cwar con. 

aor. 5jmh?, Sfctfrc ben. Oao. 

. m5fN^ des. SCR p. P. 


1 & 4 P. 3**t to tremble, to fear, s^riff, srwft pte. 
perf. sifiraT P. fat. 3n%cvft fafc. a*5rftf*Ta[ con. 

srofni; aor arcing; ben . Pd8? . swff pro. 31311% aor. 

Cau. =nrcnriS-?t pro. ajffcr^-a aor. fiNfTOTRI cles. 
p. p. *fffrrr ger. arm's** inf. 

10 U. ir^ot ^r?ot gr*<fr ^ to take, to hold, to oppose ; 

pre. airnTT>^T*-^ &c. perf. ^rr^rfimr p. fut. 


1 P. 10 U. *TTrgt to speak; sftrrTT, 4wA-?t P'e. 

fiff 1 P. to go } ftgft pre. |%nrf perf. farff T p. tut, 


P. ^% ( f^rf? ) to tear, to break., f gq-f^ pre. gpjfe 
f f%cTT p. fut. f i%s^ fufc. 3^ JRJ; aor. f ^n?T ben. Can. 
^CTTrf-sr pre. ^^farg-cT aor. .gfr%*ft des. Pass. 
pre. 3Tafn% aor. jr?cT p.p. jnfjfSTr ger. 

10 A. ^^ to tear ; $i&ft pre. ^ld<il>^ perf. ^f^<Tr P. 
aor. =fT<rft^r ben. 

P - f$*TT*f to kill- ^TTff, f ^ P'e. 

or ^?qr Same as above. 

1 A. <rr$j% to protect; 3ncr> pre. 1& perf. ^TTifT P. fu 
fut. 3T5rrWTiT con. a^r^cT aor. srmt? ben. Oau. 
pre. srmgrq^-rT aor. r%^T^ dea k Pass. =rfqtt pre. STsrrt aor. 


1 A. to go ; =ft^% pre. 5-^ perf. ^iffeTT P. fat. 
fut aretfl^ aor 

P. tr^tfr to pare . ?wf?r pre. rfRr^r perf . ?^%wr, ?^r P. 

fut ?*firif?r, **Wft fat. 8TfTOra;-3T?*T$ffc aor - 
ben. f^csrf%^&, (Stererft des. ?^f p.p. 


1 P. T<?r 3?*^ ^ to go, to shake; ^npfo pre. fTf^np perf. 
^Qidr p- fut. 3Tr?TffT^ aor. 

6 P. ^fc^dt to coverj ror^rir pre- fTrTr^sT perf. fsrf^TfTT P- fut. 

1 P. to go, to move; rf Sift pre. ffrW^ perf. **r%tTr p. fut 
-sfrs aor. c^nS ben. ftrTf^TOT dea. Pass. ?^^. 

1 A. ^^JT to hurry, to move with speed; <?j% pre. 
perf. ??TRfTT P- fut. 3Tn?e aor - ffft 
c^rfTeT or qrfr p. p. Oau. ?^firfk% pre. 

1 U. sfhft to shine, to glitter; ?>^rff- 
perf. ?>*T p. fat. ?>^qfff-ff fut. ^f^^-cT con. 
aor. mfN'^riff-^ des. 

I P. ^^Tc?T to proceed with fraud; ftftf^ pre. cffHR perf. 
P. f ut. 3Tr^rfrci: aor. 

G P. ^Sr ( ^rf? ) to cover, to hide; ^fff pre. 
perf. ^RTfTr P. fut. ar^ri aor. 

1 P. ff*Trqr to injure, to hurt; ^fff pre. g^ perf. 
p. fut. 

1 P. ^5fT> to bite, to sting; to speak; ( *rnn<ri ^r) ^rff pre. 
^^T perf. 2fT p. fat. ^ft fut. 3^?^ ( 3[^fer^ dual ) 
aor. ^qrs beu . f^^fff des. Pass. ^^, srtfil aor. 5^ 
p.p. ^^ inf. sjr gar. 

10 A. ^51% to bite; ^g^ pre. 3T^5r?T Aor. f^TmeT dea 
Pass. ^q-ff pre. ^TjJTrf p. p. 

10 U. *n<qrr*TT to speak; ^iriff-flr pre. 3Tf ^T^-?f Aor. 

1 A. ^fr ^frm^r ( *rftff ^T'frw ) to grow, to go in speed, 
to go, to hurt; 3 fl^r pre. ^ft perf. 2f%^ fat. 3^f|TO Aor. 


5 P. STRT^ <HWfr ^ to kill, to protect; ^(^ pro. ^\^ perf, 

p. fut. ^^fa, 3TTrfr<r, aor. ( Vedie ). 

10 U. ^tr^-f^iTTrT^ ^T% ^ to GDO, to punish; 
. &e. perf. ^u^f^?rr P. fu 

fut. 3F??tfS<i-<T aor . ?^nr<fre des. ^forer p.p. 

1 A. ^ to give-, s^f pre. 5^ perf. ^i%Tr p. 
fut. 3TTf%^ a o f . ^^TT^ ben. f^f^<rai dos. Cau. 
pre. s?^T^^:<T aor. 

1 A. vn^ot to hold, to present; ^Rt pre. ^ per f 
fut. a^fre aor. ^wf[V bon. fffWT <*e8. Cau. 
pre. Pass. j^qfr P re . 
5 P. ^'H^T to hurt, to deceive; 

p. fut. ^fhrwrrn fut. 3f^HT^ aor . 

^ des. Pass. ^wftT pre. ^^rfhr aor. ^j p.p. 


10 U. ^ot to send; ^wn%% pre. ^WTv^-liTT-^%, &c. 

perf. 3i3^if3-cT Aor. ^P?rr?j: ^^HT'fre' bon. Paaa 3f*vg^ 

4 P. irqrjn JT to be tamed: ^rwrnr pro. ^-fji porf. r^mfrr p. 

^H?r aor. Oau. 
aor. Pass. ^m ; 3l^TW-, <X^n?T aor. 

p. p. ^mf^r, 5?r7f^T gor. 

1 A. ^RqRff j^nnf^HT^m^ to give, to be pity, to protect, to 
injure, to take; ^qft pre. ^m>-4^7. &o. perf. ^W^I P. ft 7 
jftmjfr ft. 3^TR^ aor. ^^^ bun. ft^f^T^ dc8 - ^f^Tff p.p. 
2 P. ^ihft to be poor or needy; ^ftsrn^ P r *. 

P. fut. 3p?i?5fnr, ai^Rsrnff^ aor. 

ben. f^^fT^T^RT, f^fTOri?T <*63. ^RfftrT P-P. 
1 P. fylfot to burst open, to expand; ^jf^ pre. ^r$J 

P. fut. ^^|^?T *>r. ^fe?T p.p. Oau. to cut, to tear 

10 U. ft^R* to tear; ^reuffir pre. 3^f^-rT Aor 


4 P. s<re^ to perish; ^rfS pre. s^TCT perf. ^ftpfT P- fat. 
^Hd, aor - 

1 P. 10 A. ^Jf^SFRpfr: to see, to bite, ^fafiT, sfrnn* P*e. 
f^T, ^nrna% &c. perl, a^fa, ^^<f Aor, 
( 1 P. 10 U. ^nrnri to speak; sr^rft, 5*njft-** p*e. 

1 P. TOffeTQt to burn, to pain; 55 fa pre. 3^15 perf. ^rr p. 

fut. \n^rfo fut. aror$tf<i; ( 3T^TTVTTr dual ) aor. 2f5r[fT bon. 

ft>ir?rf5f des. Oau.-^r^q-^% pro. ^itfi^^-W aor. Pas 

pro- 3T?Tf aor. ^r\qr p.p. ^3TT ger- ^3^C inf 

IP. ^r^r to give; ^^ji^ pre. ^aft perf. ^raT P- fat- 

fut. 3T^T^?T con. 3?^T^ aor. ?rqrq; ben. f^^rfff des. Pass.- 

?ffq^ pra. -^fW aor. Oau-^mmff% P'e. ^Tfr^T^-rT aor. ^f 

P. P. ^WT ger. <Tg^ inf. 

T 2 P. ^r^ to cut; 5ifir P'e. ( 'or perf. and fut. see above, 
ar^reft^ aor ^pn^ ben. f^mi?r des. Pass. ^T^. 5T?T p. p. 

T 3 U. ^r% to give, to put. ^rf^, ^W pre. ^r, 3% perf. ^^ 
p. fut. ^q-f^ f a t. 3T^R7?[rfT <> n . 3^5, 3T^?T aor. ^itT, 
^nft? ben. f%^rm^r des. ^w P- P. *T*T g er - ^5^ inf. Pass.- 
gffant pre. sr^lfq' aor. 

1 U. ^nr^^r *TTiTsr ^ to cut, to make straight; ^I^Q% 
pre. ^tfTT^I^rT-^ &c. perf. sr^roiq;, 3T^?^tr%^ Aor. 

10 U. ^% to cut. ^RUm-ft P r . ^fr^^cf-rT Aor. 

1 A. fr% to give; ^piar pre. ^ffqr P orf ^lf^?m fut 


1 u . ^T=T to give; ^T^TF%-^ pre. 5^, ^T^t, perf. 

ar^rrftrz. aor. 

5 P. f^nqf to kill, to injure; ^rsfrfa pre. ( Vedic ). 
^ U. ^r;r to give; ?rj^-ff pro. a^Tfn^, 3l^TfTO aor. 

4 P. 'RT^TT^iJi'fi^Jo^^gf^^Tn^^glffWf^H^t^H^llTl^iifT^ to 
play, to sell, to shine, to wish; to conquer, to trifle with, to 

H. 3. G. 40. 


rejoice, to be sleepy, &c; %qfif pre. f^T* perf. ^fofT P. ft. 
3?MH aop - fteira; ben. ^?f?r, TW^fa des. Pass. <ft=tr?r 
pre. Cau.-^irfft-tt pre. ^frf^^-fT or. ?jrr or VR p. p. 

1 P. & 10 U. *%% to rub; g^fa, ^rgffl-% pro. f^r, ^*- 

qT5^3TT-^ &c. perf. ^f^fr^, HfrRr^-rT aor. 

10 A, qK^TSTk to cause, to lament; ^q% pre. 3T^Ti%3cT Aor. 

6 U. 3Tfff?T^ to grant, to allovr. f^^rpr-^ pre. 

porf. \<& p. fut. ^q-ra:-% fat. 3^:^-^ con. 

f^^TT^, f^^frer ben. f^%3Tfir-% des. Pass.-f%^iT^ 

aor. Cau.-^^nrrS-W pre. ^rfrf^^T^-tT aor. f%% p. p. ^n inf. 

2 U. g-^^q- to augment, to anoint; %(?<*, f%r pre. 

P- fut. ^q-r%% fut. 3}^T 

aor - t^?rr^, r%rfr^ ben. 

Pass -f^?Tar pre. BTffl aor. Cau.-^ft-^ pre . 
aor. f^T\jr p. p. f^nz^T ger. ^r^^ inf. 

4 A. OT to perish; ^r?T pre. f^fr^T perf. ^ffTf p. 

fat. ar^rrrcon. 5??TW aor. ?f[ffrc ben. f^fnH des.^R p.p. 

1 A. mii^72fr<CTCRM4J4dclf^3ri to invest with a sacred 
thread, to dedicate oneself to, to sacrifice, &c.; gfr^rff pre. 

rr p. fut. 3?^r%^ aor. Pass.-^m pre. 

. Cau ^q-fS-ff pre. 3n^fr^grT aor. 
de. sfrfSta P. P- ^rf^TfTTr ger. 

A. gfriH^Tiff: to shine; to appear; qfhfr?T pre. 
perf. frfactt p fut. frmsqff fut. 3TfrRnj A or. ( Vedic..) 
4 A . <fra> to ahine, to bnrn ; frcir^ pre. f^rf iqr perf. 
p. fut. 3Tfrfq^, 3T3frfr aor. afiTWr^ ben. r^rm^ des. Can.- 
ft^rcT & ^K^l^-ff aor. Paas.-^reir% pre. 
aor. ?fff p. p. 

<* 1 P. to go; ^f?r pre. ( for other forms sae the following 
root. ) ^f p.p. 


5 P. gtnfFt to burn, to distress, to give pain; ^frfa 1 pre. 
g^pf perf. ^TCTT p. fut. ^Tm fut. 3?^T*iT^ con. ST^tfr^ aor. 
f?TTci; ben. ^<nff des. Pass. f*m pre. 3^rf% aor. ^ p. p. 

10 U. 5:*irfarara( to give pain ; ^r^rfff P^. 3^:^-?T Aor 

1 P. fjfawr* to kill; fift p'o. ^rr perf. 


10 U. ^F^ to shake to and f ro : ^t^qi^-?r P'e. 
^ perf. ^rafinTT p. fat. 3?^5T^-<T aor. 

4 P. %^^" to be wrong, to be impure; ^TffiT pre. ^f? perf. 

p. ft. 3Tfr^^ on . frwrer *ut. 31^?^ aor. ^qrr^ ben - 

-|tnifff-?r> also ^q-f?r-?r ( to make depraved ) pre. 3^- 
aor. ^^frr des. Pass.-^^ pre. arfifq aor. ^ p. p. 

1 P. aqf^ to au*t, to give pain ; ^tfTff pre. ^ff perf. 
<arm fut. 3^?g[, 3T^r^. aor. ^fjff p. p. 

2 U. ST^TOT to milk, to make profit; frfvr, ^ pre. 

55% perf. f (Tijr p. fut. >ft^Tf?r-w fat. 3?^^, 3T^5Tcr & 
STf^T* '- 5Tr?T, ^fgr^ ben. 5^f?f-^de?. Pass. %$fa 
( also ^ se Pan. III. 1. 89 ) pre. ar^tfj ( also w^, 
aor. Cau.-^n%-pr P'e. 3*^ciaor. ^ivr p. p. 

4 A. qftfTl^ to suffer pain, to be sorry; <KT p 

SfofT P. fu!: . ^r%qrff fut. 3T^T>nTff con. 3T^T^ aor. 

ben. 5|5?t des. Cau. $|qqfd-fr pro. Hf^gr ?T aor. Paas.- 

HK* pre. a^rfir aor. ^ p. p. 

6 A.3TT3[> to worship, to regard (wither); fiNft pre. 
^t perf. ^f p. fut. greff aor. ^ffe ben. f%$Rqft de. Pass. 
ft^pre. s^rftaor. Cau. ^rwf^-% pre. 3T^TO-T aor . 
5<T P. p. S"?^T ger. 53^ inf. 

4 P. gT*T(5nft: to b glad, to be proud; fcqrm pre. ^ 

perf. qtffar, ^, jrqfT p. ut. ^r9rtS, f^Wir, srcwfir fut. 


aor. FCITT^ b en. f^ffafS or %ttffir des. Can. 

P re - 3T<figq*ifr> ^Tf^rt"?r ax>r. 5fr p.p. sffarr, r**r 

ger. ^rftj, ^tf , 5*3* inf. 

1 P. & 10 U. tf#<n*to excite, to kindle; ^tfft, <?ftn%% pre. 
p. fat. 3T^fi^, 3TfT^[-?T, 3T^gr-?T aor. 

pre. a^f aor. gif, ^?T p. p. 
6 P. gr^r to string, to put together; 

'e. a^Tl'^-rT, 3T^r^g[-?f aor. 

p- p. ?m?*T ger. 
1 P. 10 U. w ^S ^ to fear, to string together. Differ 
^T^m% pre. 

1 P. ST^ot to see, to visit, to know; q^fir pre. ^^f perf. 

fut. 5^rm fut. 3i?^r^ con. 3T^T3 , 3T3T$fTa[ aor. 

ben. f^ffr dos. Oan. ^mfk-ff pre. 
aor . ?fT5^^, ?i5ftfir, ^f& freq. 
pre. 5T^T aor. g^ p.p. ^ ger. 515^ inf. 

^5 1 P ^ to be fixed or firm, to grow; ^ff& or 
P r . ^ff or ^|f perf. tffcn or iffrTT p. iut. 3^% or 
3??^. aor. g?: ( strong ) or gfftT, |lf?T P- P. 
1 P; H^ to fear; ^fJr pre. ^TT perf . ^R-fHfT p. fut. 
TT^ aor. 
9 P. T^Tfot to tear, to divide; grorrm P*e. 

p. fut. ^*niT, ^ft^rm 

con. 3T^rfr^ aor. ^TUT^ ben. 

des. Cau. ^T^m-^, ( ^T^rm% in the eense of 
to fear ' ). Pass.-^ff?r pre. 9T^TK aor. ^rof p. p. 

1 A. 11155^ to protect, to cherish, ^q% pre. f^T perf. 

p. fut arf^rT aor. ^rm ben. T^fW des. Pass ^a pre. 

Can. ^NTOT%-?f pie. rfT^ra[-<T aor. atf^ p. p. 


1 A. ^r% to sport, to lament ; ^^ pre. |^r pe**. %1%fTT p. 
fat. ^f^sqfr fat. '^f^iHT OOD. ttftftz aor. f^f^T des. 
Pass -^Kt pre 

IP. snw to purify, to be purified j frofS pre. ^r Prf. 
p. fut. ^rwfff iut. 3T^Tfq^ COD. a^T^ft^ aor. 

des. Pass. ^Tir>f pre. Can. 5mf%-?T pre. 
?T aor. ^ra p. P. 

4 P. H9*gtrg% to cut, to divide, to move ; gM pre. 
perf. ^ffff p. fut. 3T^ni; or ^TT^ beD. f^cflrS de8 - ^ atu 

^T<TTm-% p*e. ft?r p. p. f^rr, s^ro ger. 

2 P. 3Tpr*m% to advance towards, to attack ; 
^^rrg- perf. gr?fT p. fnt. ^frwrfrT fut. 3rifrT^ COD. 
aor. 5g?Tff de. Pass. oir^ pre. 3TOTT? aor. Cau 
ff pre. 3f?nr^-?T aor. ** p. p. 

1 A. gfnft to shine ; ^Tar pre. i%^^ perf. cTrmfTT p. 
con. 3^fti^, 3TgtTci; aor. 

ben. ^f^^ f^Tfm^ des. Cau. ^fhnrfSr-^ pre. 
aor. ^pnt, ^ui\freq. jmrT-^frafT P. P- 

1 P. WI^^T to despise; *rT<rft pre. mm p. fat. arfrrffa; aor. 
?TT^Tfl, %*TT^ Ben. 

5^ 1 P. inft to iun ; jrf^ pre. ^m perf. 3niina[ aor. 

5T 2 P. <pEmri Trff ^W ^T to run, to sleep ( generally with 
T% ); *n% P^. <f?r perf . ^TtTT P. *ut. Jrrwfir fut. !HRfm< 
con. 3T?Tjm^ aor . 5TTT?1, arm^ ben. |%TOfft des. yror p. p. 

A. fimw, 3mrm to be able, to lengthen; srrefr P?e 
^jfT% perf. 3?jrjfw aor. yri^ffc ben. 

1 P. %**7f3rd to make a discordant sound ; ?a^rf^ pre. 
W3jT perf. 3T?[f^fhi: aor - 

1 P. *mV to ran, to rush, to melt; swfa pre. |ynr peff. 
p. fat. 5T6ITT& fut. 3fTjrs^^ con. sr^ aor. fA del. 


Pass. jpET?r pre. arjrf* aor. Can. gTTOft P**. 
3T3*wg[ aor. <Hf TO, 5ta*h%, ft*Tl% freq. g<f p. p. 

6 P. nmf^rorr^s to kill; to go &c.., 

perf. jfHfoTlt fat. 3T5Ton<* aor. 
4 p. f*roroTrn^ to bear malice or hatred ; ygrm pre 


des Cau 

aor. gnr or |^ P. P- ffrft 

9 U. ^wrq to kill, to hurt; gorriSi pfi^ pre. 

perf. OT^riSMr fat. 3TfT?fi^, a?5^ aor. 
1 A. ^l^oHT^: to sound, to show energy; fc$*f pre. 

perf. 5tr%?i% fat. a^rfirc aor. 

1 P. *3j|- to sleep ( generally with M ); 5TTfi> P'e. ^jr perf. 
3?fltTtfT5 aor . ffTTra:, $*n^ben. 

u ^sfm> to hate; itr% or f^ pre. ?%& ( 3H%^[-^: 3rd 
pi. ) Imp. ft%*, f^ii^ parf. ^ r p. fat. ^nm% fut. 
^f^-tfcon. 3?%r^-?T aor. TfwrT^, fifefts- ben. 

des. Cau.-^^nrm^ pre. 3Ti%i>?g;-fr aor. |fi^ 

ftft-freq. Pass.-f|^r> pre. ^^ aor. T^ p. p. 
1 P. tf^ur 3T#T^fr ^ to cover, to accept; 3*^ pre. 

10 U. iTTOfr to destroy; 

perf, 3T^f^-?r *>*. 

trot, 1 P. ?n% to sound. *ron?f pre. 3TMTofrg[, 
^[ 1 P. to sound; vrrff pre. 
^ ( Vedic ) 3 P. ^T^T to produce ftuit; 

pre. ^m*f Perf. MHM/I^ fat 


1 P. *T?ft to go-, \F*fff pre. 3*9* prf. *ra?fot aor. 
*T * U. \mum1quiqVrfr ^ to pat, to grant, to produce, to 
bear; ^rm, MT% pre. ^ift & ^ perf, *nrr p c fut. TOVTOT-tt 
fot. 3T9reygcT OD. aror^, am'fo aor. OTTg(, vntfhr ben. 
nNrft-K de*. Pass. tfar% pre. ^vrrfi- aor. Oau. tfrnrfif-% 
pre. 3T^r\TT^-?f aor. ^\ftgfr, ^TVnffr, ^fif freq. ftw P. p. 
^T, ^fv^ir ger. 

1 U. irid^^vTi: to rub, to wash, to cleanse; \H3lrf-fr pre. 

con. aroraffa & 3d\rrfTO aor. ^rsurg;, ^arrfWi^ ben. 
^fii % de3. Cau. vn^rrff-?T pre. s^fnaw^-eT aor. 
p. p. >rrf%?^T, vrb^r, TOTS^ ger. 

6 P. ^T^t to have, to hold; j^m pre. f^rr* pcrf. 
aor. f^fq^f% dea. 

*o be fatigued, to lire* 

pre. ^f^ perf. ft%**rlr fat. 
P. rfnn% te deHght, to please; T^ftfif pre. 

p. fat. srf^figL w. fif^n^ ben. Ai^nr P. p. 

3 P. to sound; f%$fi pre. ( used in the Vedas ) 4 

4 A. grrvrf^ to hold; ^ft pre. f^^T perf. %ir^ fat. 
aor. Cau.-vrnroi%-% Pe. |^r^T^- 

5 U. ^pq% to shake to excite; g%Tff & gg?t pre 
perf. ifrtTT P. fut - ^^W-?r fat. srvf 

ben. srerftS & ^^t^ aor - W?H* dea. ^?f p. p. 

1 A. yC^Hfe^MvHr^f to be kindled, to be weaiy, to liv*; 
e. 55^ perf. $%<fr p. fut. 3T^%^ aor. 
. P- 

1 U. **q% * 6 P. f^prst to shake; 

2nd iingular of 6 which is 


P. fut. *Tfr*rf8r%, sfwft tot. 

con. gronffaj;, arqrft^, 3T^ft^, aor. 
ben. ^ p. p. Ufirj ( 1 ) gftgn ( 6 ) inf. 

5 & 9 U. 9^ to shake; ^jftffT, ^, gsflfif, *fir pre. 
I>erf. \ftrlT, WcTT p. 

ben. ^r^% des. Oau. 

aor. Pa8.-^r% pre. wtrft aor. ^ ( 5 ) tjsf (9) p.p. 
10. U to shake; Tjjnrra-?* pre. ^m^R-^ pert 

f at. g^T^ aor. i$*n^, ^{^(\E bn. Oau.-vj^gr^ pre. 

1 P. ^T> to heat, to be heated; >j<Tnri^ pre. 

P. ^t. 

con. 3Tr, ^TTR aor. 

& wrrs ben . 
^TC^i^-tT aor. 

^TT^r p*e. am, aR^j^TO aor. >jT, i&ttc p. p. 

10 U. iTrqrrcNNter to speak, to shine; ijgiri8-% 
s^r^rr-'^ &c. perf. >j(rf^JT P. fat. 3Tf^^[^ aor - 
4 A. fgWTKfr: to kill, to goj q;qw pre. ^^ perf. anif^r aor 
V* P- P- 

U. >^Tor to hold. \rem% pre 
2 sing. ) perf. ijaf p. fut. \rff^- fut. 3?^Rw^-cf COD. 
aor. f&rr & ^fr^ ben. f^Afffir% des. Can.- 

a <> r . fWSr Pass. ^?r P.P. 

1 A. aTTCcfeft to destroy; vr^ pre. See the above root. 

6 A. 3TTOTR to be, to exist; ftqft pre. f^nr??T dee. For 

other forms see Atm. forms of ^ 1 U. above. 

10 U. \rr?ot to hold, to bear, to support; \rrnrf5r-7r pro. 
^. &c. perf, vrru^rm p. fut. arafro^-a aor. qm 

ben. <- des. 


1 P. infr to go, to move, lysjft, ^srffr pre. 
perf. arsrsn^-aTOsfar; or . 
1 P. to come together, to hurt, qifo pre. yrf perf. 

5 P. STMIgfrft to be bold, to be confident, to be proud or 
brave; igntriff pre. ^ perf . ^fan p. fat. qfalft tut. 
con. BTOtffcaor. Cau. T=nfcn?r-?t P. 3fTWJ-ff, 
aor. f^srfarof des. uffa, ^s ( immodest ) p. p. 
1 P. & 10 U. srg^* to offend, to insult, to conquer; 


9 P. to become old Tjum?* pre. vrfr-fr-^fS fut 3nrT^I<r aor. 
1 P. <n% to suck, to draw away ; \nn% pre. ?'<fr perf. \nffr p. 
iot. sror^, 3^n^?5, 3T^r^ aor. OTT^ ben. pfrfffS des. 
Pass. \ffaft pre. 3T^rW aor. Cau. -vrrtrqft ( Paras m. also, if 
it does not convey a reflective sense ; qr^ 

pre. arcfrror aor . ^ P-P- 

^I^ 1 P. ?rm^rrg5 to tread skilfully, to be skilful , \fftm pre.. 

5^tT perf. arfrtfgt aor - 
1RT 1 P. ^Tgnsrcqi'TOV: to exhale, to blow, to throw away; 

Wt% pre. ^-RT perf. rmr P- ^t. VRTWfa fat. 3TVmW5; 

con. areRrofitl aor. wnir^ or v^Mltl ben. f^irram des. 

Pass. \:RF^ pre. 3?TTWT aor. Cau. WTtRn%-^ pre. trf$- 

wn^-gr aor. wm p.p. 

1 P. f^-dNIH to think of, to ponder over; cqr^A pre. 
perf. OTtU p. fut. Tamqf? fat. 3^\3m^ oon. 

aor. vauni or wnnat ben. f^tTHHT^ des. Pass.wrnnt pre. 
aor. Oau. vfWTei% pre. ^l 

p.p. H^rTf^rr ger. VTTTg^ inf 

( also H>SC ) 1 P. jr?f> to go ; inrft or troft pre. 
perf. arosfl*, BTOT^, aismrff aor. 


1 P. ;n% to sound, to beat a drum ; srqrfft pre. 
ilforsq-ra fat. ; vnrafct, Winft^aor. 

9 P. %*& to glean ; iremlr pre. ^jPET pert STfiteriSf fat. 
sren=fhl> 3*URfta[ aor. BKcT P-P. 

10 u. i P. to glean sn^priirft, srertS pre. 

perf. ijRrifcTT, OT?rT P. fat. 3?T%srera;-?r, 

1 P. to wish, to sound ; $T.r$TI% pre. 

1 A. WHR33T to be able ; yr^TW pre. ^UT% perf. snnfvjg aor. 

1 A. fi^KUl to cut, to tear; ur^ff pre. 3|rrr3? Aor. 

1 P. to go 5 snrfff pre. 3131*317% fat. arosifa Aor. 

1 P. ^$fqr to be firm 5 SJ^TcT P re . 5^^ perf. ifiHI ? fot, 

6 p - ( W&*% ) *f faw&fc to S * b "tea^y ; ^m pre. 

( another reading for the above ); ^3TO pre. TVTT^ ( 
sing. ) perf. ^f%qT?T fat. STSJ^i^ Aor. 

1 P. <CHt to be pleased or satisfied, STfitfiT pre 

1 A. 3TC$fcpir TcTi ^T to fall down, to perish; v^fT^ pre. 

perf. ^Ttifii p. fat. Witi^in fat. STT^n^fsCRC C 9 n . 

or 3!>i^f%? aor. tUri^WHS ben. |^v4l^l^ des. Pass. 

pre. 3resfr% aor. Cau. v4tt<*ft% pre. WW p.p. 

, TsSfr^T ger. 

1 P. to go. %CI<JI)A > ^>Jiia pre. 
1 P. ^T^ 1 to sound, to echo, to thunder* ^prf^ pre. 
perf. Ts5rf*nfT p. fut. m*f*3TcT fat. 3T^n*T 5 ^r^ i o 
01* gfV4fTl<l aor. Oau. to sound as a bell , ^H^fd-^i to 
utter indistinctly, ^rT?nn^-%; pre. Q^ffi^ffi des. 
( darkness ) p.p. 


10 U. 3Tsq% ST^- to sound indistinctly j \-*;nrf^-% pre. 

fr des. Pass. vg^d pre. smf* aor 

1 P. *5^r to kill, to praise, to describe- CTrfft P*e. 

perf. amrfra; aor . 

10 U. HIJ>M to perish; sf^jffl-ff pre. 
1 P. to go, to move; ^^f?T pre. m$ perf. 
1 P. to go. ^^% pre. 3T^fr^-3WT?ft^ aor. 
1 P ^^ t.) dance, to actj ^fff pre. snns pe'f. TOW p. 
fat. 3T!fT%^ con. 3?^T^ or 3?^T3T^ aor. Oau.- 

) pre. 3T5ft5Rr^-?f aor. ft^rfir^des. Pass. 
*wfe aor. *fex p.p. 

10 U. *n^nn^ to speak, to shine, maqiff-fr pre. 
1 P. 3?5q% ^T^ to souud, to thnnder-, ^r^ pre. 
fut. 3*5fT3fHor 3R^ aor. 

aor. ^Rf^Iff des. ^?r p.p. 
10 U. to speak, to shine; 5TT^rrW-?r P'e. 
1 P. H*i*$\ to be pleased; to thrive- H^kT pre. 
5ff^T p. fut. SR^fr^ aor. H^UId. ben. RH^T^f 
p.p. Cau.qr?fn^-% pre. Pass. 5fr*nfr pre. 
1 A. h^MiHMfcsfr to kill, to hurt; ^^ pre. ^ perf. 

1 P. ^^(% ^T^ ^r to salute, to bend, to sound; ;mfff pre. 
perf. ?r?m p. <t. ^fqr% fut. 3RCT3 COD - W^l^ aor - 
ben. f^m% ^es. Cau. ^H^ or jrm*TI% pre. srfV- 
aor. Paps. ^RT^ pre. 3Tflrr^ or. ^jf P-P- 5T?^T ger. 

1 A. to go, to protect; srirfr pre. ^ perf. R^S aor. 
IP. ^T^ to bellow, to roar, to sound j ( sr ) ^^ pre 
perf. Jff^fT P. fut. 5fft*n$ fut. ^^f^mq. con. 3T^f^ aor. 


P. *?% ***fr 1 to smell, to bind; sf&ft pre. 5Rra per- 

10 U. Hunrrat to speak, 8Hdqfo.% pre. Sffafcmfd-fr fnt. 


4 P. sr^sft to be lost, to perish; qrwfff pre. *RT$T perf. 
*%*TT or jff F p. fat. ^%^f&, jqqfif fut. BTJTftTwrg-.ST^r^ 
COD. Bf^T^aor, ^^?T^ ben. f%^T(^ or RJTT%^ des. Can.~ 
5TT5rqrfir-% pre. 3TJff?T^-?T or. ^^ p.p. ^f, ^|j or 
ger. ^T^, sff^ inf. 

4 Q. ^j% to tie, to bind; 5Tfri?f-?r pre. SRTS , %% perf. 
P. fut. 5T?Pn?r-^ fat. SWcWfrtr con. 3RffHh[, 3T^[ aor. 
*5Tra[, sffffi^ ben. ftsf^H%-% des. Pass. jfgrn PW. 
aor. Can. SfTfTflf-ifr pre. 3T^r?^^[-rT aor. 
.p. 5Tr ger. 

1 P.qT^ft^rrh^r^ffV^ to ask, to oe master, 
pre. ^RHT perf. ^m?TT p. fut.^mft^or. 1 A. to bless-, 
pre. ^n^ perf. jfrfirCT p. fut. 3RTm7 aor. sm^RT p.p. 
^ -A- the same as ifrtr A. 

TJ. ^ft^ql^mq): to wash, to be purified, to nourish; 

pre. fwr, r%^^ peif. %W p. fat. ^rfif-^r fat. w- 
con. BTM^T^, ^T^Fnr , 3T^rF aor. R^Hrr^i ft^ft^T ben. 

-ff des. Pass. f^RI^ pre. ^m aor. Can. 
pre. ^H>H^-fT aor. f^U p.p. R^p^r ger. 
A. wsgV to wash, to purify; f%fr ( snor^ ) p?e. 
perf . Rf^ff fut 3TRfw? Aor. R?^^ ben. 

des. Cau HWr?%-% pre. Pass. ffe3*T?f pre. ^rf^f^T Aor. 


P. ^rHNIH to blame, to find fault with, to condemn; 

re. wfts* pf . ftfi^^r p. fat. 

ben. ^Brf*^TW dea. Oaq. ft^jjfer-^ pre. 

Pass. ftrow pre. ftfJfir p.p. 


1 U. $rqmRiWft: l to blame, to reach; %gfr?T% pre. 


1 P. S^ %W% ^ to sprinkle, to eat; f^fffr pre. 
perf . arista; Aor. 

6 P. ( jnr* ) to become thick; fttrft pre. fifr* perf 
sgfir fut. ucf|< aor. 

1 P. ^nprrvft to think, to meditate; %^ft pre. s*fttrft fnt. 

1 P. *TR to sprinkle- %trffr pre. ftfhT perf . 3T%*qr Aor. 

10 A. qfrmot to weigh, to measure; flvfcqft P^e 
a^% perf f^^T%^ fat BTRpT'^rT Aor. 

2 A, ^if* to kiss; f^- pre. fitfft perf. f^ftr^ fut. 


1 U. jrrtrot to lead, to carry off, to marry, to settle; 
pre. f^rnr-Rr perf. %ar p. fut. ^cqiff-3 1 fut. 3T^q^-fr con. 
aor. fnn^ 'faflH' ben. fi|finfl'ff-?t des. Pass.- 
pre. aTTrft' aor. Cau. n<T<TIH% pre. 3TffT7^?l > aor. 
freq. efttf p.p. sffarr ger. %^ inf. 

1 P. WOT to colour; vffcft pre. s?froft<I Aor. 

1 P. WFt to become fat, to grow. HNft -pre. H*0^ perf. 
9TfT^r^ Aor. 

3 2 P. fg<fr to praise, to commend; ^IfT pre. 3419 perf. ^fqrfl 

i. 3T3*rW^-?T Aor. ^^rsr^rfff % des. 3^ p.p. 
to push, to incite, to remove, to throw; 

or. gtirg^ 3?*fre b* 11 ' 33?fri^-fr des. 

r-> pre. 3T3F(3;<t aor ' ^ >a . fls> 3^ P re - fltft 
aor. 3^- or 3^ p.p. 

6 P. *3m ( ^rn^* ) to praise; 3^fjf pre. 3*^W ( ijf^*i 2nd- 


sing.) perf. ^f^iT p. fut. 3f%*rfir *nt. 9139}* Aor. 
des. Cau. ;nsrera-% pre. 3T^5f^[-tT Aor. ^ p.p. 3^31* inf. 
4 P. <TT?l%^ to dance, to represent on the stage- ^rtrfft 
pre. 5Rcf perf. ^ffrTT P- *nt. 3W<ft^ aor. ^rUT^ben. f^f- 
firTRf f^rfriS des. Pass. ^j% pre. 3f;n3 aor. Oau. 
jffclH only pre. ar^FKT, BTR&I aor. ^r p.p. 

;T 1 & 9 P. ^ to carry, to lead; s^ft, ^UMM pre. 

P. fut. 5rRTT% 5fftin% fnt. ar^fat Aor. Oau. 

1 A. to go, to reach; %q^ pre. R^% perf. 3T^ft Aor. 

1 P. & 10 U. qrfTJT^ to take, to accept; <r$rfff, <T$x*rf^-& pre. 
fat. ah S^' - Aor 

1 U. to cook, to digest; <ro%-fr pre. 
p. fat. <T*irfar-ar fut. ^q^r^-jr con. 

ben. fHVJHfd% des. Pass.-^xq^ pre. aTTtfa aor. Oau.- 
pre. ^T^r^^.^ aor. q^ p.p. 

A. soTFrqs^r to make clear, ^ft pre. qq^ perf. 
fut. Brq-Ra Aor. 

10 U. 1 P. ft^K^^^ to spread; qwf$f-W, q^if^ pre. 

1 P. to go, to move-, q^ift pre. qqRf perf. qfe?rr P. fnt. 
fut. 3Tqf%^T^ con. arq^f^ or ar^TSn^ aor. Oau. 
pre. a^frr^-ff aor. ftqfeqft dea. 
10 U. 4T^$ to clothe, to envelop; q?<n%-5 per. 
&c. perf. Mzffim p. fot. STq^r^rfr aor 

rot ^ar to speak, to coyer; qryqf%% pre, 

-fr fut. 



1 P. WHETTf WTf% f5flfrdHHJ*Ma * to read > to "tody, *o 

describe; q^m pre. qqry perf. qfsm p. fat. qf^drfft fnt.arq- 

f%*q-g; con. BTq^fiJ. or 3WI3I3. aor. fqqfs^fft des. Pass. q$rit 

pre. arqrf? aor. Cau. qTOTm-ff pre. arim^-ff aor. qftif 

p.p. ifJw g'. H/San. i n '. 

1 A. imt to go; <nrs^c pre. qqfTT perf. nqfcr^r aor. qf^nr p.p. 

10 U. ^T^ to destroy; 1 P. qrft ^ to heap together, 

to collect; q<r^rf%%, qv^m pre. 

1 A. arw^ft to bargain, to bet or stake at ploy; qorff pre. 

*^5lr perf. qfoniT p. fit. srqfnr^ aor. qforqhr ben. 
dei. Can. qrorq-f^-W pre. 3^^^-^ aor. qfor?T p.p 
qqr 1 A. ( Parasm. with 3TP* ) ^?ft to praise; 
c. <Hif perf. MUllNdT-qfdRTT. 





*or. IM^UI 



1 P. to fly, to alight, to fall; qar?f pre. qqnf perf. 

ut. mnfAUJd, COD - ^MH< aor. q^TTr^ ben. 
des. PaBS.--qfir% pre. arqrffi aor. Cau. 
pre. 5fffrr^-ir aor. q?ftqwr, qrf)qfift, q^frrffT freq. 

p.p. qfffarr ger. qfir^ inf. 

4 A. qrsgir to be master of, to rule; qfq-ff pre. ^?r perf. 

r^ 1 P. to go ; q^fS pre. qqw perf. srnfcj; aor. 
10 U. ir^ft to throw, to send; qr*nnf&% pre. 

4 A. ifT to go; to attain; q^% pre. ^ perf. q^r p. fut. 
q?^t |ut. 3rq?^rfT con. 0?^ aor. q?ffte ben. fq?^r des. 
Pass. q^r pre. arqrft aor. Oau. qnpTffr-^ pre. 
aor. qw p.p. WT ger. q^^ inf. 


10 A. ii?ft to go; q^q^ pre. q^n??% perf. 
3WWT aor - ft^ft^ <*es. Pass. qro pre. g*<n$ aor. 
1 A. to praise; q^fr, qsinrnr pre. qfr, MHWl^frK, &o. perl 
lf3dl P- fut. qfiferW; Hlift*Jli9 ^t 

r. ^fir^fte, ^r^TT9[ ^ en . ^?r MHiNd p.p 

U. & 1 P. to go; qarafiHr, ^Ef^ pre 

1 A. to go, to move; q^f p*e. q^ 1 perf. Brqfqrer aor. 

10 U. g-f?<nn to make green; qoftrffi-^ pie. qu 

^JK perf. qrfftrTT p. ft; srqqof^-fT aor. 

1 A. to break wind; q^ pre. qq^ perf. a^qf^ aor. 

1 P. to go ; qqi% pre. qqq perf. STTO^ aor. 

1 P. to go; q^nfr pre. qq^ perf. 

1 P. sjfi to fill; q^ft per. qq$ perf. arqqffg; aor. 

1 P. to go, to move qsrfw pre. qrrra perf. a^Rft^ aor. 

10 U. ^?^r% to bind; qT5TqT^% pre. 3TTrq^-ff aor. 


10 U. to go; qqgm% pre. 
10 U. & 1 P. sn^rW to 

<T I P. qr% to drink, to absorb; fqfffJr pre. qqjr pel ^TRTT p. 
fat. qr^rfA fat. ^mt^<x COD. 3Tqrg[ aor. qirr^ ben. (Tim<H^ 
des. Pass. <r?ir^ pre. atqrft aor. Cau. qrq^nft-^ pre 


qr 2 P. T^t to protect, to rule, qrfir pre. qq> perf. qrfsrfS fat. 
con. srqnfTC aor. qpn^ ben. fqqRn% des. Pass. 
e. Oau. qRjirr%% pre. 9nfh9^-ir aor. i\* p.p. 
10 U. ^*<IH> to finish, to get through or over; qR*rfff% 
|>re. HKUIiJ^U-TO' perf. qrrfhn P. fut. m^mif)-^ fat. 


con - *H<mK4rflT aor. Pass. qrifo pre, 

p. p. 

10 U. ?r$Tfcr to protect; q|<0<jft% pre. MI<^lo-^*K-^ &c. 
perf. qidNflf p. fnt. 3pfiqw^-?T aor. Pass.-qnaj% pre e 

MifSrf P. P. mdftrtH ger. 

6 P. to go, to shake- \3uft pre. sfrng; aor. 

A ^ift ^q-4f^ to colour, to touch; &c.f^%pre. sri^f^^ aor. 

10 U. & 1 P. n^nrt ^tnV ^ to shine, to live, to give, to 
kill; fasWf^-?*, N3n?f pr 

1 p ^T^B^rrmrT: to sound, to collect, to heap togethe 
pre. ft^ perf. ztfrft^ aor. 

1 P. fifarife^RUft: to kiU, to injure; ^n% pre. 

A., 10 U. & 1 P q^qrar to heap; to roll into a lump. iq^ 7 
P'e. fqfq%, R^pn^a^TT-^^ ftl^^" perl. 
3Ji5^l^aor. i^{u(f p, p. 

10 U. to throw, to incite; q^fft-fc P". ^TT3ff^TT-^%, &c. 
perf. Q^Ndl p. fut 

1 P. ^r% %^- ^ to sprinkle, to serve; tqwn?T pre. 
perf. ftf^fT P. fat. ftf^^m fat. 3Tiqr^Tir^ con. 
aor. fqson^ ben. Pas8.-fq?OT> 

P. ar^l% ft&m ^ to form, to kindle, to light j 
pre, fq^r perf. qi%<rr P- ^nt. ^^ftcC aor. O 
pre. 3Rcftt%^-?T aor. iqiq|%*rft, fq^i^^lS des. )^nr P- p. 


P. ^fjj% to grind, to hurt, f^fl% pre. fq^f perf. iq^r p. 

ii fut. Bf^rg; con. srfq^ aor. fq^TH; ben. Pass. 

e. 3^f*aor. Can. qqir^.^ pre. artVl^T- cT Aor. 

des. ft^r p. p. fop ger. ^ inf. 
H. 8. G. 41 


1 P. to gO;>*Rr pre. ffi^fr perf. ^mr P. fat. OTfft*; Aor. 
10 U. to go; <renrra-l* pre. MqqnaH-^g> &c. perl. 
4 A. *|3r to drink; <fhrft pre. igc* perf. TOft fat. 
Oan.^mnrft-% pre. wrfN^-lf, Aor. fq^TTO dee. 
10 U. to press, to hnrt, to oppose; <ftarf>-% P 

?CTT-^r% perf. jfofym P. fat. Mlfqmffi-?r fat. s*uf 

con. 3TfVRvi:ir, 3TfWr^-ff, aor. 
P. P- 

1 P. wf^- to become fat or strong^ ^ftwr pre. f fftr^f^ fat. 

10 U. Hfiwfo to increaae, to crash; 3*nrfif-W pro. 

6 ^ fh^rot ( $2TTI^ ) to embrace; s^fir pre. 5^ ( 53% 3 
2nd sing. ) perf. starrer fat. a^f^ aor. 

10 U. tf*$ to bind together; ssirfiHt pre. 9?f^nTr p. fat. 
tFrggz^-ff Aor. 

10 U. trwnrf gfr^r ^T to speak, to shine, to reduce to powder; 

p'e. qt^cn^^r^R-^ &c. perf. Mteftmffl-fr fat 9^- 


1 P. w|% to grind; <?(*,% pre. 3^ parf. ffTft^TnT fat. 
^ Aor. 

6 P. s?*5? ( ^n'? ) to leaye, to discover; 5^ pre. 

fa*. 3^5^ Aor. ssfOTft des. 
5 P - S*^ 1 *^ to be pious, 511% pre. W&r*frT fat. 

Aor 55-it-flwfir des. 

4 P. nfanrn* to kill, to injnre; gOTnT pre. ^w perf. 

10 U. HT^nrr <VA ^ to speak, to shine; <fwnS% pre. 9fjr^Bjf- 

1 P. ftfrr fe$Rift: to kill, to torment; 5*9% pre. 
int. avnfi? Aor. 


6 P. snnra* to go ahead, srffr pre. 5^ perl. *rfturi& *at. 

1 P. S*ot to fill; ykfo pre. 5^ perf. sj^ft fut. 
Aor. Pass. ^sqft pro. ST^ffT aor. 

10 U. ffifcll* ^ dwell; S]fcrft-fr pra. rfftffr p. f ol. 
- Aor. 

1 & 6 P. irr^ & 10 U. ( fhn% ^ ) to grow, to become tall; 

A or 

4 P. 5^r to nourish, to develop, to bear, to ihow; $qrftr pre. 
5<fnf perf. qfer p. fat <rt$m% fat. 3rfr^r^ con. BT5T^ aor. 
5^"^ ben. 55^rm des.^ p. p. 

1 & 9 P. to nourish. &c ; $irof?r, swrrft pre. 5^ perf. 
<ftfan. p. fut. qtRqfer fat. snHfat or. Pas. 5sq% pre. 
3jiftf% aor. Oau. qr^rf?r-^r pre. 3TTO^-W aor. jfif 

also ) p. p. sffar, ^rf^nr ger. 

1 U. ^rrot to maintain, to promote; qtTOfa% pre. 
^K-^T &c. perf. ^nrftrTT p. fat. STfS^-cT Aor. 

4. P. |%3F^RT to open, to blow; grc^rfff P*e. 55^ perf. 

fat. sf3q<sqf?T fut. 3T5f^T^ra[ con. ST^wfi^aor. 

pre. 5?*qrT p. p. 

10 U. ^WMK<4ir: to regard, to mortify, to tie, 

pre. 3TSS^-?T aor. 

1 A. q^r to purify, to winnow, to invent; q^ pre. g^> perf. 

TfttTT p. fat. sraf^T aor. qfir^ ben. iqqf^?r des. Oau.-qr^- 

^riS% pre. 3fqtw^-fT Aor, qt^T?f , qtq^f f?r, <faftf^ f 'eq. ^ P. p. 

9 U. to purify &c; s*rfo, 5^ P re - 5^nr, 55^ perf. qftfTT 
P. fat. qfar^rfff-fT fut. spn^T^-rT con. >^M|5j7d , 3TTW^ aor. 
^<TT^, qftClH ^ea- ST^^ 1 des- ^?T P P- 

10 U. ^STTTT^ to adore, to receive with honour, to present 
with, Y^raftMi pre. \LHi| I ( 4H ff- 1 ^ & perf. ^f)^f P 


fut. 3r(*T**rfR-% fut. ST^iKi^l^-lf con. 3T^53TcI;rT aor. 
g^ra^fff-FT des. sjfifrr p. p. ^SlftT^T ger. ^ffftg^ inf. 
10 U. to heap together} spnifa'-erpre. ^nm^RslT-^W, &c. perf c . 
1 A.f^TTar^T^^ to split, to putrify; *gft pre 
perf. trrom P. fut- ar^nhj aor. Oan.<Tr^% pre. 
aor. stjfwr des. tr?r P. P. 

4 A. 3?p:<TT*T* to fill, to satisfy; -q^r pre. 5^ perl 

p. fut. 3m^T, ST'jft aor. Oau.-^mT^-% pre. 3^^^^ aor. 

gtjn-qk des. T% p. p. 

10 U. & 1 P. to fill, to blow, to cover; ^q- T ^%, ^fg- p re . 
, 35? perf. ^rftrTr, if^TT p. fut. 

P. P- Pass.-q^^ Pre. 

10 U. ^^rrW to heap, to gather, tjpfcrfr-n-, pre. 3*S*|p?^-?r Aor. 
TO 1 P. & 10. U. to gather; to collect. 3^, ^5^% pre. 

SJfocTr, ^cjftrTr P ^t. ar^T^ ,3?iSo5^-?r Aor. 
ojr 1 P. ^>togrow;^q:,%i)re.5^perf.^ftwn^fut.g?^^Aor. 
^ 3 P. <TTOT^TOFIT: to protect, to fill, to bring outj mf^ pre. 

3rfqqr: imperf . ^TTT P*rf. qi?^|^ fut. 3jgr^ Aor. fq-^T^ 

ben. Cau.-7T^fff-?T pre. 3WN?^-?r aor. 3<Jft dea. 

^ 6 A- sqrqm s^nqR ^ to be busy, to be active, ( mostly used 
with &n ), fqrorrT pre. qaT perf. q^rf p. fut. irf^^ fnt. wffqrT 
con. s*fre ben. 3?^T or. Pass.-f^ pre. Oau. fn^T%-% 
Dre. grfi^^-cT aor. 53$* des. ^ p. p. <^ inf, 

5^ 2 A. -HM-JH to come in contact with; ^% pre. tf^% perf. 
qf%rlT p- fut. oTTf%^ aor. fqqf%q^ dea. ^?F p. p. 

^ 7 P. to unite, to join; urf%> pre. qfr^ perf. qf%q^ fut. 
aiq-^fd, a r. fMqM^ des. ^> p. p. qf%?rr ger. q-faft^ inf. 
^ 1 P. & 10 U. to hinder, to join; q^fr?r, T^7T%-cT pre. 


2 A. to com. in contact with; ^4.^ pro. q^ perf. 
6 P. gn% to please, to delight. 331% P re - 

6 P. sftoft to please, to satisfy, tjuri?T pre. armffa. aor. 
10 tJ- srgft to throw, to send; <TO*rf?ir% pre. 
fat 3- 3<*r- Aor. 

1 P.%^f*rm$FSR$ to sprinkle, to kill, to give pain to; 
trqffT pre. <pr$ perf. 3^^ aor. Oau.-irfof^-?r pre. 
3m^ra;-tT Aor. ftqffaft des. qTOT, ^ p.p. 
3 P. ^MH^ui^i: to fill, to blow? to refresh; f^rffr pre. 

perf. irfcrr, ^rfmr p. fut. ^ftwrfff, q6^t, ft. srorffc* aor. 

ben. ^^ff% or ftqrf^nt, ftqfT^I% clea. Pass. ^ pre. 
<rTT<Tn*-?t pre. 3Ttft^^-?T aor. wrf, vR^ p. p. wrf ger. 

9 P. to fill. ^irr!% pre. <T<rr?C perf. &c.; see the above root. 
?*<l pre. p. 

10 U. & 1 P. qrR^%5 TTT% pre. q 

1 P. & 10 U. to go, to shake; ^ft, ^jirr%% pre. 
1 A. %^ to serve; ^r^ pre. aftfro aor. 

r 1 A. %^ f^%sr^ xni% ^ to serve, to resolve-, q^et pre. 

1 P. togo;^rfrpre, 

1 P. to dry, to wither; <rnrf?T pre. 3TTT^ aor. 
r 1 P. *rf?rircors^% to go, to tell, to embrace; Vfft t>re. 

A . ^^ to grow, to swell, to increase; cqrqrr pre. 
perf. uj|(7irll p. fnt. Miif^tijd' fut. 3fc^|fq&(|^ con. 
^^rfiJtt or. fquqifq^ des. c?rj^, ^ p.p. 

t A $^fir to grow, &c.J on^T pre. <r^ perf. prnff p. fut. 

fut. ^mi^d con. anm?r aor. fl^ p.p. 

P. sftmium to ask > to B ek for; ^3 pi % q^gp petf . 


p. fat sr^ffi fut. 3r$r^ con. OTTSft^ ( WX\m dual > 
aor. fpsgsm* ben . ft^t^f^T-^ defl . Pass. 315^^ pre.. 
pre. ^ p.p. ST ger. JT inf. 

1 A. muj|^ to become famous, to increase, to rise; 

pre. TO$ perf. srforr p. fut. srfirqW fut. awfH|q<r con. 

ansrftreaor. Can. sr*rofir-?f pre. aTqinRT-fT aor. 

del. srftff P-P- 

10 U. to become famous., srori?t% pre. 

&c. perf. troftctt P- fut. ai^nni^-fT or. ffiirqftqfo^ des. 

srr IP. ^t to filij xnift pre. inft perf. STRTT p. fut. ^nmfi^ 

aor. mm^, OTn^ben. Pass.-srprW. 

ift 4 A. sftrfr to feel affection for, to be satisfied^ sfriff pre. 
ftflfr perf. ^?rr p. fut. aft* aor. ir^T ben. mh?t des. xfj?f 
p.p. sfl^r ger. sT5H inf. 

sft 9 U. afa & to please, to take delight in ; jrlonifr, sftaftlf pre. 
ftxrnr> ftfW- perf. 3r?rr p. fat. !r^ft-W fut. 

aor. ifhTT^ , Wrs ben. f^xflHTm-^ defl. sft^ p.p. 
ift 10 U. & 1 U. ?^ot to please; sffURfft%, snn^ pre. 

*Tft%, 55^%% fat. 3TfWnira[-cT, 3l5^, 3f^E aor. 
5- 1 A. inft to go, to jump. spr?r pre, 55^ perf. jf^TT P. fat 

snrhraor. Pass igifc pre. Can. inwirf?r% pre. 

5^ 1 P. JT^ to rub; qfcfa pre. 5^ perf. 3nrtta aor. 
5^ 1 P. 51% to burn; xft^S pre. ^sffr perf. sftf^r^r fat.. 
aor . 5EfW^ HMlfilll'S. des. s^ p.p. gjr, sf)Rrcjr, 

P. ^tff^[<rfyll tf> become wet, to sprinkle, to fill; 
pre. ffRff p.p. ^rf^T ger. 

U. STFflOT to swing, to shake; fcft?*gft% pre. 

aor. Pass. sr^aft pre. 
1 A. to go; "^ft pre. 9^rA? Aor, 


1 U. qirfcft to be full, to be equal to-, *tuf?NT pre. 

1 U. 3Hr% to eat; ^fW pr*. 3T^ft^, 3*3%* or. 

1 P. to go; $ffir-ft pro. 3|^r aor. 

9 P. to go; sr*n% pre. &qft fut. 3T$fa[ Aor. 

1 A. im> to float, to fly, to jump; ytft pre. gcg% perf. 

p. fut. ^riT% tut, 3TgTKr?T con. aq^: aor. O 

P'e. ^scjy^.^, 3Tf^5^[-fr Aor. cgrT P.p. 

1 & 4 P. ^ to burn, ^jrsfif , ^^uft pre. 35^ 

p. fnt. t^Tfftuift fnt. ^c^jtfr^^coD. ^Tt^nft^C 1 ) 
( 4 ) aor. c^s ( 1 ) cgfof ( 4 ) p. p. c^r ( 1 > 
( 1> 4 ) ger. 

l^ to iprinkle, to fill, to be wet, 

Aor. Other forms like ( 4 above ). 
2 P. trgfdr to devour, to eat ? q&rft P'e. <rWV perf. c^WT p. 

rrorfar fut. ^mi^^ con. 3jmi4ta aor. c^rqr^, 

ben. f^TTQm des. Pasf. cfrrcr^ pre. Cau.c*rnrtrft 
pre. 3lfttf|^ aor. efnff P-P- 

I P. 5fr4Nhft to behave il) 5 to go loftly; qrarft pre. 
perf. anrWT^ Aor. ^ffftnf P.p. 

1 P. irRr^TWt: to go, to produce easiJy; qrortJI pre. 
perf. qtf&nTT p. fu^. ^rqrof^, 3Hpifts aor - VWHH ben. 
falft dee. Cau. tFOTirf^.?r pre.' 3Tft<ini|^:?T aor. <sft|?T p.p. 
i ?. fihffTor to bunt, to open, to split, ^^ pre. qiffra 
perf. qTO?TT p. fnt. <Ff*in% fut. aiqrfeisir^ con. 3nqn^I^ 
or. ftvf?wf^ des. 5^ ( sr^g ) p.p. 

1 P. f^Tfft to go, to bear fruit, to result, to be successful; 
*ri?t pro. ftc. qrfi&fT p.p. Other forms like those of the. 


1 P. fta*% to open, to blow ( as a flower ), graft pre, 
porf. gr%rTT P. fat. grf^TT^r fat. 3Tgr%<*r^ con. 
aor. H&Qsqfd des. 

1 P. to goffer pre. srfi^fr fat. 31*^ aor. 

g I A. f ;|}r to grow, to increase; sfeW pre. tiffcqfr fat. gr 
f|<s? aor. stflw p.p. 

1 P. to grow; ^frT pre. 

r 1 P. 5T5% to sound j ^otlff P*e. ^^for perf, 3R-^r-oft^ aor. 
1 P. to be steady; sr^fif pre. ^srTT P* T *' 3&-*n-^ aor. 
1 A. f%TTfir^T> to loathe, to be disgusted with. 
pre. ^rHrOTSPI^-STO-^ perf. ^T%?TT P. fat. 
fut. 3TCrHf?^qrT con. ^TW^fl^ ben. 3T5frW^ aor. 
t%^% des. Pass.-^hTfW% pre. 3T^rri?fT aor. ^hrr%fT.p 

i 10 U. ^^ff^r to bind, to restrain; ^nif%, WHTW pre. 

srvra: ?r Aor. srr^rr^, ^rvrmr^ ben. f%^r^mm% des. 

9 P. ^rigR- to bind, to attract, to form; ^$r?f^ p/e. 
perf. ^^f p. fut. vrrc^TfiT fnt. 3TW=fW?[ con. 3T*TT?f 

n. fif^r?^m des. Pass.^-q^ pre. Oau. 
pre. g^ir?^-^ aor. T^[ p.p. ^;^r ger. 
U. to Mnd4 5F\nnK% pre. ^7^^^^^-^K &c. perf, 
^T^^^-rr Aor. fw*rpfal%% des. Pas8.-^r^r% pre. 
1 P. to go. x ^f?r pre. ^ pexf . ^f%cTT p. fut. 
1 A. ^KMrT!iir^rrar^T%5 to speak, to give, to hurt; 
pre.^Wf perf. amf^Aor. 

10 U. fj^rrof ^rrnrt fr^fr ^ kill; to speak, &c. ; 

pre. 3T^f^-rT Aor. 

1- P. STTOR qHimilra% ^r to live-, to hoard grain; 

pre. ^r$y perf. srf&cTT P- fut. H^T^ aor. 


10 U. STTofr to breathe ; 3^nf^r-% pre. 

4 P. w^ to stop; ^rra pre. g^rtf perf. ^fefr p, fut. 


1 A. arrpjsq- to bathe, to dive; ^r^ft pre. ro% perf. 

1 A. 3H% to oppress, to torment ; vt^ pre. 

^TTvfaT p. fut. ^mfanr fut. 3*5rrpi**re con. 

Oau. -^rqtn^-it pre. 3T^5Tr\rg;-?r aor. Pass. 

ST^Tlvr aor. vftT P. P. ^Tf5rc5rr ger. sm^gi* in'. 

1 p ajran^r to swear, to curse, to shout-, %sft pre. ft>? 

perf. %forr P. fut. 3T%^rg; aor. 

l P. 3T^q% to split, to divide; fSr^fff pre. ftri^ perf. 

ftp3[rrr p. fat. 

6 P.^r^ to break; i%m pre. (%%$y perf. >%TT p. fat. 

3T%c5T<J: aor. 10 U. %OTf3r-?Jr pre. &c. 

4 P. q^or ^ to throw, to instigate, to go; f^RTHf pre- 

fHfr perf. %%qr% fut. 3^f%^ Aor. 

1 P. & 10 U. *rnot to bark, to speak; f^fk, f^^fH-^ pre. 

1 U. ^t^^ to know, to mark, to esteem; ^faf^-?r P r 

f 4tM, ^f% perf. rmjar p. fut. ^f^^w-?r fut. arwhnNr^-f 

con. 3Tf^, wnfTcC, 3TlTTO aor. Cau. ^tvnn?r-ff pre 
^Cf^-T aor. fgfwlT%, f^tf^TTrt-?T de3. Pass. 
pre. ^^"Tf^ aor. ^for p. p. ft^T, ^TW^T ger. 

4 A. to know, to understand ; ^-q*ff P'- ^^ perf. 
p. fut. ^ff^im fut. arwmtfrT con. 3T^^[ t 3T^tf^ aor. - 
ben. ^^f^r% des. Pass.-^rjr pre. Cau.-5rvi?ir^-^ pre 
P. P- !^T ger. ^t^ inf. 

10 U. to sink, to plunge; 
perf. ^raforTr p. fut. 

4 P. to discharge, to emit ; ^^m pre. f^t^ perf. 



10 U. to honour, to treat Honourably* 

sarorannf-^ perf. f^rftm p. fat. 

15 1 P. &ft to grow, to increase; wfl% pre. ^*f perf. 

p. fat. */in% 

6 P. 3<i*rt to work; 
sing. ) perf. 

p. p. 




. Can. 

to grow, to roar ; 


1 P. 

izirnT fat. nf <hj aor. 

1 A. S[^?ir to strive; %f?t pre. 

2 U. oQlfflrat ^fT% to speak 
^% perf. ?nur p. fnt. 


pre. ^f perf. 



10 U. 

oen. Pass. 

pre. Oau. 


p. p. 33FETT ger. 


to kill, to hnrt; 
P. fat. 





1 U. see ww. 

10 U. 3T^% to nse, to eat, to bite; 

perf. *TsrfmT p. fat. 
aor TfCSqra;, ^n^^ ben. 
pre. ^T%tf p. p. ^^f^T Ker. 

1 U. ^<4iUT^ to serve, to take possession of, to choose, to 
honour ; *TSfTK% pre. ^rr^T, ^% perf. ^fiftf p. fat. ^^rr%% 
con. 3!^T^rra[, 3WTU aor. ^PTTH , VT^fi'sj ben. 
ben. Pass. *ren% pre. 3THT1% aor. Oau. T 
pre. stfhnfH^ aor. ^nii p. p. *nR*r ges. 


10 U. mnofr to cook, to giro, *nnrf?M* pro 

&c. perf. xrnrfarr P. frt. arflinra-* aor. f**r* 

*>^ 10 U. mrorf $ti <* to speak, to illumine ; *wn?Ht pro. 
WreTS.-rT aor. 

P 3Tmt% to spilt, to disappoint, mff% pre. **rer perf. 

p. fat. *^^rf?T fut. 3m^$*T3 con. 
ben. f%*33T?JT des. Pass. ^^ pre. 
Oaa.-^3flfTTi^% pre. 3^?^^-^ aor. ^|r p.p. 
ger . n inf. 

1 P. $cft to receive wages, to nourish; *T5TT^ pre. 
P. frit. 

A, fTRn?ot to upbraid, to jest; *r<n^T pre, 3Hifj%- perf. 

p. fut. ann^r aor. 

10 U. 5F?qrct ^^ XTcTrcot ^ to make fortunate, to cheat 5 

r^ > & Prf . Htil'RrrTr p. fnt. 

aor. Aho 1 P. wr^KT pre. 3fWJ#T5 * or ' 

1 P. 5is\ to speak, to call ; wife pre. ^rroT perf. trftfim P 
fut. ^rmmt fut. awfar , 3rnTofK aor . firwiT&des. Pats- 
aor. ^rot?r p.p. ^foafT ger. 

10 A. ( rarely P. ) to menace, to threaten, to abuse, to 
deride; *rfif*T?r pre. ^fangf*? perf. W^nfaT p. fut. a^- 
aor. firHf^I^T des. 

1 A. qftyrqml^|^lH<| to speak, to kill, to give 5 

10 A. 3TnfO% to see; HTcJ^TT pre. H|^|o.*d^ &c. perf. 
^r5jft?TT p- fat. MhTOfT aor. 

1 A. ^r?Wrorf^rr^5 to describe, to wound, to giver 
pre. TH^ perf. ^f^rTT P- fnt. Wtrfwz aor. qfeft p.p. 


1 P. to bark, to rail against- w% pre. ^TT* pert <rft?rr 
p, fat. 3T*tfr^aor. ft^Affir des. 

3 P. HfH^^t'- to censure, to blame, to shine $ 3?rffcT P*e. 
perf. ( used in the Vedas only ). 

2 P. $& to shiffe, to appear, to be ; *m% P*e. 
3rd pi. Imperf. ^xft perf. *n<TT P. fat. grortfr^aor. Pass. 
aor. Oau. i*mfiT% P re - OTTXTIiT-rT aor. 

10 U. ^r^T^T to divide; *nnrft% pre. 
perl iTf3Tftrrr p. fut - aW^nrnr-rT aor. 

p- p. 

1 A. SKTO to be angry ; jrrjra pre. ir^^ perf. 

1 A. to speak, to call ; >frn?r pre. WT% pe'f. ^rri^TT p. fat. 
aor. 10 U. also 3T*TR?r-rT aor. 

A. f^nmif arr?tS3CT*r ^ to oeg, to obtain fir^ pre. 
perf. ftr%rTT p. fat. mr%^ fat. rf5rt%E aor. Cau-pRT- 
pre. 3rf^ft$rg;?T Aor. 

7 U. f^rfdr to separate, to break down ; 

perf. ^r=?fT P- fat. "^Tf^m-^ fut. 3^^?^??-^ con. 

T (ST^rrrnr dual ), STT^TT aor. Cau - 

Aor. fiffeir^T des. %fir 
Aor. f^RT ( also f^RT ). P-P- 

l P. to div : de, to cut. ft?^ pre. firf^ perf. 
Aor. Pass. fK^^RT pre. 

3 P. ^r to fear, to be anxious about ; fir^1% pre. fihfnT or 
c. perf. ^rff p. fat. WTIff fat. 3THI?T con. 

. HPTT^ben. fir^P?r^ des. Pass.-wr^ pre 
aor. Cau. HT^mS, <IT^, >fT^^ Pre. artfr^ 

Aor. %fw^, %vrifn%; %$f?T freq. *<T p.p 


6 P. &(%& to bend, to curve-, g^TTiT pre. ftfnr perf. 
p. Int. 3nfr$n^ aor. gg- P. P. 

7 U. qTOTTWreSTC'lt: to protect-, 3^*% ( A. ) to eat, to 
consume, to enjoy, ( P. ) to rule, to govern-, ^ntf, gijr pre. 
ftrPF P- fut. *TT$qm-?T fut. 3f*ft$^-<T coil. 
aor - S^TS, ^f^T ben. f^rft des. Pass. 

aor. f^q, 9T^m THTT *eq. g^ p. p. 

) 1 P. ( rarely Atm. ) to be, to live, to be bornj 
pre. ^^, ^^ perf. *rforr P- fufc - 

?T dea. Pass.-^j^ prd. ^nf%?n, >Tl%cTr p. fnt. 
fut. awr^ aor. wir<fi^ ifirfWlS fc en. Cau -*rrgpn^% pre. 

$f p.p. 

10 A. srnft to attain, to obtain; ^TT^% pre. *i^q|^8h perf. 
P. fut. aj^TTOcT aor. ^T^ft^t^ ben. 

10 U. (3TTO5^r) to be purified, to consider, to mix ; 
PT pre. qreqiyelSK-^ perf. >?r?rfqrTT p. fut. 
aor. HTSirn, ^RTI^f ben. 

P. ( Wd$\\ ) to adorn; \grft pre. &%$ perf. T^R?TT p. fut. 

10 U. to adorn*, ^nriff-?r pre. ^^^o-^^TT-^ 1 &c. perf. 
p. fut. 3Tf ^5^-rT Aor. ^n^ , ^^filll^ ben. 
des. Pass -^cg^, 3?^T? Aor. igfqfT p. p. 

1 U. rrnr to nourish, to fill; ^T?ff-?r pre. ^TTT-^ perf . 
TStifi p. fut. 'trRarfir-fT fut. ar^Khr 9 
ben. f^ft-*, ft?T*rf?T-?t des. 
freq. Pass.-fini^. ^(T p. p. 


3 U. MRnm^t^r: to hold, to support; ftwfa, f^fr pro. 
TOTT, *fr^ fWT>TOTT-^T &c. perf. vtft p. fut. 
fat. 3T*fma-. 3T?T aor. f*>ri?*17T, 3Wl8 deB 
pre. awrfr tor. Caa.-infiTO% pro. atfhrra-rT aor. 

1 A. r% to parch, to fry; *nfo pre. *^ perf. 
fat. 3rirfS aor. ^fSnft^ ben. Can.-^3nn^%; ^HUJ 
de. PasB.-wgrii^ pre. gr^f^ aor. ^F P- P- 

4 P. awra* to fall down; ^rift pre. ^r?T pef. 
fut. 3T^r^ Aor. TO p. p. irflrw, -^T. 

9 P. to fry, to reproach, to support; wuma" P r . 

WrTT, *TfhTT P- ^t. 3?^nfl^ Aor. IJTJT p. p. 

1 U. V^ itfft ^ to be afraid, to go; w*T-3T P'O. 

fut. srWr^ , ar^n^ Aor. ^rr^, ^^r ben. 

1 A. 3(93r*r* & 4 P. 3?>i:q?T^ to fall, to decline, to escape; 
T3T?T, W5*n% pre. ^wfT, TO^T perf. wffcrarr P. fat. 
fut. . 3njf3T^ 3TflT^T^; 31^51^ aor. 
aor. T%W%^-fT dea. >TTfl^^, S 
P. P. *%?^rr, OTT ger 

1 A. &. 4 P. to fall down; ifclK, WTli pre. (same aa 
with the change of ^ for ^) 

1 U. ar^ to eat; ^^rm% pre. ^W?T-^ perf yfsKrr P- fut - 

1 P ^TS> to sound; ^oif^ pre. ^^nr perf. wfoirTr p. fat, 

oft^, snnofta: aor. 

1 'sra^ & 4 CTreroiir P. to roam about, to totter; 

*rwrfiT pre. gr>nfT, ( ^WW^, SffiTO 2nd sing. ) perf. 

p. fut. ^m^mff fat. (IP.) arflift^ ( 4 P. ) 

aor. Oau.-^rjrirf^ pre. 3TISTfflT^ Aor. f^Tirftrf fo des. 
WTff, ^vnfn%, *Tf%T freq. P*98.-wWT?r P'e. BTW^T aor. 
P. P wfflTf^r, TTn : *T ger. 


1 A. arofa^ to fall; WOT pre. **$ ?'* 

tJ. <rr$ to fry, to parch; ^srfS% P*e. 

perf . WET, *IST P. fut. w$*rra-? 
, snra, auri or. jpin^ 5^^, H??rhr ben 

pre. swfir, 3nrfr or. Oau. 

^T^THr^^T, M^M^-fT aor. w^ p. p. >^f, fn inf. 

l A. fpHT to shine, to beam; *nfit P'e. ^rr9r, ^T prf. 

P. fut. mfa^d fot - srFifif^ or. u^^^^^ ben. 

pre. 3ff^lT^-fT, 3T^T3T^-rT aor. ffWlfn^ 
dea. Pa88.T^I?f pre. 3WTf5T aor. WTT%?T P.P. 

( VcJTST,) 1 & 4 A. ^nft to shine; WT^IH, ^T^3rW, pre. V5TTJt-Sr 

perf. mf^idr p. ft. 3wf5re aor - OT^r'fr? ben. 

pre. anrffT^T^-fT aor. fqirftiq^ des. Hf%fT pp. r%5^ inf. 
same as above. 

9 P. ^ *Rtir f^Ti? to tear, to protect; feoufo ^mn%i P*e. 

mmr perf. ^^T^ fut. ^shtfat Aor - 

6 P. arrs^r^T *y*% to cover, to collect; g^fa pre. f^rc 

f ffiTO (as this is ^nn%,), P rf - jrf?^r p. fut. 3?^^ Aor - 

10 A. 3Tn5nft?T^^: to wish, to put confidence in. 
pre. ^TOIITT*^* perf. ^prfqcfT P. fat . s^fVOIrT Aor. y 
ben. oifWT des. 

1 A. Tuft to shine, to glitter; ^^ pre. f%&% perf. 
^f%^ tut arefa^ Aor. 
1 U. w Tfff ^T to go, to be afraid: vrf KT-?T pre. 
perf. arerfro Aor. 

1U. to eat-, 5J^m% P'e. ^v^QT-^v^ perf. 


> changing ^ to w. 


W ( see n ^O- 3 


OT 1 A. ^fr to grow; P. ^rr^nit ^hft ^ to speak, to shinej 

fffTTT p. fat. 3Tlff5^r ^TR^T^ Aor c 
n. Pass. jf^r^ fRlif^W-f^ des. wffrT p. p- 
10 U. to speak, to shine; ^sftiufff-ff fut. 3TWf 3;rT Aor. 
1 A. to go, to move; TTg&ft* pre. JTRis perf. 3Tflfs^ aor. 
1 P. ^nw to accumulate, to he angry; TT^ITC pre. vnr^T 

1 P. ifrft to go, to creep; ITOTft P'e. PTRT^ perf. JTT^frrr ? 
1 A. HU^H to adorn; irj;^- pre. jm|r perf. H%rTr p. fat. 

ITf 1 P. Jfrft to go; fffft pre. HRf perf. iTilrTr p. fat. 
" aor. Pass.-irf qft pre. am% aor. 

9f|p IP. to go, to move; ( same as abo?e ). 


ITff 1 P. inrs% to adorn, to deoorate ; jr^-.f^ pre. imy perl. 
^ lifter p. fat. 3T*Nfa; aor. Pass.-H^7>r 

1 A. vrarr^ft 3TTT*^ ^c!% ^T to move quickly, to start; to 

begin, to cheat; ifrref pre. mq perf. wftcTT P. fat 3TnRT 

aor. Hnnfte ben. 

I A. ^r^r c^ri% ^^Hf ^ to cheat, to be wicked, to boast, to 

pound; H^ pre. R% perf. prf^rfTT P- fat- 3TRf%^T aor. 

i A. VTFofT^iq^HH^ to hold, to grow high, to go, to adore ; 

to shine- jr-j^T pre. HH% pe'f- m^cTT P. fat. 3TRT^E or. 

10 U. 5T5> to sound; uajrof^fr pre. 

perf. irSffifcfT P. fat. 3Tftw^^-?T aor. 


jr?r 1 P. fV^H^rRR^ n to grind, to dwell, to go ; 

perf. msar p. fat. arngr^ aor. 

A. 511% to remember with regret, to long for; nufld perf. 
RHU4 perf. HnferTT P- fat. 3Tforo aor. 

1 P. sis to sound, to murmur; tmft pre. TOP* perf. Rfifcn 1 
p. fat. 3TJrofrer aor. 

P. ^qnjru[ to decorate oneself } irtT^IH pre. R^U^- perf. 
nfu^HI p. f^t. flfa^ajf^ fut. 3TRTT5T3; aor. ira^r^ ben. Can. 
-R<r3TTfiT-?T pre. 3TCTR^-<T aor. WWm^qiW des. 
1 A. f^iTT^ to distribute. *T<r^T pre. WRay perf. 
p. fut. ^rf^^ fat. 3Tl?fa^^ aor. ^f^W ben. 
des. Paae. Rn^r pre. 3Tflfo^ Aor. 

U. to adorn ; iTO^^f^-a" pre. RU^^n^r^-^r?R &c. perf. 
p. fat. 3Tmtl^-tT aor. 

1 P. A9t?^ to stir, to churn ; wra^f^T fnt. amih( Aor. 
Can. wm^iw% 'e. STlTm^-fT aor. 

4 P. 5T5^TRifT: to be glad, to be in a pitiable condition; 
re. OTF? perf. n$cffp. ^t. R^fS fat. ^mfa- 
aor - Can. n^7jRr% ( WT^I1%% to madden, to ine- 

briate ) pre. anfrffl^-rT aor. ftR[int des. 

Hmm ^ req. Pass, mx pre. 3TflTf^, 3=WT^ aor. j^f p.p. 

10 A. qffiraft to please , RT^ff pre. WT^ing% p 

p. fut. msfifSK* fufc . snfm^r aor. RT^mrsr ben. 

des. Paas.-RreKT pre. 3TRT1^ aor. r^r p.p. 
4 A. ^fT% to know, io think j n?^W pre. ^ perf. i^nfT p. 
fut. Wtt ^t. 3Tm^fT con. 3TR^ aor. tfrST be n. WR?Tflr des. 
Oau. ^T^niTa-% pre. 3TvfmR^-(T aoif. JTO^rft, R^^rf^, HWT- 
F??T, & freq. R?T p.p. Rf^T ger. Rr^ inf. 

8 A. 3Twmqf to consider, to esteem ; jyg^ pre. &^ perf. 
RftHTp. fnt. 
H. 8. O. 42. 


2nd ing. arnftft 1. ing. ) mor, fanftr?r des. afsfcgn iaf. 
Can. &c., see the above root. 

10 A. *<Ti:* to be proud. RTTOW pre. flraOTSPft perf. 
I%T p. fat. 3TfTw^T aor. RMftfo ben. 
Pass. RTJH pre. jrrfta p.p. 

IO A. sjfftrforrenf to consult, to ad vine, to speak; 
( sometimes, flr^afrf also ) pre. Hraimsgfc perf. Rr^iqirr P. 
fat. 3^j^5T?T aor. u<M^m?T des. 

& 9 (^rar^) P. to churn, to agit%te ; 
pre. ( traCT Impera. 2nd sing. 9 oonj.) RIV^T perf. Yrf^qilT P. 
fat. nf^sqiS fat. STIT^T^ aor. troTT^ ben. T^TH^^I% <^e. 
Pass. *?%2I% pre. sm^iT aor. Cau. .*T?OTf^-flf pre. m- 
aor. HTRWT?*, WTwrflf?T, WTRf?rT f req. wfiwf P- p. 
gr. w?^ (1) !Tcr?J (9) pre. p. 

1 P - f?^ f H^5r5nfr: to kill, to torment; 3RW*nT pre. 
perf. m^IrTT p. fa*. WP^^qf^ fat. 3?!??^ aor. 
pre. 3TfTT>*J aor. i?f?nf p.p. m^T**r ger. 

L A. >gmm^H<HlPdTia^ to praise or be praiied, to be 
glad, to laijqnisb, to sleep, to shine, to loiter; ifT^Jf pre. 
nr^ perf. Ri^ai p. fat. ^f^cim fnt. 3TRT^^ aor. 
ben. Pft8s.-yq|r pre. 

1 P. ufr to go, to move; ireft pre. Rir^f perf. 

fat. snnfi aor 

1 A. to go, to move; m* pro. WIW perf. 

10 U. 3T% qfOt ^ to take, to sound, to go, to injure; 
Vm% pre. ireirrsrcrr.^riK &c. perf. RWfTr p. fat. 

11 or irsq^, R^ft^fi^ ben. 

1 P. to go, to move; wifo pre. **{ perf. 


1 P. <jtfT to fill; R^ pre RR$ perf. wftrTT p. fat. 
aor. Oau. to sound- treirfft-ft pre. 

1 A. & 10 U. *TTTO to hold, to possess-, R^, R^gr^ pre. 
&c. perf. 

1 A. to hold, to possess ; Rgffl" pre. same as above. 

1 P. ^^r fiforof ^ to fasten, to bind, to kill; R*ft pre. 

RRT* perf. JTf^fTT p. fut. 3TRCra;, STHTCr^ aor. 

1 P. 3TS> ^ ^T to bu/z, to be angry ; JTSlfr pre. 

perf. nf^TfTT p. fut. STR^fT^T, STRTt^firaL aor - 

1 P. ff^rgt 5T5^f ^ to hart, to destroy ; fnft pre. 

perf. RTOT P. fat. 3TR-RT-fr^ aor. 

4 P. qr?Rm to weigh, to change from; wilS pre. 

perf. RTOrft P. fat. 3TRTO aor. am p.p. Rmg^ inf. 

1 A. to go, to move; R^^ pre. Rjrf% perf. Rf^rTT p. fut. 
5Rf^I^ fat. 3TW7TO aor. 

P. ^-^r to bathe, to sink, to purify ; R^fM pre. 
(RRfsHT, JTRJ^l 2nd aing. ) porf. JT^T p. fat. 
fut. 3TRf$fai; ( 3rd dual 3TRT^TH ) aor. R^2JT?C ben. 
des. Cau.-R3rq^ pre. 3TRRf^ fT aor. Pass.-Rr^, JT?T p.p. 

1 P. & 10 U. ^nTTfl[, to honour, to delight, to increase; 
JTfft, *mf?Ntpre. RRTJ, Rfi?r3a*K-^f &c. per/. 
W|l"ydl p. fat. 3TR^t^, 3TRRf^[-?T aor. f^Rf%TTff, ftRf 
?f dea. Can. (conj. 1 )-Rr^lf?r-ff, 3T^TRf^-cT aor. 
pre. RffT p.p. 

10 A. ^HFITHto honour; Rfhr^ P". R<tqni% &c. perf. 
fat. 3TRtf^ Aor. 

2 P. RT^T to measure, to limit, to compare with, to form, to 
show, &c; wrft pre. inft perf. HmT p- fat. RTWlft fat. 
con. 3TRtff aor - ^T D8D - fw?f& des. 


freq. Pass. jfta?r pre. amif* aor. Oau. 
?r pre. 3Tlfra<T^-<T aor. forT p.p. fw^F ger. 

3 & 4 A. to measure, &c ; froiH, WWT pre. irfr perf. 

p. f ut. mWcT fat. 3TRTf aor. Rrate ben. m*T?f des . lor 

other forms see the above RT. 

1 P. ^t^rmr^ to wish, to desire miff^r pre. 

1 A. nqfTffren* *t> eek knowledge, JTTRm?f p*e. 
Rf^?TT P. ^t. 3TlfriTfT%^ aor. 
des. Can .-^tfmi^d.-fT aor. Pass. 

pre. 3Tlfmir% aor. jfTRT7%T p. p. 
10 A. ?rf^ to stop, to be proud; tfRir^ pre. 

, Aor RT5ffa^fTgr ben. 

10 & 1 P. ^TCTT^to honour, to worship. 

pre. 3TfftfR3, STW^ Aor. TPTIfT^mm, ffifRTmiff des. 

P. Hg%yit to seek, to chase; m*Wr pre. JRRT$T perf. 
mftflT P *ut. aTRHfi^ aor. fflTRTfnfRf des. Pass. 
pre. 3TRTPr aor. 

10. U. to seek for, to go, to decorate. JTrfcrft-af pre. 

^%, &c. perf. RpfrQ^r p. ** 

aor. irrrqf^ , WrnRffT^T des. *rrfnT P. P. 

[ 10 U. ^ ^r ^r to sound, to purify, to wipe- 

pre. m^Hr^ir-^%, &o. perf. jrnri%r p. ft, 
aor. m^mr, Hnfftfre ben. ft*rnn3<?m-it des. 

T% 6 U. srjreut to throw, to scatter, to measure; finrfd, 
pre. irm, TR^T peif. RMT p. fut. RTTOS-ff 
amrFcT aor. jffcTRr , *mfi^ ben. m?Ff?H<r deg - 
pre. Cau. RmnT ft pre. HmR^tT aor. firftp. p. 

U. wvnf^OTt: to unite, to understand, to hurt, to seize;, 

pre. ffirw, ftffift'perf. ftft?rr.p. fat. 

aor. ffrrr, %wff^ ben. 


1 A. ttffi to be unctuous, to melt, to love; S^t pre. 
.M^P : fat.3Tm^,3TRl$s aor. trf^fe ben. 
, fftftf^T des. Oau.-^r^ri?T% pre. 
P- P. fof*r*T, Wfc*T ger. 

4 P. to melt, &c., SwpT pre. fRifcr perf . ftr^n p. f ut. 
aor. %-* des. 

U. ( aee f*nOSr*f?T% pre. &c. 
1 P. & 10 U ( eee ft^ 1 A. ) ; m^f^, ffir^fMt pre 

p. u. ar!7f 3Tmrf^-rT aor. 

to honour, to sprinkle; fflf?^ pre. 


6 U. t*IR to join, to be united; ftaft-it P^e. fflWoJ, 
perf . Rr%cTT P. fut. feftrarfHt f at. 3T^fi5^g;-rT oon. 
or 3TRT^ aor. ftl^%q^-^. TR^^m-?r des. 
pre. 3rfcfT aor. Oau.-%55?iT?r% pre. 3TTf&3^-fT aor. 
P- P. f^fcJ^T* *ri%f*r ger. 

1 P. ^T^ fn^ ^ to make a sound or noise, to be angry; 
Sr^rfiT P'e. f?lr^ perf. *j%cfr P. fnt. aT^r^aor. 
10 U. ^r% to mix, to mingle; ffttnri^-!r pre. 
. perf. ft^fqrsnr P. fat. 3TWf&^-rT aor. 
en. mffPHT5^% des. mmcT p.p. T?toffc*T ger. 
P. to open the eyes, to look at. fR^fS pre. ft^ perf 

p. fat. 3TR^ra[ w. fwftmm, fR^rmf^ des. 

1 P. ^TTK to wet, to sprinkle; Irafft pre. &c. see the above 

root, fftfrori, *rft?^T, ffirgr ger. 

1 P. %^T to make water, to wet; wsfff P. mife perf. *T?T 
p. fat. R^nt fut. 3TT%^^ aor. ffT^f^ des. Cau.-R^f^-^ 
pre. 3T*mRf^-fT aor. rifa p.p. ifrff^r ger. ^1* inf. 

4 A. ftrTf ( fi?*re srrarT^tiT: ) to die, perish; jft^ pre. 


ft^T per/. SparW fat. 3^^ aor. mrfufc des. Cu.-nnnil?r-?t 
pre. 3Tifow<r-?T aor. 

*ff ^ U. fiforaTflC to kill, to lessen, to change, to be lost 

tftenfir, iftsfft pre. irift, ft^ p*f. r?rr p. fat. awrffr^ 

aor. jfrqr^, WTffre bep. iSffrtfr-W des. Pass. 
pre. Cau. RTTOfS-lt pre. 3T*fm^-<T aor. jflcf p.p. 

1 P. & 10 U. ^?ft to go, to understand; Rqf^, nnj<?r-^ P*e. 

fronr, Rnnin^R-^^, &c. perf. ^?rr, wT^rftcTT p. fut. 3^^ 

iftr? 1 P. f*5TO to close ( as the eyes ); to twinkle, to be* 
closed or shut ( as the eyes of flowers ), to meet, to 
cause to shut; iftdfl pre. forfrw perf. jfr^rr P. fat fc 

aor. AifltS^ft dei. 
P. **Jte^ to grow fat; to move jfouft pre. mrfrT 

p. fut. srrfrfftTO aor. 

1 A. cfegch^ to deceive, to cheat; 
3Tg]%ar aor. 

6 U. ffrgrot to loose, to set free, to leave, to abandon; 

p*e. s^r, 55% P erf - WT^T p. fnt. 

3T5^ aor. g^n^, g$fte ben. 
iutran. ) des. Oau.-^r ! 5rq%% pre. 3TiJg^5-fT aor. 
g^f^F ger. 
or 553^; 1 P. & 10 U. $T5^ to cleanse, to purify, to sound. 

1 P. to *r$^ to crush, to grind, to kill, tfrefif pre. gRt perf 
WffefT P. fit. 3mufta aor - 

6 P 3Tr$lMHJmfVR% to blame, to crush, to bind; 557^ pre 
See the above root. 


10 U. %^rar% to pound, to break; jJiOTffl'-a' pre 

to crash, to grind; gajftf pre. J^Ud perf. 


p. fut. 

1 A. trra^r <renR *T *o protect, to run away; j<r<r% pre. 
perf. ?jr1jyrTTp.fut.3TSniro aor. gfoyfrgrbeD. Pass.^o^f pre. 

P. igv^ to shave, to grind; grnrff P* r . ggOT psrf. gfuadT 
p. fut. 3TSV?tct aor. Ssfo^fTff des. Cau.-gg^uj^-?f pie. 

A. m$R wsft m to sink; gcr^t pre. 
p. fat. 3Tgra?re aor. 

6 P. srfjqTT^ to promise-, ^on^ pre. gam perf. flTforfTT p 

fnt. ararofra; or. 

1 A. 5$ to rejoice, to be glad; JTT^ P re - 5ET P erf 
p. fat. ^Tft^g^ fut. 3TOTTT? aor. ^TTfTOT ben . 
Hlftf^a' des. gf^rf, Htf^tT p. P. 

10 U. ^f to mix, to blend, to purify; tfr^Q--^ pre. 
^ttf^fc Pfcrf. RT^WrTT P- f^t. 3^5^-^ aor. 

* P. 3%S^ to cover; g^ pre. g^T^ perf. 3TmCra[ aor. 

1 P. Wf^g^T^nfT.' to faint, to become senseless, to grow, 
to prevail, to be match for; q^fft P r . fg^tf P er ^. ^ 
p. fut. 3TJ^T$ aor. *l^^TcT ben. Can.-^x^tud-ff pre. 
aor. g^^OTT^ des. ^f%?T, ^JT P-P. 

1 P. rf\r> to bind, to tie ; &l\$ pre. gg perf gftfTT p. 
3Tgr^ aor. 

See . 

9 P. ^ to steal, to carry off; gcorri^ pre. g^ror 2nd sing. 
Impera. gjfrq" perf. Rtf^TT P. f Qfc 


or. g^rac ben. ggfirofit des. gffa p.p. gftcWT, *HPV ger. 

4 P. JJTJS^ to cleave, to divide- gwfif pre. g*tr per*. 

10 U. ^fcrfi* co heap up, to gather; g^rof^f pre. 
pert gprforTTP. fut. 318HW^-<T aor. 

4 P. |f%^- to faint, to swoon, to fall, to err, to be foolish. 
5UW P re - 5Tf perf. rff?rT, ^r^TT or tfrgT p. *o 
or j?T^Rr ^t. amtft'sq-gr^RY^nr con. 3T5f9[ aor - 
or gg^rfS des. Pass.-g^ pre. 
pre. ar^gf^ff aor. 5?^ or. q$ p.p. 
ger. Rh%gn, Rti^, Ht[ inf. 

1 A. ^r% to fasten, ts tie; i&fa pre. 55% perf . 

1 P. srmSTOn* to be firm, to stand f ast- ^rf^ pre. 
perf; i|fjcTT p. fut. 3Ti|5fig;aor. gijf^^r des. 

10 U. ffaft to plant, to sprout; 

^fSK part w^ftrTr P. ^t. lf g^^f aor. 
des. $i&3 p. p. 

1 P. *?r> to rob, to plunder; prm pre. g^ perf. 

aor. gijr^fS des. Oau.-rm^% pre. 3?83]TCC-ff aor. 

6 A. * STTOTfUlifr to die., to perish- fifaft pre. JTRfT Irf t 
p. fut. RRm% fat. 3T5 ?T aor. ^fhj ben. g*rq r |W des. Pass 
T%*m pre. Cau.-JTK*rHT-fr pre. ^*fm^-?f aor. q$ p.p. 
inf. ^r?^T ger. and the Desiderative. 

* It is Parasmaipadi in the Perfect, the two Futures, the 
Conditional and the Desiderative. 


1 P. *Tf T?T to strike, to collect; ^rar pre. im^ perf. 

4 P. <?T?snrrr to seek, to hunt, to examine,, to beg; 

perf. jrffcrr p. fut. jjfJpsrfir fat. 3W*!T^ aor. 5|flt?T p.p. 

10 A. 3F**oir to seek, &c. ? ^*ra?r pre. ^Rrna% perf. 
p. fat. 4J|ftujH fut. 3TM^*ld aor. mifq^Vg ben. 
des. Pass. ^nra pre. 3Tf nt aor. 

1 P. ^T^T$yfT^t: to wipe etcj irriflH pre. HITTW perf . ( See 
the root below ). 

2 P. FjfV to wipe off, to rule, to carry ( as a hone ), to 
adorn; *rfs pre. xnrr perf. nrfSr?TT or uref p. 

or wr?p5f?r fut. amtm^r^-amr^ con. amT^ or 

aor. ^nrra: DeD - ft^^Tff, WRrfS^ dea. Pass. ^jq^ pre. 
?mfif aor. Can. RnfaffMr pre- 3T*mT^-?T 3TRT?3T^-?T, aor. 
^, *m*RT p. p. 

10 U. ^^TcJp^T.' to wipe off &c.; ^Tsftrm^ p 

, perf. msft^n p. fat. nn*fo*<<T% fat. 

aor. Pass. HT3$t pre. STRlfif aor. 

6 &^9 P. ^^IH to be gracious, to pardon, to be delighted; 
and S^fTfa pro. JITO perf. ^fifcTT P. fat. 3mrffa[ aor. 

6 P. fjfanTTH to kill, to destroy; ^nn?r pre. JTJTO? perf. 

9 P. ^1^ to press, to crush, to kill, to rub off; ^jrjn^ pre. 
TO$ perf. Hf^ p. fut. nf!*^ fut. 3TRT3r^TrT x con. 
aor. Pass. ^TH pre. 3fj|f| aor. Oau. ^qi?r-ff pre. 
or aTRlT^-rT aor. fimf^rfir des. ^cT p. p. 

1 U. 3733 ( fJffnTTf ^T ) to be moist, to hurt, to kill, ( in the 
Vedas ) to dieregard; mfj^T pre. JTR^ or jr^ perf. 
aor. *fW, ^WT ger. 


6 P. 3JTJT5i% to touch, to shake, to consider; ^iVd pre. 
? perf , RET or ^^ p. *ut. ^^ft^ or a^rfff fut. 
aor. m^$rfft des. Pass. -^qar p 

aor. Oau. JT^fafiT-iT pre. ^jfT^^T^-cT or STRwr^-fT aor. 
P. P. ST ger. 

1 P. %^ to sprinkle, to bear; jjqiH prt. R^i perf. 
p. f ut. 3Wr% aor. Oau. jrfoft% pre. 3TH^-r 

1 U. ^Tf^r to bear, to sprinkle; jrq^% pre. ( See the follow- 
ing root for the other forms ). 

4 U. fm^TST^ *o suffer, to allow, to pardon; ^naim% pre. 
or TT^q- perf. *ffar p. fut. Ri^f^-?T *Qt, 3TR^ or 

aor. ffomf^ des. Pass. q**ft pre. Oau. - 
pre. ^T%^T qft^T, ger. 

10 U. to suffer &c. ; OT?rfS% pre. imT^i^TT-^, P rf . 
RrTT p. fut. ^jfT^T^-cT, 3TRlTOC-rT aor. 
9 P. if*T<lT^to hurt, to kiU- ^oiri^ pre. TOT* perf. 
or nrftHT p. fut. RK^lS or RfrofiT ^t. 3TOTflH aor. 

1 A. sjfor^TflT to exchange, to barter; qift pre. HPT perf. 
p. fut. RTWf?T fut. arerccT aor. RT^fl^ ben- ffrr^ des. Oau. 
pre. anfmq* X aor. Pass. jfni^ pre. 3THTI^ aor. 
P. to be mad; rjf^, ff^m pre. 

1 U.^TT^R^: to know, to hurt; fc^-% P'e. ft^T-^lf 
perf. RfafTT p. fut. sr^TW aor. 

1 U. ( ^fft ) to meet ( See the above root ) 
I A. ^ to go, to move; ?rq% pre. ftlft perf. 3Tfq^r aor. 
1 A. %^% to worship, to attend upon; ^r*?t pre. 

1 P. & 10 U. to release, to loose, to shedj 
pre. 5^r^T, *fh^l^fel*K~ ; q% perl. 


IP. 3TV3T% to repeat in the mind, to learn, to remember, 
to praise ( in the Vedas ); ir^f^ pro. utatr perf. wtmr P. *ut. 
ftrreriff ft. 3rorcfT3 &or. 473 or wUrr^b 
deb. Can. wfmf?T% pre. 3flTrB<l^-?T aor. Pass. 
aor. fT?r p.p. 

1 P. *Wf to collect, to strike; fRffft pre. mn$ perf. 
p. fat. arerrsfT^ <>'. 

10 U. #ftjf^ && ^^^r ^ to heap, to mix, to anoint. 
to speak indistinctly^ WsnTf^ pre. fT 

p. fut. 3T5RlT^^-?r aor. a^R, W^fWfe ben. 
1 A. *$< to ponnd; ^^ pre. R^ perf. wf^an* fat. 
3Wf^ or. ftirf^?r de. 

1 P. to go; ^rf?T pre. gfft^ pe'f. ^*Vm, 3WNh^ aor. 


1 P. to go; jraifar pre. gf^j perf. $f^i*rfft ***. ^Kf^Br^ aor. 

W des. |TTf> p.p. 5f%<^T> 5^^T ger. 

1 P. to be mad; fe( )fir P^e. 
10 U. to cut, to divide; 
perf. $^RmT p. Int. 

P. to go- wiY^fff pre. g*8t^ perf. 
fut. 3T or 

1 P. to go; *gsanr pre. g^g^i perf. 

P. & 10 U. 3Tsir% ^ ( 3WST^ 3TTOt W ) tospeak 
indistinctly or barbarously; *^^ld, 1^5 ^M-^ pre. 

P. p- 

or i^jj 1 P. ^yjrr to be mad : 9$zft or J^rft pre 

1 A.%^?r to worship, to serve; *%qfr pre. fffrg^ perr. 
fut. 3pdfc aor. 


1 P. 5 i|$r% to fade, to grow weary, to be sad; *5TRmr pre. 
fT^ perf . J^TrTT p. fat. ^TWIfT fat. 34 M 1*0 4 aor. 4^41414 
or *$mfr ben. Oau.^jrqirfif-ar pre. HftPoPHl-V aor. 
des. Pass. fgrroft per. 8T*oJTi$r tor. *fcR p. p. 

1 P. to stir, to move; *r$rt?r pre. mr$r perf. qfgrar p. ft. 
3TO$fiat aor. 

10 A. ^mi^ to honour, to adore ; irqfift pre. i^nn^l^ 
perf. q-^rfiRTr P- fut. 3WW?T aor. ?yRnr P.p. 

1 U. 4^i^dl^*lMiUNq1H^IHl to sacntiee, to make an 
oblation to, to give, to associate with; rofiNt P*e. 
. TCf P. fat. q-^irm-ff fat. ^f^^^r con. 

da.), &qz aor. 4^1^, niftc ben. ftq*rm-*t des. 
Paas f^m pre. srorBr aor. Oau. irnrafir-% pw. 
^nra;-fT aoi. ft p.p. *ff, ^rf*nw ger. 115^ inf. 

1 A. xnr^ to attempt, to strive after, to labour, &c ; 
pre. ^ perf . ?rSrm p. fat. qflr^r^ f at. 8Tgf?|Rr aor. 
ben. fimm^ de. Pa88.-q-??Tfr P*e. 3rq-rf5lr aor. Oau. 
^ pre. 8T<fara^rT aor. ^JT p.p. sfitW, ^W ger. 

10 U. EtelfTMreUJft: to injure, to encourage, 

aor. i^irrqrf^rfit-^ del. 

?TC 10 U. TOt% to restrain, &c ; *THnxfi!r-flr P re - 
, &c. perf. ifrsrfarr p. fut. 

aor. WT53rft^T%-% des. Pass. *r?wrfr re. qrf?sr?r p.p. 

to cohabit; *Tirfo pre. ^mr perf. ?rrT fat. 
fut. anre^r^ con. anrrctfrS aor. Can. ^nnrf^% pre. 
aor. nfrrcair des. 

I P> 3^Tr to check, to offer, to lift up, to go, to show, T 5 ^ 
perf. ipwr p. fat. ^flr fut. 3rt^ con. 


-<T aor. Pass -*rwr?r pre. S?T p. p. UW ger 
10 U. qfi^fc to surroand; ^m^-% P*e. 3rfnm^-?T or 
4 P. srq^ to strive, to endeavour; TOf?r.*iwrtt pre. 
perf . trffTCTT P. *at. ^fif^fS fat. 3TTO^ aor. Oau. 
pre. (with3Tf A. only) TOT p- p. *wNr, **?*T ger 

ITT 2 P. siRfr ( 5T^ lf?fs ) to do, to invade, to pass away; 
pre. mft perf. uiHT ? ^t. ureifft ^t. 3 
bea. ftqrafw de. PaM.^Tq>T pre. Oen. ^T<R1W% pre. 
3rfR<T^.-?T aor. npf p. p. ?nmT, SHTHT ger. m<j^ inf. 

1 P. A. qr^WPI to beg, to demand in marriage; 

pre. *nrra-iraT% perf. qr^RTT p. fnt. qiftsqft-fr fat. 
3T^T^, 3WTft^r or. mIT^, iH^frsr ben. 
pre. 3TOT*S-ff or. ?jn%?r p. p. qift^T ger. 

2 P. msrdrtffarat ^ to join, to separate,, lunr pre. 
perf. qffcrr p. fnt. ^NUjQ fut. 3^^ aor. ^r^ ben. 
or ft^mfS de. Pass. ^m pre. armw aor. 

pre. 3T<fannfcflr aor. ^ p. p. 

9 U. ^r^r to join, to mix; ^m or 5^1% prt>. qinw or 
perf. ^fiTT p..^tt. ^TGiifS'% fot. arqHr^or srqr^ aor. 
vNr? ben. 5^j|fS% des. 5?r p. p- 

10 A. sjgtOTan^ to censnre; qpnr^ pre. UFplTii% perf. 

P. fot. snftn^cT aor. mronfoRT ^e. 

- ****& ** nnite &0 > 'T3TTH pre. 5^nr perf. ^frCT P- int 
r. 55i?r des. 

4 A. ^rm to concentrate the mind; g>*rar pre. 53^ perf. 
p. fnt. qtWT fat. 3Wr^r?r con. arg^y aor. 5^5 ben. 
des. Caa.-uTsHqfd-fT pre. 3T^S5f^?T aor. 

* q^ not preceded by a preposition except 31^ optionally 
belongs to the 1st conj. 


7 U. iftit to unite, to put to, to appoint, to give, to 
prepare, &c ; 3*1% or 5^ pro. ^jfnr or 35^ parf. iffajT p. 
fat. iftgirnHt fat. 3Tg3T^, Htftofat or H5^ aor. 
g$fre ben. Pass.-g5<r% pre. Cau.-tffanri^-rt pre. 
*T aor. S5$?T%-% des. 5^ p. p. 

10 U. H*m> to join, &c; lfMHfd-% P' 

perl ijmfirrrr P. *ut. ifmf&^vf^-ff fat. n^53T^Hf aor. 

10 A. to censure; ifhnrifr pre. 

1 A. *l*R to shine; qrot pre. 55% perf. ifrfasim fat. 

WTfite aor. 

4 A. *hrffr to fight, to conqaer in fight; jpqrf pro. 

perf. ifr^T P- ^Qt. ift^gif f"t. 3nftfW?T con. 3^5^ aor. 

ben. Pa93.-5rlr pre. 3Tfrf^ aor. Oau. 4f^in%-% pre. 

3fljisn*-?r aor. ggffrit des. 3^ p. p. 

4 P. f^iftfW to blot out, to trouble, to make smooth; 
pe. 30^ perf. fftfqm P- fat. 3Tg^aor. 

1 r ufftnn^ to injure, to kill, qjfii pte 

1 A. srqr> to try, to attempt; i^r pw. T^q^ perf. 


1 P. to join, together; *fte(*)ft pre 

1 P. ir^r to move, to flow; f^ft pre. ^rf perf. 
p. fat. 3Rg^ aor. Oan.--^^^ pre. aretfa; 5f aor. 

10 U. 4144144 JTnfir Wi to taste, to get ; iifciffo ^r pxe. 
f.KbOfll p. fat. TT*q I ***>'! *-^% perf. ^fl^^Hy ao*. Also 



^3T 1 P. qT5OT to protect, to avoid, ^^ pr0. ffff perf. 

p. fiit. *f5?KTTO ^t. 3TT$fra; aor. TSSnj ben. Pa98.-?$*rft pre. 
Oau.-*$rora-?f pro. 3*TTSTrTr<T aor. KTWm des. ?ftm p. p. 

j^ 1 P. to go, to move; ^f^ P*e. Tfn* perf. STTff T^ , 3TCT*fa 

^ i P. 3Tf rent; to doubt ; *HJH pre. ^r*r pet f . 

^ 1 P. to go, to move; ?%fo pre. ^1* pe'f. 3Tnfra. aor - 

^ 1 U. to go quick ; T^ra'-W P'e. ^f^, n^T perf . tnTrTT p. fat. 

3Tbfao 3T^W aor - 
T^ 10 U. to shine, to speak ; S^njfa 1 -^ pre. ^ 

10 U. qfn'q'r^ to arrange, to make, to write, to adorn, to 
direct; T^Tf?T% pre. r*Tirai$re-^ perf. t^wxn p. fut. 
fat. 3T^^^H-tT aor. fcrgWTO-k des. ^f%n p. p. 

1 & 4 U. ^fit to be coloured, to paint, to be pleased, to be 
devoted to, to be in love wilh ; T3?f%%, f S*nTT-?T pie. 
^^ perf. ^^r p.fat. t^^-k fut. 3Tr^r^-(T c 
or 3TC^ aor. wn^ or ^^ ben. RWT?T% des. Can. 
to dye, &c. T^wf^-^ P*e. 3TTT^^-rf aor. to hunt deer, 
P'e. 3TOrH^-fT aor. Paae.-rsifar pre. ^n^. p. p. 
(1) rnr^, ^TUT^ (4) preStp. 

1 P. qfoTTW to shout, to call out, to sbout with joy; 
pre. 5H[T2r perf. f fecTT p. fut. 3TO?T^, 3TWF^ aor. ffffff p. p . 
1 P. to speak; ^pr pre. ^TJ perf. 

1 P. 5r to sound, to go, to rejoice ( in the Vedas ); 
pre. ^TOT perf. ^foRTT p. fat. 3TTOI^, smtiftl aor. Oau. 

IP. ft^% to split; to gnaw, to dig; ^pf^ pre. ?*pf perfj 
P. fat. tf^lfiT fat. 3TC^ or anT^ aor. RT^ffS" des. 


:) to hurt, to destroy, to 
subdue, to finish, to accomplish, ( to be completed, in the- 
Vedas ); rsilS P*e. *f^ perf. * ffol or ^ p. Int. <fttqft 
or TO^rer fat. 3T*ftifaj^3TC?^ con. 3^^ aor. Pass. 
*u& pre. 3TT^r aor. Oau. jrtnrf^% P*e. STCJr^-ar aor. 
ftf fifafR, ft^^tifl <ks. ^f p.p. 

I P. otronrf *Tfir to speak distinctly, to praise ( in the 

Vedas); ^qfirpre. ^r<Tperf. STfqraL^nfT^, aor. 

IP. fjfcnrzit ^ ** to go, to hurt ; fqrS pre. ^n? perf . 

1 A. ^TYT^ to begin, to embrace, to long for, to act rashly f 
r% pre. %^r perf. ^JTT p. fat. T**1?T fat. 3TfHqK con. 
aor. ^c^n^ ben. ftc^r^ des. Cau.^wnift-^ pre. 
aor. Pass -^PKT pre. grrf>T aor. ^r P p. 

1 A. to play, to rejoice at, to take rest; Tuifrpre. ^ perf, 
p. fat. TWf fut. srtWrT con. arhcf, with ft, str^ffT^ tor. 
ff^W des. Pass. ^q^r pre. Oau. ?rwfc-% pre. 
aor. ^<T p. p. T?3T, 3TTCT, 3TTC?T ger. 

1 P. ^[ to sound ; ^m^ pre. ^^ perf. *fa*i?r fut. 

1 A. to go, to movej ^j?r pre. ^ perf. ^%rr p. fat. 
aor. f ftff p. p. 

IP. ^r^f to roar, to make a noise, to sing, to praise ( in the 

Vedaa ) ; r^f?r pre. T?T^T peif. ffifcTT P- 


* It is Parasm. when it is preceded by ft, 3TT, qft and 


10 U. Sffwr^r^^fift: to taste, to feel, ^nrf?Ht pre. m- 
HI'dHfrU^fr perf . 3K<^-(T aor 

1 P. nriit to quit, to desert; ff/t pre. *fff perf. *t?KT p. 
fat. tft*^ fat. 3*^ aor - r%$Tfir defl. 

10 U. amr to leave, to abandon; Tfuft-fr pre. 
'cffc perf. Tfnmr P. fat. iSfS^fl-ifr 'at. 31TTTC-H aor. 
P.p. *ffo?*T ger. 

2 P. ^r% to give, to bestow, nfif pre. ^ perf. ficTT P. 

aor. Oau.-nwfS-fr pre. ^fliq-a aor. 

^ p - 3ilim<!W&i1: to be dry, to adorn, to be able, to 

suffice; *TWfa P'e. TTW perf. amtfr^aor. 

1 A. wm$ to be able; n^T P". ^m perf. fri%*Rf fut. 

1 U. afnft to shine, to glitter, to appear, to direct, to 
be at the h^ad; fnirf?H* pre. ^T3T, ^T, ^ p***- 

p. fit. ^rf^qrfir-^ fut. arn^irac,, Hfn%r aor. 

flRltfte ben. f?^n%qft-% des. ^|f5|fl p. p. 


4 P. ^ to grow, to prosper; ^TWTW pre ^HT perf. 

p. fut. n?Wf?T fat. STTTrW^ con. fTWT^ ben. 

dual ) aor. Cau.-arfhreH:* aor. f?fr?^f& des 

^rmt ^ to accomplish, to kill, to propitiate, 
Pre. ^T^r(2nd sing, with 3TT, 

wishes to kill ) des. *reg 
1 A. ?JT^[ to cry, to yell, to sound; 
grnftrc aor. far<%q?t des. 
ft 6 P. to go, to move; |^n% pre, ftriq- perf. ^rr^ fut. 

8Tf *f?5 aor. 

ft 5 P. to hart; fiofrf^ pre. ( Vedic ). ftffrtff ^es. 
ft 9 U. to drive oat, to expel, to go .to lurt, to emit, to 
keparate. ( in the V*dae ); ftorr^, ftofi^ pre. 
H. 8. G. 43 


l P. n*r to go;>*rfcT pre. fi^r perf. ?f$r**fr fat. af*^ aor. 

or ft w 1 P. mV to crawl, to creep, to go slowly; fqpft or 
f?Wfar pre. ftftf or fifi^ perf. arfrffcr , srfc^ifr^ ao *- 
7 U. f?T^T7 to empty, to clear, to deprive of, to give up, 
or frig 1 pre. fi^r or fJR%- perf. ^yr p. fnfc. 
^q7j-?r COD. arft^*, aftsft^ , 3riTr|> aor. 
i? ben. Pass. f^qfr pr*. 3T>f% aor 
pre. 3Tfrft^^-cT aor. ftf?^T?T-?r des. RrF p.p. H^?fT ger. 

1 & 10 P f^iM^H^^M^HiTi: to divide, to leave, to come 
tog-ther; ?^r?T, T^Tim, pre. frr*- ^^rqraj^rr perf. 3T>$ft^, 
aor. fTT?^ffr ft^Tliq^lft-jf des. Vf%?T p. P. 

to boa^t, to speak, to fight, 

to utter a rough grafing sound, to give fNnw pre. 
perf. Vr%rfTp. fut. af^r^ aor. ftRf^TT^ fitfW& dee. 
PfiTff P.p. ( also written a* ftg ). 

1 A . to crackle, to murmur, to chatter; ^fif pre. fnT^" Prf. 
6 P. to hurt, to kill; f^FTHr pre. ftR^ir perf. m^HfT P^ 
f a* . 3<R*q>H aor - 

P. |JHr<iMC to tear, to injure, f^rfa P r e. f^5T perf . ^rr 
p. fat. f^nS fat. aft^T^con. 3|ft^^ aor. KK^Tlff dea. 

1 & 4 P. f^rnn^to kill, to fail, to perish, to be injured;. 
Wf, ft^HrT pre. ft^ perf, ^|^ or ^gr P 
fot. 3,>^ ( 1st cl. ), BTTT?^ ( 4th cl. ) aor. 
des. f^r p.p. 

4 A. ^r^ to trickle, to ooze, to flow; foft pre. fi% perf. 
int. a^f aor. 

9 P. Jififrvinft: to go, to Injure, to howl; ftirrft pre. 
perf. T*Tft fu t. 3T<:^ aor. ftf^ni des. 

1 U. to take, ta cover; Creft-ft pre. 

1 A. *rfaftTO$r: to go, to hurt, to break to pieces (in the 


Vedas ); TO* pre. 55% perf. ^^r P- frt. s^ft? wr. Oao.- 
Tr*Tfft% P*e. aWT*^-?! pre. ^^ des. 

2 P. $75^ to cry, to yell, to ham as bses, to sound in gene* 
ral; frff or ^frm pre. **TW perf. rffcrf p. fat. T^TORf fut. 
5*rrf r^ aor. ^7f^ ben. ^sxft des. Pass. ^m pro. Oau. 

n^rf?r% pre. &? p.p. 

1 A. ^TTgrpTjfTrfr ^ to shine, to look beautiful, to be pleased 
with ( a person ); fpOT pre. ^^% perf. ftl%fTT p. fut. rrf%- 
T^r fat. 3TS^> 3Trrf^ aor. R|^ f STTFnft des. Oau. 
-Ttxrq^ pre. 3T^$^T aor. ^nf p.p. 

6 P. qrjp to break to pieces, to afflict, to pain; ^rirfrr pre. 

sftar P drf - *ra>r P- fut - *i$*fit ^t. srftgfr 
dual ). aor. Oau. frsrafff-FT pre. 3T^^T^-?f aor. 
*ror p.p. ^F^T ger. 

10 U. ft^fq-r^ to hurt, to kill; frsnrft-^ pre. 
perf. Tt3ffir?Tr P. fat. 3T^T3Ta:-?T aor. 

I A. q-Krerar to strike dosm-, fr?ff pre. ?f^r perf. 

10 U. to obstruct, to resist, to shine, to speak* 
pre. fl?qi*xr^fT-^% P9' f . ^^i^-cT aor. 

1 P. g-<nrrar to strike; flr^f?r pre. ^O7 perf. frf^lUr fut. 

10 U. *TTTWt ^rf ^ to speak, to shine; ffer*flr% fut. 
fJTiS^^-^ perf. 3T^^qcT aor. 
1 A. to resist, to oppose, to torment, to sufiSr pain; 
pre. ^^r perf. 

I P. ^ to rob, steal; ^ir^Rf pre. ^J perf. sr^JTT^ Aor 
Pas?. ^r<raw pre. 3T^fa? aor. 

1 P. to go, to steal, to tame, to oppose; ^ujfff pr<. 
perf. This is the same as the above root; also written as 

2 P. ir&ftlifr^ to cry, to weep, to roar; Tfferlr pre 


Imperf . ^ct^ perf. tf%r P. fat. 3?^ or 
aor. ww^ ben. ^f^M des. Pass. ?5*Rf P*e. 3^lf^ aor. 
Oau. TTFrfa-fc pre. 3T^f^-?f aor. tffcf p.p. 
4 A. ( with 3t5 ) OTfr to dasire, to obey., ^sqft pre. 55% perf. 
*T?sre fat. srar aor. ^^ dee. 

7 U. 3*mut to besiege, to oppose, to hold up, to oppress; 
*Uft% or ^ pre.^ ^far or ^^ perf. ^[T P. fat. d^A% 
fut. BT^T?? atttafiigj 3H^5[ ( ST^sSiTH, 31^r^MliC clal ) aor. 
^^TO , ^^TO ben. ^^^n%-?r des. Pass.-^cq^r pre. vmft 
or. Can. ^rWl?l% P'e. 3TC$^cT aor. ^[ p.p. fng^ inf. 

4 P. f^WT5^ to confound, to suffer, to violate, to x pain 
( in the Vedas ), to diiturb; ^cq^ pre. ^^ perf. a^i^aor. 
Omu.-rt^rft-^ pw. ar^^q^aor. ^^ft^ft, ^jfWar dea. 
6 P. f^rnn^ to hurt, to destroy, ^^ftr pre. 5^ perf. 
9^fT^ aor. TO$ri9 des. 

10 U. 1 P. Tflrnrof fmV ^ to speak, to ihine; 
pre. ^r^itS, ^flr^ft fat. 

1 P. fgepTT^ to kill, to hurt, to be annoyed; 

perf. frf%?fT or TOT p. fa fc TinfrtSr fat. armii 

^tiWar des. ^fffWT, frffoT, ^r ger. f|%^, ftj^ inf. 

4 P. to kill, to hurt, to vex; ?ro1?r pre. 9T^!f^ aor. ( For 

the other forms see the above root ). 

10 U. fi% to be angry. fHirft-it pre. aT*$W$-ff aor. 

1 P. ^MsHrUK m&fo ** to grow, to increase, to rise, to 

reach; fiflS pre. ^riy perf. fa p. fut. Tfr$rS fu^. 

ben. STCSTfT aor. **%& des. ^^ p.p. 

10 U. qr^^ to be rough, to be unkind, to mak* dry, ( in 

the Vedas ) ^r^ffi-^ pre. *$raT3rerc ^T9 pert. ^n%lT P- 

fat. aTC^srerlf aor - 

10 U. ^q-f9Rtn*rra[ to find oat, to form, to consider, to fiz> 

to appoint; ^qir?cT-Sr pre 

fat. a^^^qqcT aor. wrre^fir-ft des. 


1 P. ^JFTR to adorn, to decorate, to anoint; CTft P re . 

5^ pe'f. sfararr p. fat. unsfa; aor. ^j^f p.p. 

1 A. gifiq} to donbt, to inspeotj ^sft pre. f^% perf . 
fut. aftfissr aor * 
1 A. to shine, to shake; ^sft 1 pre. 

1 U. <rftirnrir to apeak, to ask; ^ft pre. fife perf. 

1 A. to go; ^r pre. ^r9*q^ f ut. aftftfc aor. 
1 A. %f*% to sound, to low; ^r% pre. 
1 A. BT3H% ?^ to ntter an indistinct sound, to neigh; 
pre. f$% perf. iffin p. fut. aftfar aor. %% p.p. (Also 
written as ^). 

1 P. to sound, to bark at; n*Rr pre. & perf. 3mfffe *or 

P. SRTf* ^?WI^ ^T to despise; jfrfc pre. ^t^ perf. 
( ^ also ) 1 P. to despise, ffefir, forTf pre. 

& - 

10 U. 3TR*T5% sTT^ir ^ to taste, to obtain; STCTfcfr pre. 

p. fat. 3TSJfi$$>9t"<T aor. 

A. an^Jt^ to perceive, to observe; &qfa pre. ^y^r perf. 
5J%tTt P. fat. 3^fTO aor. 3J$rfirfte ben. 
10 U- ^RTfsnffi to notice, to define, to regard; 5^rr%4T 
pre. ^^nTT^i^K-^flff &o. perf. ^^Ndl P.. fat. ^rf^tHdrcT aor 

pp. fir^^^r%-* de . 

1 P. to go; srofir or ^jft pre. 

1 P. ^ to attach oneself to, to touch, to meet, to follow 
closely; fljifft pre. ^^riT perf. ^Rmr p. f^t. ^^ifi^ aor. fj^- 
Pmft des. 551T P.P. 

10 U. 8TTC*T^T srnft ^ to taste, to obtain; snnrffr% pre. 

p. fat. 3T^9<f^-fT aor. 


1 P. to go, to go lame; ejfrlrl pre. 

1 P. 5rt*Ffr to dry, (iftqraf 5l*ft *fllTTra*fiW ^r ) to speak, to 
shine, to transgress; A. ireret Ht3Trrf*^Tft ^ to go, to fast; 

3?<?nre aor. SJI^RT p. p. 

10 U. to speak, to shine-, ctosrm-fr pie. ^i*TWjfff% fut. 

1 P. 5J$Tflf to mark; <j5xuf% p*e. ^^^3T perf. 

1 P. *rr to fry; 5J5TUT per. a^FST perf. 5Ji^<TT p. fat. 3tJ- 
*ft<^, STcJl^fT^ aor. ( Also written as &** ). 

6 A. sfi5% to be ashamed; ^nr^ P*e. ^st perf. ^yf^TtTT P- fnt. 
3T5yf^^ aor. i%^rf^^ des. 555- p.p. 

10 U. ST^T^r^ to appear; <gfraf3-^; 3TWn^t to conceal, cjnf- 
^ifff 3" p f e. ^ITini^Tf-^r^ SJnreT^ISRTT ^99 & c - perf. ^yiT- 

1 P. i^HT3^?Rf%%rRS vrr^rTt ^TRT ^T to kill, to be 
powerful, to take, to dwell, to speak, to shine; 33?]^ pre. 
51 perf. 3TO3fhl aor. 

U. ( see the above root ) to give also; cZ^nrfft-% pre. 

[^5 perf. c^^f^cir P. fut. 

1 P. ^r^q- to be or act like a child, to prattle, to cry; 
pre. <?<(< perf. 3T9^ftI aor. 
1 P. flaflT to play, to sport; gsffi pre. v&ifa 
10 U. 3q%3T3T to fondle, to caress; 55r*jfd-% pre. 

^1T-^% perf. STcJtofeq^cT aor. 


1 P. s^rhrur VTT% to talk in genera), to wail, to whisper, 
to lament* {$<r|rT pre. jgjojm perf. ^jpfar p. fat. 3 
H aor. Oau. -<>jmt|fii-?t pre. ^IcfldMtt-Q aor 

'A. srnft to get, to take, to have, to be able, &c. ; ^^ P re . 


perf. $j5\n p. fut. oroq?r fut. 3T5MT aor. f&c^ff des. Oau.- 
pre. 3Tc5c5^^rf aor. 555^ p. p. 

1 A. sfl% 3*3^% ^ to sound, to hang down, to eii k, &c.j 
. 5555^ perf. afttRTT p. fut. 3T9f*3* aor. Pass. 
e. *T$5if aor. Cau. $3wrqj?r-?r pro. H33*^;cT aor. 
des. sferT ]>. P. 

1 A. to go, to move; 55^ pre. ^q- perf. grf^r p. fut. 3T5J1TO 

1 P. to go, to move; 55^ pre. 5jg^ perf. 3^^ aor. 

1 P. RoJl^T to play, to move about. ^jf^ pre. cJ^rsr P er *. 
lt. 3T55^iq[ aor. f55oJRim des. Cau, 
aor. 55^ P. p. 

10 A. fc^rqt to desire, to fondle; $JT3TO^ P re . 
perf. ^rafqfrr p. iut. ^STSgrf aor. T%9To5ftqrr & 
10 U. f^qiJjr to use any art; ^5171^-^ pre. 
=gfo perf. 3T$Ji^5i^ a aor. V. 1. for 5*3;. 

1 & 4 U. $Rft to wish, to long for; 9^m-^, 5JW7M-^ pre. 
99TT or g% perf. afq^T P- ^t.3T9ft^, 3T9Til^ 9?9m > ft or. 

^tofrrid d ^ s . 9i%?r p. p. 

1 P. s0quT5RT^^qr: to appear, to embrace, to play, to 
shine; $rofff P. cS^TfT perf. ^Rfcft P. ***. 
aor. Oau. 3T*RT%-*T P'e. 3J9T9^rcT aor. 
cjRlcf P. P- 

10U.f^?q*n<t See 55^ above. 

A. gfa% to be ashamed, to blush; 5T3f?T pre. 5y^^ perf. 
P. ft. 8?5Ji^^ aor. Pass. S3?qft pre. 3???% aor. 
Oau 321%% r e. T93--?T aoi. 

9?T P- P- 

2 P. 3rr?T^ ^T% ^ to take, to obtain; anfr pre. 

grr^r p. fut. 3T$JT*ftgt aor. Oau. anrefiW*, ^T97w% ( to 

cauay to melt ) pre. 3T$5TOTSrcT, 3T#r97gt-*r aor. l%9Tfrfir de. 


P. 3l1HUItfHv5<ft; to be dry, to adorn, to suffice; 
P*e. ^WKSMO, aor. Can. MI<flUft%- 

1 A. ^m? to b eqnal to or able-, &i*fr pre. ararftre aor. 
or afa$ 1 P. *(% ^^ ^ to fr y> to blame* araiffr or 
pre. ar&refftf , STcJTsftq^Aor, 

P. SSTOt to mark. JT5^ pre. WJlJl^ aor. 
P. T^Tf^rr& to write, to rub, to touch, to peck af a 
bird; few% pre. f^gr perf. %r%<TF p. fnt. gq%^ aor. 
or /&Sl%mt des. Oau -^nS% pre. 

1 P. to go, to move; feff* P*e. 

1 P, to go, to move; \&yft pre. i%f^p perf. r %|%?TT p. 

aor - ^%r P. P. 

inflect (noun); 
p. <t 


6 U. ^[| ( gq^ft ff^[: ) to anoint, to cover, to stain; 

IOT perf. &HT p. *nt. &c^ri^% fut. 

aor, Oau. %qqf&-^ pre. 3TofTl%^-ff aor. 
des. f^ p. p. 

A. 3^fn?|% to be email or reduced; f^J% fat. 
perf. %^ fut. 3Ti%5^T aor. Cau.-?fc$nnfS% pre. 
aor. fJ?%^ des. f^ p. p. 

6 P. to go; fitaiift pre. Q$r perf. 3R!^d, aor. ftft^f^ des. 
2 U. 3nm^ to lick, to taste; $r%, 5^* pre. Ufa, 
perf. ^r P- fat.^rr%% fut. 3rf^f^-?r, Vfift* aor. 
^fr Den. T%%^-W des. gf^ p. p. 
1 P. & 10 U. gflerik to melt, to diesolve; 

pre. i%^nr annnwJTT-^rfc &c. perf. 

aor. TO^wf?f) ftciMN^ffi-^ des. 
4 A. %ro to stick, to lie on ; 


p. fat. o&tutr, $IHJ<1 fut. 

ben. Can. dUjqfl-fr pre. |%cfrq% des. &i* p.p. 

eft 9 P. sgro to adhere, to melt ; fo^TlS P'e. f&5JPT, B55> perf . 
&IT, 55KTT ?. ftt. ^*jft, OTWfiT fut. 3^5, 3JT*fa[ aor. 
Id of H Iff des. 

1 P. 3?g^q^- to pluck, to pull, to tear off. 5331% pre. 5531 
perf. g.%<TT P. ^t. H^fr^ aor. gfgfwm dea. gr%f p.p. 

1 P. & 10 U. fSqNtfT$MM&TiT5 WTTqt ^inV ^T to kill, to 

be strong &c. ^^f^, g^im^r pre. arg 5 ^, argg^rS aor - 
1 A. qfrt^T to oppose- tHW pre. 53% perf. 3n?<U P. 'nt. 
^l^dd , 3T$yf l^8T aor. g"^ft^ des. 

1 P. fsh?jte% to roll, to wallow on the ground ; wzfy pre. 
5Jte perf. ^lf%cTr p. fut. 3T^r#T^ aor. 5^^ or g<0iQqifl 
des. Oau. ^t?^l%% P'e- 3Tc5S?T^-cT, 3Ts55Jte^-?T *** 

^ftn, ^ffer p. P. 

4P. to roll, &c., g^rfff pre. g^ perf. Stf^rTT p. fut; 
^^^d; aor. ( See the above root for the other forme. ) 

6 P. (fsrf^: ) ^sg^t see g^ below. 

10 TJ. JfFTnif ?Tfft ^ to speak, to shine; 3fcnri&% P'e. 
5t^n^^TT-^K &c. perf. ^gftcU p. fu^. 

1 P. g-q^rf^ to strike, to knock down-, ^fd P'e. 
perf. 3TfiffT p. ft. 3T^nrT^aor. Cau. 3T^S^^-fT, 
^-ff aor. 

1 A. jrfenrra to oppose, to roll; &\tt P^- 33* P rf . 
^tfi^TT P. fat. 3Tg<r, ^IcJl'Qe a< > r - 

6P. JBJ^ot (f*ri%:) tc wallow; 571% P. g^ftj perf. 
aor ft des - 


1 P. f%S5t3^r to stir, to churn ; ?yt^T^ pre. ^yrg" perf. 
- d 

p. fut. 3T5JT5^-aor. Oau. te*nfT-fr pre. 


6 P. ( ^rrf: ) to cover, to adhere ; g^fa pre. ( See gy 
above for the other forms. ) 

1 P. ^r> to rob, to be lazy ; guafa pre. gguff perf 
Sfo^wift fat. 3fgOdY3 aor. 

gu^ 10 U. see ^03- below. 

P. STI^qr srifnrnt^T to be idle, to agitate; guaft pre. 
gfSawm ft. argusrg; aor. Oau. gusnrfff-a pre. 
cT aor. ggfu^fifr des. 

10 U. *?rq- to rob, to plunder ; gU^fS-l* pre. 
fut. 3T5^7^-rT aor. 

g0S; 10 U: to plunder 5 gg^rrS% pn>. ^o^(j|^^K-^^ perf. 
( Same as ^05 ) 

P. ff^rfe^T^fr: to strike, to kill; 
perf. gf?^Qm fat. 3^?aft^ aor. 

4 P. f%f|t5% to confound, to be destroyed j ^cq-r^ pre. 
perf. cfif^tir p. fut. 3*^^ aor. Oau. ^rrqrfr-^ pre. 
^fT, 3T^yiT^-cT aor. ^5^1%, ^infanr> des. 
SN^r, cfn^f^T ger. ff p. p. 

6 tJ. ^-^ to break, to take away, to seize, to suppress; 
^WTT^-% pre. 5<?r<T> $5$^ perf. ^ytRT P- fat. *IQV^, 3T^pET 
aor. gcqr^, ^c^ ben. g^^rm-^ des. Pass. gccr> P'e. 
3^tiqp aor. Can. ( See the above root ) ; gff p. p 

1 & 4 P. mS to covet, to be perplexed ; ^mm, ^vqr?^ pre. 
g^ytr perf. 5^mtTT, c^TT p. fat. 3r^p(0q ( 1 ) 3?$^ ( 4 ) 
aor. Cau. ^twn?T% pre. 3T5j5j^-cT aor. 
TH^rfff des. gsr P. P. 

6 P. f%Rrf% to be bewildered, to confound 

^5Tr*fr^ aor. ^far p. P. 

1 P. 3^ to torment, 5^?% pre. 3jg*fl^ Aor. 
9 U. ^gr% to divide, to cut off j 


perf. cJittTT p. fut. 3?gmfhr, ^f^ aor. 
g35Tff-?t des. Can. <jnroilT-?r pre. $5 p. p. 

1 P. >I5PTti <*!% pre. 53^ perf. 3^5^ aor. 

10 U. ffflrot to injure, to rob; ^wft-flr P r *. 
*tt perf. 3T<5TO-rT aor. 
JFJ 4 P. f^5T t' stumble ; 55^1% P'e. 3T^frg; aor. 
1 A. to go, to worship ; &*fc pre. 3T$5pre aor. 
1 P. to go, to send, to embrace; ^orffT pre. ST^ofriT aor. 

1 A. ^r^r to see. to perceive; 5ji^ pre. jgff% perf. 5fTT%HT 
p. fut. 3T5Tni^ aor. ^^1%^ des. Can. 8*r$!rnT-;t pre. 
3T3^rfv?T-?r aor. 5Jrf5i<T p. p. 

10 U. *?nnrt ^-gr ^ to behold, to shine, to know, to seek; 
?r pre. sft-Etrf^FTT-^ perf. sftseftrU P- ^*. 3Tg-" 
aor. ^r^rgqr^-^ des, 
.^^ to 8e ; ^ft^rR 1 pre. ^T% perf. BTi'%rTT p. fut. 

aor. 5Jif%ff p. p. 
10 U. to speak, to shine. $yi^niTff-?r pre. cJt^^nSI^TT ^T^- 

n^-r^ peif. afra%r P. fut. 3Tf^Tr^-?r aor. (See #r^ 

10 above). 

1 P. *t?3 tfvf* ^& ^ to deceive, to precede- sfeft pre. 

perf. 3TsfreK aor - 
A. fhrfar to heap up; &}<&< pre. ^"ig- peif. 3Tatl%5 > aor. 

1 P. ?ft H^ ^T to be angry, to grow ; *$rf& P*e. Sfar^T perf. 

t. 3T^^fr?l aor. 

1 P. to go, to move; ^^f?f, grf m P'e. ^T 
1 A. ^rf?^T I^T ^ to be crooked, to go; *$% pre. 
1 P. to go ; ?npf^ pre. ; same as ^5 


2 P. qftwtfT to speak, to relate, *frF pre. ^rpET perf. 

P. fat. *r$*rft fat. aret^a; aor. 7*qr5 ben. ft^rfft des. 

Oau. srnEnrfer-% pre. g^fhr^-W aor. 

1 P. & 10 U r to peak, to read, ref?*, *rxnrfiir% p*e. 
^TT-'Sfsfc', &0- perf. *rET> Jl^fftdT P. fat. 

aor. ^rw, 'srrTcf p. P. 

1 P. to go, to roam about, *3ff^ pre. ^rnr perf. ?fTfir p. 
fet. ^R^[, arenft^ aor. 

10 U. to trim, to go; ^r^^-% pre. e(Mm*THH &o. 


P. to go> to arrive at, srarlf pre. ^^ perf. ^i%?fTp. fut. 
aor. fi-^i^f^ des. ^T%cf p. p. Pass. q^q^ pre. 

10 A. 33mft to cheat ; ^^q^ pre. ywiqiK &o. perf. 

1 P. ^^ft to surround , to cover ; izft P'e. w^RT perf . 

10 U. gff^r, f%*TT3T% to stfing, to divide, to surround, 

*Tm-% pre. ^iTT^^-^rlj perf. 3T3ftaS3-tT aor 


10 P. ^vflyfr to be strong or fat ; ^fflT pre. <*crra perf. 

3Tn<fi^ aor. 

.1 P. ^is^ to sound ; ^nn% pre. 3TW<lfi^, 3T^Tofta[ aor. 

i P. &. 10 U. fwrsr;* to divide ^rjfir, OTCTft-% pw. 

rtS, ^nsfi^rfJr fat. gwrsra;, amnvd^-iT aor. 

1 P. oU^iql ^Ti% to say, to tell, to lay down ; g^ P'e. 

P^f. ^n P. ^ gwrfr^aor. firtf^lft 4es. Pass. 

pre. arerf^ aor. ^f^T p. p. 
1 & 10 U. ^>^STT|> to inform ; ^ft%, ?T^rf^ % pre. ^r^, 
^TT &c. perf. apRT^K) 3f*ft^T, arft^t^-W aor. 


1 P. 3T3% *rwnf ^ to sound, to honour, to aid; *Rf& pre. 

r?r* perf . *froi% fut. awfts, awRTg; aor - Cau. ?rorft-7 

pre. ft*ft*l% des. 

8 A. ( P. according to ^73; ) to beg, to seek for. 333- pre. 

%^ perf. 3mTO, 3lWcT aor. f%3TWlr dee. 

1 P. & 10 U to favour, to injure, to sound, * 

1 A. arfvrei4H44*4T: to talute, to adore, to praise; 
pre. m?% perf. ^f^frTT p. fut. arefag aor. f 
pre. ?&<& p. p. 

1 U. FnW?dH ^^ ^ to sow, to scatter, to weave, to cut, 
to shave-, 5T<n%-?f pre. s^rnr, 3T> perf. ^n p. fut. 
3TW5T aor. ^wrrg[, gr^n^ ben. Cau.-?rrqTn%-% pre. 
aor. f%^c^iff^ des. Pass. ^cq^ pre. 3T^rft aor. 

1 P. to go$ **fff P'e. 3T^^ aor. 

1 P. ^f^TOt to vomit, to pour out; ^W pre. 

^WcTT P ^t. 8?TOTrai aor. Cao.^irm^-^r, ^TinTft-?t ( with 

a prep, grrcrm-^ only ) P re . ^fl*t*4d;rT aor. ^m?r, ( 

according to some ) p. p. 

1 A. to go; snrir pre. *fiix& fut. <^TTO aor. 

10 U i^PfT^t to ask for, to get; sr^rfff-% pre. 

perf. ^rfqcTT p. fut. 3Ter^-gr aor. 

1 A. srnfr to shine, to be bright; ^fr pre. ^^ perf. 


10 U. ^T^TfTOTS^^r^^^nC^rto colour, to explain, 

to extol, to send, *o grii)d; ^ohrfa% pre. cnriq-f'^Rf- 1 ^^- 

3TTH-W^^ perf. sroiftrcTT P. fat. 3T^ro?^-cT aor. r^OTi^TI% ft 

des. sfofa p. p. 

10 U. ^T^fn^t: to cut, to fill; ^v|qfff-?r pre. aw^iT aor. 

1 A. irfqr o love-, ^ pre. Bf^fq^ aor. 


1 A. 3rrat> *T2J r$r 'Br to cover, to move about; 

W%-*ra ^t. 3T*i%s aor. |%ffTTf?r-?f des. 

10 U. gftvrTTO to speak; 9?59TcT-?t pr 

perf. 3T5T^^-?r aor. 

1 U. to go, to dance, to be pleased, to eat; q^irnr-ff pre. 

wt perf. *firm p. fut. 3w*ro, ^nrfcire aor. 

p. p. 

A. wnr* to eat; *vfa pre. 3T*f?ire aor. 
1. A. H3T3T to cover or be covered; *gy?r pre. ^^% perf. 

1 A. qfyymrrfWT^ f W g; to sppak, to Jbe prominent, to kill, 
to give; mfr pre. ?R% perf. ST^f? ao"". 

2 P. ^RJ?r to wish, to shine; *T% pre. 741^1 perf. 3T5THT P- 
fnt. 3TW5fr^, BT^hr aor - ^^T^ ben. f^rf5TTT% ^ea. Pass. 

5r^T?r p r e. 3T^rr5T aor. gflirr p. p. 

1 P. ff^TJqrt to injure, to kill; ^r?r pre. *arr* perf. 
3T^m5 aor. 

1 P. ftg-m to dwell, to be, to spend (time). ?m1v p 

perf. srf?ir p. f ut. 3TqT?JTrcI aor. 3^qTtJ ben. f^^mfrT dei, 
Pass. T*rar pre. 3T^rRT aor. Cu. ?mTr 
?T aor. gr^JT P. p. SlV^T, sft^ ger. 

2 A. 3TT^r^ to wear > to P ut on '% P re - 

p. fat. ^T^ra^ aor. Cau.crr^nim-?r pre. 3T^T^^^-?T aor. 
N^fHIff des. *HTC p. p. 

4 P.frW to be straight, to be firm, to fix; 7*>nft pre. 
sq-(?r fut. WW*7T aor. ^^T p. p. ^ftf^T, gTfRTT gr. 
10 U. ^fx^rrjf^ to love, to cut, to take away. 
^f pre. q-f^fWm-ff fut. STfr^FT^-rT aor. ^^qTrJ , 

10 U. far*r% to dwell; ^^Hff% pre. sr^nKTr P fut 

1 A. to go- ^r^?ff pre. ^Tf^^tT lat. 3T-Tf?? aor. 
10 A. 3T^3r to hurt, to kill, to ask, to go; 
perf. ^^Tf^TcT aor. ( Also written as 


tJ. SHW *o bear along, to carry, to fl>w, to marry 
( with s^ ) &c. **f5H* pre. g^ry, 3Tf perf. *t*r P. ft. 

fut. 3T*T*fr^ , ifTTRT aor ^JRT, *$TTC ben. 
3f dea. Cau.-qrT^JKf% pro. 3T*r*5<*T or. 3^" p.p. 

2 P. ufa'n^VRifr: to blow, to go, to strik?, to kill; 

snft perf. ^rar p. 'nt. ararrtfhr aor . ^nn^ ben - Oaa. to 

cause to blow, *nnn%%; to shake, *nr7T?Ht pre. f^^T^rm 
des. 3t?T p.p. ( with |%(~^rffor when ^r?f <wind' is not the 
subject; as R^trfT g^TT^r ). 
1 P. ^f^TT^t to wish, to desire, ^hTO pre. *tf$tofff fat. 

1 P. ?l>^tqr^ to wish, to desire, to seek for. 

^^- perf. srfcsraT p. fa f . BT^r^rf^ aor. 
Pass. y|^^ff pre. ^<||^ aor. 
1 A. to bathe, to dive; ST3ft pre. <m j perf. 
10 U. ^^Ir^^tit: to be happy, to serve; 
firof^-?* fut. sT^rm^-rT aor. f%^TrTRrqia% des. 
4 A. 5T^ to roar, to hum; ^r^qft pre. **rr pre. 
fut. amfsTC or. wTf^TfT p.p. 

10 U 3-ir^nrf to scent, to make fragrant; 

pre. grmq-nEre'T-^ &o. perf. TmT^ffT p. fnt. 

aor. f^m^ft^ des. 

1 A. q-^?% to try, to make an effort; sry^ pre. **!% perf. 

7 U. 7^T*n^ to separate &c.; R^rr%, fir^ pre. 
perf. \Trpr P. fu f . 3Tlr^, 3?^^^, 3Tf^TF aor. 
ben. T>lr^Tm% des fifF P-P- 

6 r. to go ; Hx^r^fR P r e. fgrrt^r, ft^rni^TT &c. perf. 
P. fat arfir^rq; 3Tf^^TcTTcT aor. Cau. 

-^r pre. arRr^r^ w, sn^fN^nm-ir 
aor. j%i^r%?n^, ftfV^rrftw des. Pass.-f^s^HT, 


3JTRV^to apeak, to shine; fHduft-fr pro. 
7 p rf . ^Rfl-^d-ff aor. 

3 U. rniTV to *pearate to distinguish; %%f?fr, %ft$ pre. 

perf. %^rr%-% fat. arfl^, srlgfrg;, srt^ aor. 

6 A. nq-^SFTOf: *o fear, to tremble; f|*i% pre. Qft^ pert 
P. fut. arfjfire a <> r . Oau. %*rafft pre. 3T^TT^5Tg; aor. 

7 P. to shake, to fear t ft^ri% pre. fi^ST perf. 


1 P. 3TF5RHt 5TT ^T to curse, to sound, to rail at; tsfS pre. 
perf. WefVg: aor. 

same as 

10 U. fi^^f to mock, to deceive; ftM^fd-% pre. 
T^W^-rl aor. 

1 A. qr^T to bf g; %^ pre. %f^T^ fat. 

2 P. ^ to know, to regard; %fo ^ pre. 

perf. gf5Jlft fut. 3T?CT^ aor - l^<n^ b 611 f^?T P.p. Oau. 
%5*ria-ft pre. 3Tfft^r?T aor. ^f|R[nS% des. 
4 A.. fTTfnrt to happen, lo be; f^jr^ pre. ftftf^ perf. ^p p. 
fut. %f^ff fat. 3T(^rT aor. frctfte; ben. T%%^ dee. ftw P-P- 
6 U. 5J fir to get, to find, to feel; ft?rfr% P r e. fi^, 
perf. %f^rTT, %rH p. *at. arf^, 3H?TT. 3T%T% aor. 

) P.P. 

7 A. fi^TT^t to discues, to consider; {%?% pre. ftl^ perf. 
ffiw or fag p. p. For other forma aee ftgr 4 A. 
10 A. %cT^T^R^^T%^ to feel, to tell, to dwell; %^r% pre. 
perf. ?$\fa[ p. fat. arfAqff aor . fi^Tft^ P 8 , 
pre. 3T%I^ aor. 


6 p. ftvft to pierce: forfa- pre. *fo*mr *a*. s^ft^ aor. 
Can. %W?T% pre. 3^%^-^ aor. 

P. u%5i% to enter, to fall to the share of; f^ffa pre. fi%$r 
perf. %OT P. fut. 3Tfir$T<t-<T aor. fo8r$TI^ des. f%^ p. p. 
1 P. %^T to sprinkle, to pour oat; ^rm pre. fi^ perf. 
%OTff f nt. srf*^ aor. T^ p.p. 

3 U. sqrrffr to pervade, to surround, %qr%. %i>t pre. f^r, 
ftf^T perf. TOT P- ft. 3rfi^?^, ZWn&t aor. M^^.?t dea. 
9 P. %nrtt to separate; f^mrrA P'e. fif%<? perf. arf^^ aor. 
10 A fsfanit to kill; U. <ro% to eee; firs^l^, ftwifft-fr pre. 

2 P. i||doMlfSr^nr?R^T^r^RWr^% to go, to pervade, to 
conceive, to be born, to shine, to botain, to throw, to be 
beautiful, to desire, to eat; tfff pre. rawr perf. %m p. fnt. 

or. sffarOen. f|?fi^fS des. Can. fm^-lt, ( *TT- 

pre. ^r?T p.p. 

10 U. 5*nf5T to fan; sfhw^^ pre. 3T5fTl%3T5-<T aor. 
ICKA^ Qda|rd> to display valour; *?c*nfr pre. tftrfitrft fut. 
3Tfir^r^cf aor. 

1 U. 3TF*TTFfr to cover, to surround: 9Tiff-ft pre. (Seethe 
following root ). 

5 U. *^ to choose, &c.; ^intf^, ^r pre. *3rfr, ^ perf. 
.fut. 3iqmd, ^iift, STTfr^T, 3T^rT aor. 
ben. Oau.-rTT<T^% pre. 3T^Tg;-?f aor. 

9 A. to choose &c. ; ^ofrk pre, V2t perf. ( Same as the 
above A. ). 

1 A. 3TT5T^ to take, to accept; *g& pre. ^% perf. 
fot.3wf%^ aor. ft*&qfr.des. 

1 A. aRR^ to cover; ^cr^ pre. *%& perf. 3??%^ aor. 
7 P. *^% to choose; ^nn% pre. v*4f perf. 
3T^ff^aor. f^j p.p. 

H. 8. G. 44. 


2 A. q-^ to avoid, to shunj ^> pre. fT^T perf. 3fT<ar?r fat. 

3T*T3re aor. Qcn'Snfr des. 

7 P. STH% to avoid, to choose, to turn away, to move, to 

hurt- ^TfTT% pre. ^*T perf. ^Mdl P- fat. 

1 P. & 10 U. to shun, to abandon, to exclude &c.; 
*3nrra% P f e- ^*T> W^I'iSi^W-^fe &c. perf. 
p. fut. 3^^fr^ , 3^ff 3T^-fT, 3^^^-cT aor. 
A. wzfo to avoid; ^ pre. ^T^Tff fat. 
6 P. sfror> to give pleasure; ^jfir pre. ^or perf. 

1 A. 3-jfo to exist, to happen, to live on, to occupy &c.; 
^t pre. ^ perf. ^fS^r P- fat ^m^qr^, ^?rff?l fat. 3T^cT^, 
r aor. srffnfre ben. f%WOT^, r%^?fm dee. Can. 
-ff P'e. 3T^rf?Tg[-cT, 3T^cf5riT aor. ^j p. p. 
4 A. 3W to choose, to divide; fftfft pre. ( See the above 
root. ) 

1 P. &'10 U. HFTnri ^vSt ^r to speak, to shine; 
ITO^ pre. ^^ff, ^fam'W-^% &c. perf. 3T^cTfg 
T, 3T^rS^-cT aor. 

1 A. f^r to grow; ^^ pre. ^^ perf. ^fT(fT p. fut. 
ff^ fut. 3ff^g;, tarafvre aor. srfWirep ben. ^5 p.p. 

1 P. & 10 U. irprnrf fwt ^ to speak, to shine; 
^r% pre. ( See ^ above ). 

4 P. ^T$r to choose; ^^rfff pre. srTO perf. <rf%*iif?ir fat. grf- 

3% 1 P. %^TTf Hrl^^T^ to rain, to pour forth, to torment- 
snrm pre ^<f perf. ^ft?IT p. fat. H^r?l aor. f^ffaffT des, 
^ P. P- 

* It is also Parasmaipadi in the 2nd future, conditional, aorist, 
and desiderative. 


10 A. $r%*9V|^ to have virile power; j^q^ pre 
fut. ?^snf, 3ppnfo aor. 
* P. SW% to exist, to work; ( see vg ). 
<| 9 U, **or to choose; furrft, jofw pre. *fR, **> perf. 

P. fat. awns;, 3**fre awrro, 3?f aor. 

1 U. ay^fr^fJT to weave, to cover; **rft-ft pre. 

3^ W^, *> perf. cTRTT P. fit. 3T*ref(5, 3WW aor. 

n. rl^r*rfar-% des. Cau. ^Pl^-?t pre. Pass. 
. 3T^rW aor. Tff P.p. ^?^f, ST^T^ ger. 

1 U. irf^rRf^fTrR^rrRH^rRsui 5 ui 5 to go, to know, to 

contemplate &c. ; rofiMT P'e. fir>OT, fSWr per 

fut. 3^011^, 3T%fore aor. 

1 A. qr^JT to b9g, to solicit; ^JH pre. ^T>Rl^ aor. 

Same as %ur which see. 

1 A. ^pr> to tremble, to quake; %q^ pre. f%>^ perf. 

p. fat. 3r%f^r aor. Oaa. ^wr%-?r P^e. 3fWhT^-f aor. 

1 P. ^r$y> to shake, to be wanton; %$rffr pre. 

%f%ffT p. fut. 3T%5*X aor . 

10 U. q?r^qRf5t to count the time. %^(Tl9^ pre. 

^rlfr perf. %5y&<TT P- fut. 3?^%^-^ aor. 

1 P. ^ra^ to go, to shake. %$far pre. f%% perf. H^ft^ aor. 

%cfr 2 A. irffrs^T^nf^ to 8 to ODt ain, to be pregnant, to 
pervade, to eat, to wish, to shine; %sfRT pre. ar^firs aor. 
( Vedic ). 

% 1 A. %7>r to surround, to wind round, to dress; %^ pre. 
fCTT P. fat. 3T%fesaor. Can. Tffirf^.^ pre. 

1 A. to endeavour; ^ft pre. ft^% perf . Rfie aor. 
% 1 P. ^fm^t to dry, to oe weary; *T*H% pre. *$ perf. 
aor - 


6 P. m|gftnu| to cheat, to surround, to pervade; 

p*e. ft&n^ perf. VJl^dl P- fot. anHRfttJC, 3T3qTTft^ aor. 

fS'STRt ben - Pass.-f^r?f pre. ftm.fimft des. Oau.-sqrorfif- 

pre. t%%T P-p. 

1 A. utMgHqt to fear, to be vexed or afflicted, to tremble; 
. f$zq perf. 5*n*J<fT P. *ut 
des. 5gfir?T P.p. 

to hurt, to pierce; f%OTT?T pre. f^mr perf. 
p. fut. 3*wrflSrg; aor. firWT^ beD^t%^?^Tff des. Pass.- 
ronTlS-*T pre. 3Ti%H^g;?T aor. {^ p.p. 
^ 1 O. to go; 5imfeT% pre. ^sjrq-, ^si?% perf. otipimm-fr fut. 

a r. 

U. ft^^H^f^^f to expend, to bestow- snrqnfr?t pre. 
c. perf. ^firn1f-% fat. STSoS^-?! aor. 

4 P. 51% ftsn'f ^ to burn, to separate; eg*n% P re - 
perf. siftf^Tm fnt.. STBift^ftg;, ( STc^^to separate ) aor. 
1 U. tf**ufr to cover, to sew; sqtmr-?* Pe. f%sqTT, ft^T perf. 
sirnTT p. fnt. 9Toq7tfirat, ^r^rer aor. gfiqT5[, SUTtTl^ ben. 
frrei-% des. Pat*. sffa^ pre. Oan.-sgnrm%-?r pre. 

ar aor. jfa p. p. 

1 P. to proceed, to pass away ( as time ); THlcT pre. 

perf. sfirm p. fat. 3*srr5fHaor. NdM^f^ des srf^r P-P. 

10 U. m*rar*CT?T3fr to sweep the way, to go; 

pre. ariiar^^-tT aor. 

6 P. OT^T ( $srt? ) to cover, to be gathered, to sink; 

pre. ^f%^rm ft. 3T3^}^aor. 

1 P. ^ to sound; r0nn?? pre. nor perf. 

10 U. UTari^&H to wound; 9UFD^% pre. 
perf. H^^m^-tf aor. 

6 P. %^ to cut, to tear, to wound; &xft pre. *aw pert 


4 A. *rot to select; rfhnt pr. ftfifr perf. H*H* tot. 

aor. sffor p.p. 

9 P. to choose? ftornft, rfforrft pre. fcwrft fut. 3Tifcfa[ aor, 

4 P. %^ SJWnrt ^ to throw, to be ashamed; jftanft P re - 

/Wte perf. anfaft* aor. 

9 P. *tft to' select, to go; f^RTift pre. sgwfi^ fit. 

aor. Oau 

1 P. tjpft ^^ir ^T to relate, to suggest, to praise, to hurt; 
Sfafir pre. ^T5T^ perf. stfiRTT p. fut. 3T5ffft^ aor. 
ben. f$r^rftr^f?r des. Pass.-s^T^ pre. Sfltfm aor. 

ger. ^nfT P.p. 5 with grf A. f^7?rt to hope, to bless; 
P f e. 3TT^fr%^^ fot. ^(^f|^^ aor. ^i^if^^TlVi ben. 

4 U. n$or to endure, to be able- 5T^qr?fr% pre. 
perf. ^T%cfT, ^rRT P. f^t. srf%*irr%%, ^^'^ 
3T^Tf%^, 3T5nf> aor. T%5T^rit% des. 

o P. ^iT^r to be able, to endure, to be powerful; ^igfclfi pre. 
perf. ^nFT P. fut. ar^rq^ aor. ^|^|^ ben. T%^TT% des. 
pre. Catt. ^ll^Ulff-% pre. 3T^n^-T aor. 

1 A. ^ruf to doubfc, to be afraid; 51 J% pre. ^^ perf. 
^Tf^Hl p. fut. 3T5Tf|pS aor. %^rf|^^ des. ^f^ p.p. 
1 A. sqifjnn ^Tf% to speak, to tell; srgft pre. ^f% perf 
3^rf%^ aor. 
1 P. %?T% to deceive, to hurt, to kill, to suffer; to pain; 

5raf?r pre. srsrre perf. srretir p. fat. 3^ryr^ , ar^n^ra: aor - 

10 U. ^pqir^^TTW to speak well or ill, to deceive; $|gqf8~ 

ff pre. ^T^rngrg^TT &c. perf. ^ryrq^T P. fut. 3T3T$ra^-cT aor. 

^iTirT p.p. 

10 U. 3Wfrprc*Tc*fr: to leave unfinished, to go; 

pre. ?TTTfirqtS% fit. ar^idd-a" Aor - W^W p.p. 


10 A. sgremMo flatter; OT3TO* pre. 

aor - $l<f P.p. 
1 P. ^T% nfr ^T to give, to go; ^rnrfS pre. STSTTOT perf. 

^rfiiiwria* fut. 3T$nj?h;, arsnoft^ aor. 

1 P. ( but Atm. in conjugational tenses- ) ^TfHK to perish, to 
decay; qfarn* pre. ^^n^ perf. snu p. fut. 3T^I^ aor. 51^ 
ben. %5rfFf% des. Cau.-^T?nn?r-W, ( alao ^T^n?T-^) pre. 

1 & 4 U. arr^r^- to curse, to wear, to blame; 

P erf - ^TKT p^ fut. 3T^TTCBnr-3T^Tff aor. 
ben. Pass. ^rtqTT P'e. Oau. {jTN^fff-^ P*e. 
aor. %?n^^% des. *rff p. p. 
10 U. to sound, to call out, to speak; srssmff-ar pre. 31*^- 
ini^R-'^ perf. ^5^fir?TT P. fut. 3T^^T5^-fT aoi . v i^?T p.p. 
4 P. g-qr^TR to grow calm, to put an end to, to stop; ^n^fff" 
perf. ^TT%t!T P. fut. 3T5UT^aor. ^l^ld ben. 
pre. Cau-5Tirof5f.%, ^^^-^ pre. ^TPff P. P. 
10 A. 3Tr^T^ to look at, to show- ^mnrfr pre. ^imm^^ 
&c. perf. srmfoar P- **. 3T5fT^TH?T aor. f%5Tmf^^ des. 

U. 9*3?q% to accumulate, to collect together; 5T*-^qra% 
pre. ^P^n^^FTTT-^% &c. perf. a^T^T^^-cT Aor. 
1 P. to go, to injure, to kill; qrfft pre. ^t^nJ perf. 

i P. ftfrnn^ to kill; 

1 A. ^dH^K<Mft: to shake, to agitate; *$&% pre. ^& perf, 

^ifddr p. fut. g^rfirar Aor. 

1 P. to go, to run; ^^yfar pre. ^U<g perf. 

A. *cU|% to praise, to boast; $\<*Vft pre. ^r^r^ perf. 
1 P. to go, to approach, to utter; ^^ pre. ^r^rgr perf. 

1 P. jancft to leap, to jump; ^rfS P'e. ^TRRT perf. 
p. fut. 3T$T3ftcT N , 3*5U ^n^ aor. 


hUrt ' * kil 

) cut up, to destroy; 5^ pr e. ^n^T perf. 
p. fut; ar^I^, arSTRfta; aor. ST^T p. p. 

to pervade; STTWHT pre. a^rr^T^ Aor. 
1 U. f*H> to sharpen, to whet; sfrcrtaf^ pre . ^rtf%^- 

fut. 3fTrm'h, aifrTire Aor 

1 A. ^n^rqf ^fnfV XT to tell, to praise, to shine, r**^ pre. 

perf. ^rrfj^^ fut. a^rrfOT Aor. l%^TTf&^ dee. 
P. 3j|f$l^1 to teach, to inform, to govern, to correct, to 
advise; 517% pre. 51317^ perf. 5rrT%cTr p. fut. 3tri$m. aor. 
ben. m%<TW des. Pass. fsimft pre. f^re p. p. 

with ^n 2 A. $^m\ to expect, to blese; 3TT5TI^ pre. 


5 U. R^W, to whet, to sharpen, to excite; 

fir^perf. ^qi?r% fut. 3T^fr^, 3T$^ Aor. 

A, QO>WIM to learn; f^T^ pre. %Tff^ perf. 
p. fut. 3if|r%^ aor. f5TT%^^ des. f5T%?T p. p. 
1 P. to go; T %ff?T pre. %T%g: perf. f?rrf^nt fct. 

P. STTSTTOt to smell; ftnTT^ pre. f%f3N perf. %fV?TT p. fat. 

^ivfl^ Aor. 

2 A. srsinfr ?T^ to tinkle, to jingle; f%% pre. 3Tr?TT%^ 

P. ar^T2T> to disregard, sfcft pre. fir^ perf. ar^ftcl Aor. 
1 P. fiNrwt to hurt, to' kill; ^Tft pre. f^T Prf. 
Aor. ( According to some this is Set; 

1 P. & 10 U. to leave a residue (with ft to excel; 


&o. perf. 


7 P. ft^ptft to leave, to distinguish from others; 
pre. f^T^ta perf. $^r p. fit. srffcre^ aor - fil^ 
%%$rf?T des. Cau. $W%% pre. f$& p. p. 

2 A. ^5r to lie down, to sleep; jrer pre. f|n^ perf. SfftcfT P- 

fat 3T$rfSre aor. ^fqifr? ben. %^rRrq^ <^es. Pass. 

pre. srsrrio- aor. Cau.-^rnTq-r8% pre. ^rffiw p. p. 
1 A.%^^ to sprinkle, to move gently; sffa^ pre. 
perf. 8T5nr%^r Aor. 

1 P. & 10 U. STHWr to be angry; ( 10 U. 
to speak, to shine; sfrarffif, ^Tr^ri^-^r pre. 
^TT-^ perf. 

l A. gj?qft to speak, to communicate, ^ft^ pre. 
perf. aT^ftnr^ Aor. 

1 P. *rJW?r to contemplate; ^(^yfS pre. f$|^i1^ perf. 
p. fut. a^fi^rg; aor. 

U. gftrqrf ot to study, to exercise, to honour, to visit; 

pre. sfr^n^snT-^fr perf. ^ugflfaT p. fat 

1 P. to go, to move; ^fr^T% P'e. ^TT^ perf. ^ft%tfT p. fat. 

1 P. sft% to bewail, to grieve for, to regret; $ffafff pre. 
perf . ^t^cTT p. fat. 
des. gf%T, ^flMrf P- P. 

4 U. ^fTJTTV ( f^ ) to be wet, to be afflicted. ^n?Mfr pre. 

^r P er ^- ^fft%fnr p. fat. sr^j^^, ar^fl-nfi^, 

aor. ^T%rf p. p. 

. HIHMi4H&<H-l-m3% to bathe, to distil, to churn to 
press ; 5qffT pre. QQ^ perf. 3T^grg[ Aor. 


1 P. to resist, to be lame, to be impeded; tftjft pre. 
perf. sftfOTT P. *at. *TOtrffc aor. 

10 U - *TOf^ to be idle, to be lazy; srt^fiHT P. 
WC-xTfc perf. g<3iJddl:3 Aor. 

P. (see ^ above). ^ufl^. Aor. 

P.& 10 U. srreuf to dry, to purify; SJUOT* SJTOtlfilHt pre. 

u^r^FK-^JIj perf. 

4 P. $ft% to be pure, to have the doubts removed* 

perf. s^T P- ^t. S^ST^aor. Pass. ^ig^ pre. 
aor. Oau. ^ftvrqf^^ pre. m^qra-cT aor. ^j^Q 
p. p. 

6 P. to go, to move, ^rfq- pw. g^fhr perf. arsfoft^ Aor 

P. $re> & 10 U. ^^^wfui to purify, to clear; 
^^nrf&% pre. g^TT, grVpn^r^TT-^ per*. 
^^S 5 ^-?T Aor - ^f^Trr P. P. 
1 A. ?fhfV to shine, to be happy; ^^ pre. ^g^r perf. 

p- *^t. ST^^T^, ^^DRr? aor - 

l p - *rr^, HRR fiNnri ^r to speak, to shine, to hurt. 


fut. 9i^Un^ ^(Si^tl Aor. grjvrcT? ^TtnTff, ^W?T P. p. 

6 P. ^fn^nrf to shine, to be splendid; gsmf pre. g-ftcf p. p. 
^^ pre. p. ( also gwr ) 

lO U. <qfd^H to gain, to pay, to forsake; ^^rf^-% 

pre. J<<|m|chK- : 5r% per/. ST^^^d.-cT aor. 

( 3^) 10 U. ITT^ to measure, to produce; gr^(5*)qrf?T% pre. 

4 P. 3HW to dry up, to be dried, to be afflicted; 

pre. gr^rft perf. ^ftw P. ft. 3?^^ aor, Oau. 

pre. 3TB^^T Aor. g^rft des. &SG p. p. 

4 A. I^IHiVMH^: to strike, to be firm; ^j^r pre. 5^ perf. 
Aor. tgqr p. p. 


10 A. reflRFcft to act as the hero, to make great exertions; 
^W^ P re - 31**^% p<*f. 3T^r^r Aor. Qfigfoft dea. 

10 U. JTT> to measure-, ^jfanH* pre. ^n^^TT-^T% perf, 

* p . S^rnrf ^TRfr ^r to be ill, to collect; ^jjriR pre. 
perf . a^fig- Aor. 

1 P. sreft to produce, to bring forth; ^j^f pre. $ffl$ peri 

1 A. qifrjffcKUTT^ ( but it is also Parasmaipadi in the 2nd 
future,, aorist & conditional ) to break wind downwards; 

P re - ^r^ P erf - ^nfen p. fat. $rrfcr?r, sim 

des. 5^[ p. p 

1 U. ^53% to be wet or moist; ?nvftS% pre. 

1 P. 10 U. xr^t to mock at, to ridicule- 

pre. ar^nffg;, BT^T^I^-JT, 3T^fT5|vraL-<T Aor 

9 P. fj^rnrt to tear to Dieoes, to hurt, to kill: srorrf^ pre. 
perf. ^rft^r, ^'m p. fut. 3T^llfl^ aor - 

des. Pass ^f^ pre. tf4 P- p. 

1 P. to go, to tremble; ^rsriSf P r . 1%^ pe'f . ^f^dF p. fat. 

1 A. %sft to serve; $^ pre. ( See 

IP. <n% to cook; ^mrf^ pre. ^TTWW fnt. 3T5mff^ Aor. 

4 P. ff^RoT to sharpen, to make thin; ^qfjr pre. ^i> perf. 

$inrr p 'at. 319 id. > snnr^ft^ aor - ^r^TRnS dee. 

pre. Oau. ^rnn7ft% P'e. ^mr, T%?f P. P- 
P. TuST^ts to become red, to go; ^fnmS pre. ^r^froT perf. 

P. if? to be proud or haughty; ^ffe(^)fS pre. 
fat. sn^jW^ aor. 

1 P. ?r^ to ooze to trickle tmf^ pre. 

p. fut. ^Tr?f^, gr^ro aor. ^f^f, srma p. P. 


1 P. to ooze, to scatter gaftafd pre. ( See the above root). 

P. r^ft^dt to wink, to contract the eyelids ; ^jfojfft pre. 
f^nprfte perf . ST^TT^ Aor. 

*ir 1 A. to go, to dry np, to congratulate; 3*nrit pre* 
perf. ^FtTT p. fat. 3T5*mT aor. ^rnT, ^fpr, ^ffa P. P- 

1 A. to go, to creep ; rjF?t pre. ^r|: perf. 3wf|pE Aor. 
1 P. to go, to move ; nf ft pre. $rrf perf. 

or 1 P. & 10 U. 5i5f ( generally with fir ) to give, te bestow ; 

pre. ^rsnor, ^rroror^i^n:-^^ perf. 

1 P. nfcrnrt to injure, to kill; gram P'e. ^TVTTTT perf. 
3T*WTcT, -STSTRfr^ Aor. 

rtr 1 P. & 10 U. HTSro l^rnrf f?^% to liberate, to release, to 
kill; 9TnH, smwfft-ft Pre. ^T'HnT, STnTrnS^TT-^r^ perf . 


*HJ 10 U. rfeq-to be weak; STOTfif-fc pre. 
perf. snriirftf p. fut. 3T5ranjg;^r aor. 
A. jtmgq to be loose, 3F*lfr pre. WSF% perf. 3wf?*re aor. 

P. f^wt^rqm^qr: to loosen, to delight, to arrange; 
gTVMlfi pre. ^Tr^r, ^r perf. srpTcTT p. fut. 
aor. T?!^r^l^m des. 

P. & 10 U. g-^i^F^S to conipose a work, sryqf 

4 P. <rrr ^ ^T to take 'pains, to mortify, to be fatigued; 

pre. sntrnr perf. srWfTr P. fat. uwtud. a r - srr^f p. p. 

1 A. snn% to be careless, to err; ypnfe pre. 5^^ perf. 
?rf^mT p. fut. arsrfvTir^ aor. ^rsv^ p. p. 

2 P. <rr% to cook, to dress- srrfSr pre. ^reft perf . STTcTT p. 
fat. 9WT*fa( aor. Cau. 9rrqtrfft-% pre. rm, *rfur p. p. 


ItJ. jN'wt to cling to, to depend upon, srgft-% pre. 
fofr perf. *rftwT P. fat. srf^T^-rT aor. afan^, 
ben. f^reffrfff-fr, f^TSnfarfiHt des - Pass.sfrq^ pre. 

aor. Can. srrorarifr% pre. 3rf$rsr<r^-?c aor. fifa p. p. 

1 P. ^ffr to burn ; vftft pre, %^r perf. 

9U. qr% to cook, todresa, to boil; 

^rfsnfr P er ^. ^"^T ? ^ u t. Slijtft^, 3T07 aor. 
des. afa p. p. 

T^dt to hear, to obey; raftfi* pre. ^srrar perf. 
p. fut. ^^flft^aor. ^[qr^ben. 3psjq?r des. Pass 53^ pre. 
- aor. Oau. srr^fS-^ pre. 3?srf <rT, sn^^-lf aor. 

IP. qi% to cook ; SfTdfir pre. ^TSTT perf . snrTT p. f nt. 
aor. STTOT^J OTf^, ben. 

P. ^nfr to collect, to be collected; ?TTOif& P^. ^TOT perf. 
1 A. to go, to move ; ^pr pre. ?&?!% perf. ST^afjpa Aor. 
1 A. to go, to move; ^yf% pre. ^r^ip Prf. 

P. fifaprt to hurt, to be loose; 3$rarX P'e. ^55TT perf. 
TSSTOt^ Aor. 

P. s^TT^to pervade; ^JT^fSr pre. m&m petf. 3T555T- 

A. ^f^% to-praise, to flatter, to boast of ; ^|V|^ pre. 

pert. ^rj^raT p. ^t. ^^rf^ff aor. 

P. P 

P. ^ to burn 5 ^OTT% pre %?^ perf. j^PMl P. 
^T^ Aor. f^^ p. p. fi^Plc^r, 3$ftw, f^5^ r ger - 
P. grr%f% to embrace, to cling to, to join; f33*riw pre. 
firSOT perf. ^^T p. fat. 3rfoj$T^ ( to embrace ), arfom 
( in oy other sense ) Aor. r%R5WR des. ffos P- P- 
10 TJ f^taor to embrace ; ^r^T^-W pro. arffrRdT^-cT aor. 


1 A. ^frnf?T to compose in verse, to acquire; 
perf. 3Tsgri%fc Aor. sjsgtre^ <*es. 

P. 3*lfit to heap together; s^torfff pre. 

1 A. to go, to move; *qpt pre. 5n\q perf. 

1 A. to go, to be opened; t&ft, ^^ pre. 

perf. 3T^T%5*, 3^*1%^ Aor. 

10 U. 3^^TT<Trift: to leave unfinished, to go; 

^^n^n:-5f> & e - I>e rf - ^Wfu^M-% f^t. 3Tf$p^^.<T Aor. 

( Also 

10 U. *p*nrq-*rnjot to speak well or ill; *q^nef-?t pre. 


I U. to go, to make a hole., wri&-?r P r . 

1 P. mijim% to run; 9*&fa pre. ^^T^ Prf . ^I%?TT p. 

U. qft>TTTnt to tell; >q*3CTl5-?ir pre. a q?^in?i^T^-^r%, &o. 
pref. 5V^v*gC:?f Aor. 

P. 34!&<m^ to run; erwf^ P re - W*& P erf 3?^^ Aor. 
2 P. srroi^ to breathe, to sigh, to hiss, qr%W pre. ^P^TCT 
perf. >^fimT P. fut- 3T^^ aor. T%5^T%TT% dee. ^T%?r ( but 
3TF^ff ) P. p. 

Pi 1 P. Tf^a[^: to go, to swell, to increase; *qin^ pre. 
or f^rqpr perf. ^?TT P- fut. 

bee. T%^ft^Tff des. .Pass. ^pr^ pre. 3T^n9 aor. 
Oau. OTirfS^ pre. ^ftpq^-rr, 3T^T^-n aor. q$ p. -p. 
ilffiTWT, ^5^IT ger. 
1 A. ^d{ to become white; $nft pre. f%^>r perf. 



1 A. stf^ to become white} fa?^ pre. |%t%% perf. 

1 & 4 P. f*TH* to spit, to sputter: ST*,^. STjfa pre. 
perf. jfiraT p. fut. 3*%ifrxaor. #nqT<5[ ben. 

^TfTif des. Cau. %-^g|ff% pre. 3^ p. p. 

1 A. to go, to move; s^s^ff pre. qc^c% perf. ^i%?ff p. fit. 

1 P. ^Wt to cover; *nri?T pre. frf^^ffT fat. 3?^nf^ Aor. 
5 P. fjftrrat to kill; ^rf^ pre. srcnfi^ , 3TrniT^ Aor. 
10 U. srm^at to invite; ^ff^m-ar pre. ar^rl 1 ^^-^ Aor. 

10 A. x& to fight. HinpRiff pre. ^rrm^s^ fut. 

1 A. %^ ^> ^ to sprinkle, to serve; 

3TFT%^ Aor. 

1 U. *rjrer% to be collected, 

1 P. ^|f to embrace, to cling to, to fasten; fnsffa pre 
TCT3r perf. *rg^r p. fat. ^mfsfra; aor. *T5*n5 beo. Pass - 
r^^ pre. sr^f^ aor. ^nf? p.^p. 

1 P. 3T^^T to be a limb or part of; ^rafff pre. 

10 U. fffTT^t to kill, to be strong, to dwell, to give; 
^ pre. ^Tfqrr^^rc-^% perf. ^rff^fTF P- fat. <x*X$*l : X aor. 
10 U. to finish, to adorn, to go, to leave unfinished; ^rryqrff 
^ pre. *T5*TT23sr*-^ P er ^- ^ryfir^TT P. ^t. 3TefrTO^-ff aor. 


10 A. qrftMfforret to extend; fnnm pre. iMftmft **t. 3TO 

6 P. fq3Km*lfUmHI3^J to break, to go, to sink down, to 
decay, to be languid; tft^lft pre. ft^T^ perf. ^niT p. 

. mild, ben. m^rm des. Pais ^^ pre. Oau. 

pre. aTHT^^-ff aor. ^ p. p. 

10 U. to go; OT^lfN* P^. Htfta^T Aor. 

1 P. WXift to divide & 8 U. ^f to give, to worship} 

pert ffMHT p. *ut. 

(8) aor. r%*rft<TKT 

. Pass. f^a^, *wft pre. 

( 1 ) *T?T ( 8 ) p. p. 

1 P. qHM% to connect- ^nrf?r pre. mm perf. 

- to serve, to honour, to gratify 

1 P. %^ to be confused; Hn% pre. ^^7^ perf. 

4 P. ^ROIT^ to be transformed; wrfiT pre. ^renT perf. 

1 P. *T*^MT> to be connected-, SFfHT P r e. fmr perf. 
p. fut. arcvCTct aor. 

lOU. to collect; ^TRrTI^% pre. wmr^%K-^RK perf. 
3r^^-<T Aor. 

1 A. to go, to move ; ^qfr pre. ^r^ perf. 

1 P. 'ETlfo to gain, to earn by labour; ^fft pre. fTOiT perf. 

frfir?TT P. ^t. 3^*7^ aor. 

1 P. to go, to move; ^ft pre. ^ftsufff it. ar^^ffg: Aor. 


t 1 P - nft S^TOt ^ to go, to hurt, to kill. *pfft pre. ^ perf . 
to go, to move; ^ETSmrpre. ^rfrr^ perf. aR^rafat Aor. 
2 P. ^fjt to sleep. , ^rT??T pro. ^rnT perf . ( Vedic ). 
1 U. nft to go, to become ready. *T5fT?r-% pre. ^rat perf. 

p. tot. 

1 A. n4ft to suffer, to allow, to forbear ; ^r^ pre. 

perf . *rf|far, ?^T p. fut. *fj*Tft fnt. 3i^f?^ aor. 

ben. t%*rf|tt% des. Oau. ?JT^n?T-W pre. 3Ttfi^-?T aor. 

des. *& p. p. 

4P. ^fl-to be pleased, to endure; ^rfn% pre. ^raff perf. 
P. fet. g^T^ Aor. r%*ft<?fr des. ff% p. p. 

1 P. 10 U. *ffft to forbear; ^rS, ^rf^-W pre. 
Aor. CT^ft, ^Tft<T p. p. 

P. tfr%|?r to finish, to accomplish; frrefinr pre. ^TFST perf. 
P- fut - ^T^tS fnt. ^fTTf^aor. Can. 

U. ^rmsnnif to appease, to comfort, to soothe; 

w. ^T^WTT^^TT-^% &c. perf. ^rpr^^T P. int., 

;-cf aor. RtWtrqft*n3% des. ^ri^ff p. p. 

^TT^ 10 U. ^TPWI^'t to conciliate; CTtrafff-ft P'. 
Aor. ffiWTfTfitam% des. 

10 U. ^fc^ to be weak; ^R^rfir-^ pre. af^raTT^-T Aor. 
fir 5 & 9 U. **& to bind, to tie, ftRtft, Rrg?r, f^RT/S, 

pre. f%wr, 7%^ perf. %wr P. to 

ben. fM^fif-* des. Pass tffoft pre. i^^r, fin* p. p. 

6 U. grcft to sprinkle, to water, to pour in, to impregnate- 
PW. f$TO) fflnft% perf. %Tf5T p. tot. -tf^lo-ft tot. 


aor. fij<wj|^, |%$fTF ben. 
des. Pass. fifaim P. 3T^f% aor. Oau. ^mfl-fr pre. 
fitrfj P- p. 

1 P. 3RT^ to disregard, to despise; ^f?T P re - 

P. to go, to drive off; ^jit pre. m^T perf. ^ffar p. fut. 
anHrac aor. ftftTTO ben. Oau. %-\anrf^-?T pre. 
aor. ftftffinft, fiftftwt *** %^[ p. p. 

P. $n% m^-r^l ^r to ordain, to command, to turn out 
auspiciously; fi^r ( T%%n**T, T%%^[ 2nd sing. ) perf. $f%TT, 
^5T p. fut. 3T%^VcT 3T&tfh* ( H'Rf^W, 3T^<T^ dual ) 

4 P. ^TT^V *o reach, to attain one's end, to succeed, to ac- 
complish; f%ir^ p*e. ftr^r pe'f. ^[T P- fut. 3Tfiro^ aor. 
T%T%?^ des. Oau. ^TT^innfr^ ( ^rvnn?r-^ to cause one to 
ascertain ). 

to wet, T%^Tm pre. f%f%^ perf. T%l%cTT p. fat. 

4 P. <T^^rfT% to sew, to write, to join; *fjoqfi pre. 
perf. %ftf!T P. fat. 3T^t^ aor. ^ftsqi^ ben. Pass. 
pre. TOT p. P- %ft?*T> ^^r ger, 
1 A. 4N* to sprinkle, to go, to move; ^ft^r pra; 
perf. ^fti%?TT P. fut. anftf$V aor. 

IP. sr^r^'q^: to permit, to prosper., *nrfR pre. g^T perf . 
iBfaT p. fut. aRTT<t^, BT^'fig: aor. 351$% des. 
5 2 P, srerVwst: to allow, to possess power or supremacy} 
*ftffr pre. ^^T^ Perf. *ft?TT p. fut. 3^4^ aor - 

5 5 U. ^^fi^^R^r^?^n^5 to sprinkle, to pour out, to 
bathe, to press out juice, to distil; fJfti%, IRJiT pre. ^qrw, 
3^ perf. ^n?rr p. fut, aretfni, nffle- aor. Q^Tgf, ?ft4hr ben. 
H. S. Q. 45 




-?T des. Pass. 
pre. 3?35*<I-?T aor. 
10 U. S^f^qT^rt to make happy; 
10 U. 3RR[> to despise; s^nff-% P re ' 

1 & 6 P. irrerfgflrer: to speak, to hurt; 
3T*Wfat Aor. Also 3p>r 1 & 6 P. 

2 & 4 A. 

aor. Can. 


to bring forth, to produce; ^, 
perf. ffmr, *rfo<TT p. *ut. a^TS, 3mffcr aor. 
beu. ^Q^r% des. Pass. qifc pre. srmi^ aor. 
Cn. frr^qi^% pre. 3TOT^-<f aor. ^JT ( 2 ), ^ ( 4 ) p. p. 

6. P. >*dt to excite, to impel-, 3*^ pre. ^ft^rft fut. 3WT^ 

10 U. ^7? to point out, to betray; to indicate by gesture, 
to trace out; g^r T %% pre. ^pm&&K-^ perf. 
p. fut. arg^^^-cT aor. Q^rAwRir-ll ^es. q;i%*r p-. p. 

10 U. %^?f to string, to write in the form of a concise 
rule, to plan, to unbindj q^rqi%-% pre. 
P. fat. 3T^g^.?r aor. 

1 A. $rrdr fco strike, to pour out, to deposit, to destroy. 

35?* P r e. S^f perf. qfaf p. fut. 3dgj^j aor. ggf^ des. 

Oau. ^rirm-W pre. *Hq&33;cT aor. 

10 U. ^r?it to incite, to strike, to cook, to dress, to pour 

out, to promise; s^*n%-?T pre. TOqTSTOTC-^fc per/. ^Rar 

p. fut. 3TQ&^3-rr aor - ^%<T p. P. 

1 P. 3^r^> to respect, to disregard; ^gfr^ pre. 5^ perf. 

^fHT p. fat. ayqgfig Aor. 

3 ( Vedic ) & 1 P. to go, to run. ^r^fS 

runs ) pre. ^STT perf. *?fr p. fat. 3T^TT<3[ ( 3 P. ), 
(IP.) aor. %grg^ ben. f%tfpmf des. Oau, ^n^rff.^r pre. 

4 A. fq-^if to let loose, to send forth; f|?7ar pre. $r$tr% fut. 

Aor. f%?T des 


6 P. f%^ir to create, to let loose, to she4i Q3Tfa pre. *nr 

perf . $rer P. *ut. ^um fut. arorefh* Mr. 5*^ ben. %^- 

Sffft des. 3^ p.p. $T ^ inf. 

1 P- iraY to creep, to go; ^TTO pr. H*T$ perf. *nrf, SOT p. 

fut. ^<rqr aor. ^cirirj; ben. ffngcffft des. Oau. 

pre. 3T*r*r<nj ff, s?mfT^-<T or. ^g p.p. 

P. f^^nrr to kill, to injure, HHRT ^rRf pre. 

1 A. to .go, to move; %$ft pre. fift% perf. ^rf%?n p. 

3T%f%^ aor. 

' P. to go, to move, ^r$yf^ pre. r%^y perf. ^rOTT p. fat 

1 A. %^r to ierve, to pursue, to enjoy, ^ff pre. f%% perf; 
aor. r%%Rq^ des. Oau.~ %W*fif-?f 

1 P. ^ to waste away, to decline; *rpn% p*e. ^rrwr% fat 

4 P. 9Trrf^Tfr% to destroy, to bring to an ena; &ifa pre. 
perf, ^TrU p. fut. Sffff^ ^^rr^fTa aor. %*rrs ben. r%^f- 
des. Pass.^fnr^ pre. Cau. ^TO^f?T-?r pre. faff p. p. 

1 P irfn^frvoi^r: to go, to jump, to be dried, to perishj. 
pre. ^r^^ perf. *^?WT P- ^a 

aor. ^^rr^ ben. T%^rf^ des. Pass. *^i% pre. Oau. 

aor . *^5T P-P- 

U. to collect; f$?OTt%-(t P'e. ^?^<IT^I^rT-^ft perf. 
A. siffar?^ to stop; f^mWp'e. ^R^Tperf. 3T^ffreaor. 
9. P. fnCTKfHRtft: to create, to hinder, to restrain} 

5cr^r perf. f^ftraT p. fat. srowa;, 

ben. ^s^r p.p. 

5 & 9. U. ansRot to go by leaps, to approach, to cover, to 

lift; *$5ftfil, *f 5^> ^^T^, *$*ft* P re - 3^TT, ^^T per(. 

p. fut. H*15WK, *K$rS or. ^ft^ des. . 


1 A. snq^ijf to jump, to lift up; 4^*4^ pre. 
perf. 3T^T*^% Aor. 

5 & 9 P. ft^^r STKOT ^ to stop, to hold} ^$Hi(fr, 

pre. 3T^*HT^ao r - 

1 A Hsrr^nt to rout, to cut, to destroy; *W<\ pre. 

P" ^rai^T to move; to totter, to err; ^T55T% pre. 
perf. ^3rfcTT P- fat. 3T**3T5?T^aor. ftH^fS^ld des. ^forf p. p. 
1 P. y Id VIM to resist, to strike against; frT^ft pre. rfWT^P 
perf . fcTHspiT p. fat. 3^rtT^ff^ aor. 

1 P. ffc^oir to cover; ^TT^r pre. ^rlf5t^TI% ^at. 3)^cTift^ Aor. 
1 P. 31^- to sound, to thunder, to sigh; ^rra 1 pre. ff^TTT 
perf. ^cTRcTT p. fut. SftcTiftc^, 3TWT5TT3[ *o r f^JWH^RT des. 
Can. *ftq?rr3-% pre. 

10 U.^SJT^- to thunder* ^nfmrT% pre. 
perf. 3Tft4Eft*T3rcT aor. 

1 P. aq&fgoqr not to be confused or weak; 
perf. 3Utfu1f^ Aor. 

. A . iff?R7^r to make immovable, to support, to stop. 
pre. <TCcTTOt perf. Mi^^THT p. fat. STWI^TH' aor. 

& 9 P. ft^R ^Rot ^ to stop, to fix firmly, to support; 

^W**fidL aor. ^*^IT3[ ben. f^^f^RIW des. Pass. ^T^w^ 
pre. Oau. ^n^^^iff-^T pre. ^cT^r p.p. ^nf^Hr^T, WWT ger. 

A. ^r^dt to drip, to drop. ^aTff P'e. faiH^ 1 perf. 3{^f%? 
aor. nTOTffaH, fiftfT?<fa% des. 
or ^H; ^ P. 3TTBrtt% to become wet, to become fixed; 

fiit. aftrfh s^^ftrft Aor. 


2 U. ^jft to praise, to extol, to worship by hymns; 

wfrft, *&-*$tib p. g^nr, g^r porf . tifcn p. fat. 

-% fut. *r*rtnfh(, STfflre aor. frgtfTZ, mt<fte b 
dei. Pass.-sjire pre. 3TtfttI% a<<r. Cau. *m* 
arSWTH 1 aor. ?3?f p.p. 

1 A. #T*'> to stop, to suppress; fatW pre. g^H perf. 

IH?T AC* . ^Pr?^r, ^^r ger. 

5 & 9 P. ^Ffr MTTOt ^ to stop, to expel, to stupify., 
pre. gH perf. 3TfgTirt<r Aor. 

4 P. & 10 U. 5Frgf r^ to heap up, to erect; 
- &e 

U. 3TT^rn^ to cover, 

(TR^ , 3?^JcT aor. 

ben. m^ffTO-ff des. Pd39.~fcf^r pre 

1 P. to go, to move; S$rf?r pre. ?r^j^r parf. 3^1^ aor 
'6 P. fifaHW to strike, to kill; ^jf^ pre. <RX% perf. 
p. fat. STfrTf?^, W?J%T^aor. (^rjf?'?i7i, 

Aor - 

U. 3Uf?TT<Tr to spread, to oover ; ^jairf^, fffdn?r pre 
perf. ^RcTF, ^T^tfTr p. ft. 3T*frfr 
aor. f cfrrn t ben. 

10 U. ^Tff to steal; ^rgfar-^ pre. ^^^T^r^TT-^r% perf . 
^T^-rT aor. 

1 A. '<Tfot to ooze; *%qtf pre. ffTCT perf. *%fWT p. fat. 
f^ aor. 

1 P. TC*r to cover, to put on, to adorn; ?CT<rfff P'e, 
perf. HSTT*ft^ aor. 

1 P. 3T*7tttrT<T<fr: to sound, to collect into a heap, to spread 


about; sm^rfa pre. ?r*aft perf . farmr p. fat. 

P. ^srfdr to cover; ^jirf?T pre. aroTT perf. raft^T p. fat. 
BTOnft^ aor. rawfitalr des. Cau.-**nnrf?l-ffr pre. 

1 P. WT* to stand firm* WcriS pre. flwra Prf. 

1 P. irfffftfrff to stand, to wait, to be, to be at hand &* 
pre. ff^ft perf. romi P. fit. 3TWT^ aor. ^TT^ ben. 

es. Pass. **fcm pre. 3T^TT^r aor. Oau. 
pre. 3?%q^-<f aor , %RT P-P. falrZl ger. 

P. ^Rift to cover; ?^% pre. griinr perf . 

*^w ( Derom. ) P. to become big or stout; ^?iuidl pre. 
3HP'Q&^ aor. 
4 P. 1%^ to object; ^prm pre. ^rerrer perf. 

2 P. ^fr% to bathe, to perform an ablution; ^rf^ pre. 
perf. srmt P- fnt; . :3mnn^aor. ^RT^, ^Tn ben. 

des. Pass. rraw pre. Bf^rrtl^ aor. ^r?T, ( but ft^^rm profi- 
cient in ) p.p. Cau. ^q*n?T, ^Tq^fS pre. 
4 P. ^% to have affection for, to be kind to; %3TiW pre.. 
, ^T p. fut. 3T%f^ aor. 

p. p. 


10 U. ^t to love;%^rf?f-% pre. 3?ftrf&r*3-rT Aor. 
2 P. to flow, to distil; sfh?f pre. ^on^ perf. ^paT P 
^^Nl^ aor. ^rTT^ ben. Pass. ^iff pre. Can. 
pre. 3^OT5r^-tT aor. ^?r p.p. 
4 P.^^uttovomit-^55rrapre. ^oiTf perf. 

p. fot. ^tf|czn% ^t^ri% fat. awg^g; aor. 

. p. 


IP. %sfr ( srtwnrarr SU^ ^r^ ) to dress, to envelop? 
|HjR pre. ^^ perf. M^Rn^ Aor. 

I A. T%nt^5^T to throb, to go; *q?^% pre. q^r^ perf. 
fqf?5rTT p. fut. sreqf?^ aor. fwf^TTff des. 
pre. 3*<TC<F^ aor. *<if^?T P. P. 
1 A. ^roq to contend with, to challenge; 
perf. *<jf5?TT P. *ut. STprpfor aor. fq^rRr?^ des. 
10 A. to touch, to take, to embrace; ^iiar pre. 
&c. perf. fq^ffqTcfT p. *ut. STq^WT a or. 
1 U. ^TqR*<T^r;ror: to obstruct, to touch, to spy; 
P'e. qfTT5T, <T*T5f perf. 3^7^, 3?^^, 5T^^T% Aor. 
10 A. jrfOT^quT^r: to take, to embrace; 

5 U. to gratify, to protect, *oum pre. CRCTTT perf - ( Vedic ) 

T^R" to ^OUCDJ to come in contact with; 
perf. ^q^r, ^T^T p. ft. 3T^rT^fT 

aor. *3nni; ben. ft^^TT% des. Cau. ^r^fqr^-ff P. 
P.P. ^* >**&* inf . 
10 U. ttenm* to desire, to envy; ^qro-ir pre. 

&c..perf. ^ftfTT p. fut. 3Tn^f^-<T aor. Pass. 
pw. fr^^fq^m-rr des. *sf|?T p.p. 
9 P. to hurt, to kill- *<TOm?f pre. <T^TTT per. 
6 P. ( ^217?: ) ^R3% to tremble, to throb; ^rf^ pre 

1 A. %^-f to increase, to grow fat; wratl P'e. 

P. fut. ^r^^T^ aor. Cau. ^n^gf?r-ar pre 
aor. f?*q7rfa*?ir dea. ^cT P.P- 
10 U. ^Tf ;r to love; *qfT*riff-3r pre 
pelf. 3?fqrr%T^-fT Aor. 

10 U. nforem* to kill, ftl^fff-ff p*e. 3TT?f^T|^-rr Aor. 
A. f3T3^% to blow, to burst open; P. R^Rnt to split open, 


to break 

Aor. S^ftlllT, U^fe^, SWId^ des. Can. 

p*e. 3)3f$kdci;-cT A or. t^Tea? ^rfer p. p. 

6 P - ( f <n^ : ) fel&ft to split open, to blossom; 

pre. 5?qft7, (S^f?** 2 sing-,) pert, fgrfefr p. fat. 

aor. 3?$77*ra des- ^^rfef p. p. 

10 U H^pr to break open. VKf?mff-?t pro. 

&c. perf. 3T5^5T?g[-fT Aor. 

6 p ^^^t ( f^n%: ) to cover., ^gr^nr pre, 
2nd sing. ) perf. 3T*5^r^ Aor. 

1 P. qff5T> to joke, to jest; *$-o<iid pro. 3^U?r perf. 
^rfa^CTlS fut. 3T^l?Tg; Aor. 
; 10 0. to joke, tolaughat; ^Td^qfar-ff P^. ^^Ug^-yf Aor. 

P. Si 10 U. game as ^07 . 
P. ?$*% ( ^?n%: ) to tremble, to throb, to flash, to shine; 

pre. s*<rr perf. sgrftfTT p. ^t. 3K$rO<i a <>r. 

p. P. Oau. TOTT^Iff, 'WnT^m pre. 
1 P. f^cfir to spread; ^x^fff pre. 5^5^ perf. 
Aor. ^f^r, ^TOT p p. 

1 P. *r^5aft ( ^?n%: ) to tremble, to collect, to kill 
pre. s*qfrc* ( SFSTTSTO 2nd sing. ,) perf. attgrsfrci: Aor. 
1 P. SHTR^fa to thunder, to glitter, ^^{ar pre. 
SrFfcTT p. fat ^^^ffc^ aor. Sf^fOTTrt des. Oau. 
^ pie. 3TS*S5*ra[-jfT aor. ^isn!, f^or p. p. 

1 A. q^3r to smile, to bloom; *jrq-> pre. fti^flW perf. 
p. t ut. 31^5 aor. ftmm^ des. 

10 U. ^rfrg^ to despise, to love, to go ; 
tolT^^TT-^% perf. SR?f<rar p. fat. ^f&lT2^-fT aor. 
1 P. ft^'Tot to wink, to blink; tfi&ft. pre. r%wte peri 


1 P. fayfliqi to rememl>er; ^TCTJT% to think upon or long 
lor; flRdrf pre. flWIT perf. *H<f| p. fut.- a^TlTR^ aor gfij- 
<t& des. Pass. wqfa pre. Cau. tnrcqft-ft, SR^fo-% (3?pa^ 
Pass. wq?T pre. 913*11% SKflft Aor. *ijfl pj> 

5 P. to live, to please; ^wof^f pre. SWTT P?rf. Caa, CTR- 
qfiHT ( Vedic ). 

1 A. S|^|c<0| to ooze, to run, to trickle, to flow out; 
pre. ^^p% perf. ^f^rlT, ^Fm p. fut. ^qi^QB, ^^ 
fnt. 3T^-<q. , ^^^, 3T^5rT aor. ^qp^ie, fq^fU^ ben. 
ft^qf^^, l%^PcWT-% des. *q^ pp. ejf^icWT ^q'?^T ger. 
Cau. *q?^qm-ir pre. 

1 P. 3TS? to sound, to go, to consider; ^qttHT pre. 

perf . jEqm^ p., f ut. 31^^ aor. f^^Tf^rqf?r des. *qp/T pp 

10 A. foj&k to reflect; *qjflq^ pre. ^qmqra^ &c. perf. 

*qr*ri*tai p. fut. 3rftr^qRrT aor. 

1 A. ^^^ to fall down, to sink, to hftng down, to po. 

to be pleased; gflifr pre. ^sfe perf. tffMdl p. iut. ^^f^H 

^5R^aor. ^mftK ben. froftTT^ des. Pass. ^r^ pre. 
3^fl% aor. ^f?f pp. ftr^TT ger. 

1 A. to confide, to trust; && pi'e. ^^ perf. ^ftm p. fut. 

1 A. nm to go; s^?f pre. ^^ perf. 3Tf^ Aor. 

I A. fwi^r to entrust, to contide; ?& pre. ^1?^ perf. 
P- fut STCR^, ^S*?e aor. Cau. 3TO5**TqT?T-iT pre. 
or. rrofl:0<TO des. ^FVT pp. f*^c^T, ^^T ger. 

4 P- nfiuJmrq*!: to go, to become dry; ^qi% pi e 
perf. fi*qft fut. 3^3^ Aor. Cuu. &*qf?!-?T pro. 
q^-tf Aor. ftdf^m, S^l% des. Pass, qi&ft pre. 
aor. ^?T pp. 


1 P. to flow, to go, to trickle away; qftfa pre. g^TO perf. 
p. fut. are^-?f aop. ^51^ beii. Cau. SfRqft pre. 
des. gflf pp. 

1 A. to go; eU?f pre. T%^ | u t. 3*&fer Aor 

1. P. to boil, to sweat; SliqfiT pre. *f$ft perf. See %. 

1 A. qKStft to embrace; &*t% pre. S^A ^IWT perf. 
*^f p. fut. &%& fut. 3^^ aor. &^(V ben ft^g^ 
des. Pass. ^S3?T pre. 3T^f^ aor. Cau. ^f3fqi%-W pre. 
^^f^r^-ff aor. *^R pp. ^^c^TT, ^fc^F ger. 
1 A. 3TI^T^% to be pleasant to the taste, to please to 
eat; ^^ pre. fl^ perf. ^f^fT p. fut, 3^^ aor. 
Cau. ^ff^qf^-W pre. 3?l%^3-fl aor. ftR^ft^^ des. ^i^rf pp. 

10 U. to sweeten; ^Rf*lfrf-?f pre. ^VT^n97f^-^lc perf. 
^IR[fqRn p. fut. 3Tl%^^-?T aor. 

1 P. ^F^ to sound, to make a noise, to sing; ^TffiT pre. 
perf. &fal\ p. fat. 3??^^, 3??F^T^ aor. Cau. 
pre. 3Tm*cR3:cl aor. l%^f%Tff des. ?3f^T ( 
the mind ) pp. 

1 P. 9T?We% to decorate, to adorn. ( See the above root ) 
Can. feRqfa-fr pre. Pass. *f?q% pre. ST^tH, 9T^I> aor. 

^ P. ^iq^ to sleep, to repose ^fqfir pro. 3T^cfR^, ^T"fte. 
imperf. ^^Tq perf. ^HT P- fut. 3?^jc^ aor. S^Fl ben. 
des. Cau. ^iqqm-S' pre. 3Tl%^q^aor. Pass. 
pre. 38 pp. 

10U. n%^to find fault with, to blame; Sf^-d pre. 
T-^RR perf. ^Tiq?Tr p. ,f ut. 318^^ Aor. ^qfe 

ben. fiTEsrcftqm-H des. 

1 A. 37(^Tej% to taste; ^|?T pre. &&% perf. ^fl^ P- fnt 

df^K? aor. ftR^K^^ des. 

1 P. to go, to move; ^5[% pre. ^ef^ perf, 


1 A. to go; 6N-17?fr pre. "fl^% perf . 

1 A. 3fRTO(% ( see ^ ) to taste, to be pleasant; snjft pre. 
perf. *5(Tft*qii fut. Sf^tftfc aor. f*TOTft<Ht des. 

to taste; **mim-i* pre. 3ifasi^-?T Aor. 
des. f^TftcT FP- 

1 A. ( ^5f fll^sT^fr: WTOfaftftfttWO to be aunoiuted, to be 
greasy; *|*% pre. fafa* perf. &%*!& fut. 
aor. Can. *ifcqfif-?f pre. ftn^j^M?! ftl^ft^ des. 
^fef pp. 
4 P. n?m^^ to sweat, to perspire; fi^ft pre. if^TT perf. 

p. fut. 3^=[^ aor. ft^T pp. . 

* spread, to forget ^J^Sjfif pro. 

IP. 3T^tarTI*p}t.' to eouud, to praise, to go, to be pained; 
Sm% pre. e?^?: perf. ^ft?f|, ^rl? p. fnt. 
aor. 3*Tqfa[ ben. fi^^fc^, ^^IfiT des. Can. 
Sffe^^-W aor. *%$ pp. 
9 P. to hurt, to kill; *fartft P re - 
1 A. to go; ^^Jt pre. ft^% prf . 

I P. cffojl to shine, to be bright; $arfrT pre. vjfr?!? perf. flfofl p. 
fnt. f|J^3fn^aor. fRcf pp. 

1 P. ^Rr^c^'Jt: to leap, to jump, to bind to a post, to 
oppress; ^31% pre. v3T$I perf , 3^f(^, SHTRftl. aor 

\ A. S^HlcOT to void excrement, to discharge faces; 
-pre. 3T^ perf.-^r.p. fut. 3?*rr aor. fagc^ des. %* pp. 

2 P. to kill, to beat, to boat, to conquer &c.; ^fnl pre. 
( pi. 3?WrC ) imperf. 3TOT* perf. ^??n p. fut 

aor. ^tfJI^beii. f^nn^Rf des. Pass f^ pre 
aor. Cau. ^T?nil% ^ pre. STviTm'T^-rf aor. 
freq. 5?r pp. f c^I ger. 


1 P. iflft to go; f^rfTf pre. 5^W| perf. f I*fl*qfif fut. 

1 P. to go, to worship, to sound, to be weary; &fa pre. 
perf. ^faff p. fnt. 8?$^' aor. fftfl pp. 

to go, to worship, to take;- f^RT pre. 
perf. a^ffo Aor. pH^RJMfd des. 

IP. i%%^% II? ^1 to plough, to go; ^Rf pre. 3TT3 pnrf. 

YE 1 P. ffft to smile, to laugh at, to excel, to bloom &c.; 

pre. Sflns perf. ^finn p. fut. 3Tg<ft^ aor. Pass. f ^ pre. 
Cau.- fl^jllr-^ pre. SRftf^-?! aor. fogfaMId des. f l%?| pp. 

f I 3 A. to go, to attain, to get/ fsfftfT pre. 5fJ perf. f f?n p. fut. 
fftqft fnt. fl^K ben. *W&1 aor. ftrn^ des. Pass. *T*lft. 
pre. 3fflfi| aor. ^pf pp. 

$f 3 P. ^TH to abandon, to resign, to lt fall, to omit; 
pre. Sffl perf. $ft\ p. fut. afgT^H aor - ^ 
des. Pass. fmft pre. 9f|TAf aor. Cau. FTOi?T% pre. 
rWC:^ aor. ft*T pp. ffcsff ger. 

ft 5 P. n?fi ^ to go, to send, to shoot, to promote; fl^tf^ pre. 
f*Wiq perf. t^T p. f nt. afHj^ aor. ^hlWL ln. f^)^rfit des. 
Oau.fiqqf^-^ pre. *r^fif^-?f aor. Pass, fpfil pre. STflft 
aor. if ?f pp. 


ff ^ 1 P. fi[?=nqf to kill, to injure, to torment, to hit; ffcfft pre. 
perf. ffftRH p. fut. Sffi^ft^ aor. Pass. fi[^ pre. 
aor. flT{fl%?l% des. f|ftT?f pp. 

7 P. tq kill Ac.; dsrf^f r re. 3^1^-^ imperf . ft* 2nd sing. 
impera. (See the above root for the other forms ). 

10 u. to kill, &c.; fg^n%-?i:^pre. fgwng 

perf. ^^fR?!T p. fut. 3?f3rf?99L-?f aor - 


1 U. s?sq% jra^ to make an indistinct sound, !to hiccough 

pre. faftsR, Ot(3$ perf. ftfoflf p. fut. 3?ftsft^, 
Aor. ftftf?f pp. 

1 A. fjfflpri to hurt, to kill; T5^R% pre. ftvqT3^ &c. perf. 

1 p - *?!3jft to curse, to swear; fcft pre. ftfc perf. 

9 P. ?{mn5tft to reappear; ft^rift pre. f*f$T perf. 

1 A. JlcmKiqV' to go, to wander, to disregard; ft^rt pre. 
perf. ftfrRTT p. fnt. rf|?^ aor. ftfj** pp. 

1 P. JIFT^ to please; ft^l% pre. filft^ perf. 3?!^^^ Aor. 

6 P. *n3^T<fr to sport amorouslj, to indicate amorous 
desire; ftT% pre. f^f^5 perf. sft^RL ^- or - 

3 P. ^Tsn^rtitz to ofiEer, to perform a sacrifice, to eat; $f}ft 
pre. ^5^1^ impera. 2nd sing. 5j5ra, ^<4I*I^^ P er ^- ffaTT p. 
tut. 31fHH aor - f 1^1 ben. 3|[*frf des. (Jao.-fl^li%-^ pre. 
^^P^-^ ar. pi pp. 

1 P. to go; fi^fif pre. sjfte perf. fT^^ ^ut. 3^1^ Aor. 
6 P. ^1% to collect; g^fff p-e. ^5- perf . Cau. flTrf^-& 
pre. f^^-?f aor. 

1 A. ^IW ^ W ( 5*<ft |cq% ) to collect, to choose, to take 
away; gssit pre. sjfp'i' P erf IjP^ aor. 

1 P. ^l?F^ to bo crooKed, to deceive; gx^sft pre. 
perf. |T%m p. f ut a^^iei aor. fjri%$?f , pp. 

1 P. to go, to cover, to kill; jftelft pre. sg^fa P er ^- 
f ut. 3T5Tl?l Aor. 

P. to go; 31-fr pre. *gg perf. 9T^ft^ Aor. 


1 U. f *UT to take, to lead, to draw to a distance, to deprive 
of, to win, to obtaiu, Ac.; frft-^ pre. 5f$K, 3!^ perf. $?|f 
p. fut. 5ft<.qfir-3 fut. srsrfH, s?53 aor. f^TO. tfflS ben. 
deB - Ca11 - f TOft-& pre. snft^-a aor. Pass. 
pre. s?5tft aor. <f pp. 

A. fl^JT *T3J?T?tt xf to be angry, to be ashamed; *frm. pre. 
parf. goftftcqir fut. 3T53rTRl2 aor. 

I P. 3f3fc to tell a lie; ^qfil pre. 5|f^ perf. 3Tf*ffa Aor. 

des. cau. ffrm-ft pre. ^^^-?r, 3^15^-?! aor. g pp. 

4 P. jJiJT to be delighted, to stand erect, ( as hair. ) 
pre. 5Tf qr perf. ^TfrfT p. fut. 3T5?e[ aor. OTfl, 5^ PP- 

1 A. flm^rmt to be wicked, to strike, to be born, to porii 
V?-^'n|fze, 9?|f^H, aor. 

1 P. ^2% to surround, to attire; fefa pre. flfiJS' perf 

IHrota fut.-aiWta.Aop. nrtr%Ti% des. 

1 A. SftTC to disregard; |^if pre. ft|t perf. r|f|^ Aor. 
1 A. to disregard; ^5% pre, ( same as f^ ). 

1 A. sjsqxR^ to neigh, to roar; ^?^ pre. fift^ perf. 
p. fut. 91f {qg aor. ^?KI pp. 

1 P. TO^ to go, to come; ftarfil pre. ^t< perf. 

1-A. SRI^ io disregard; fi?^ pre. ^ft% perf. 
Aor. Cau. fteqfa % pre. si^jflC^T Aor. 

1 P. to disregard, to go; ^Rf pre. 

2 A. ^q^T^H ^ take a^ay to conceal; ^ pre. 5j^ perf. 
fS?f| p. fut. ^ifje beu. 3?^fe aor. 5^^ des. ^ pp. 

1 P. to go; to shake; tfpsft pro. ^5115? perf. 3^511^4 Aor. 


HJ 1 P. fj^ror to hide, -to cover; ^irfa pre Sf^flt perf. 
fat. 3*if| Aor. 

10 JJ. ssHTiTZff 3lf% to speak, to sound; fHTJllr-^ pre. 
P- fut. ajfarjTf^-fl aor. 

1 P. 5R? <ZW3 *3 to sound, to disappear, to lesson; 
p-e. If^T^ perf. j|(%?TT p. fut. si^l tffo 
des. j|T%?r pp. 

1 A. 3loq% ^ lo sound, to roar; *%[& pre. Hj^f perl 
TflT P- lut - 

3 P. ssrprf to blush, to be ashamed; fsT^Trf pre. 
&c., firl^m perf. |rTF P. fut. 3^ff3 aor. f ,^i^ hen. 
des. Pass ^iqrf pre. 3-T^Tiq aor Cau. ^q^- pre. 
aor. trf, ifjor pp. 

1 P. 555^1} f to blush, to- feel shame; |f(^y?f pre. 

or %% I P. to go, to contract; ^l^f or g^m pre. 

1 A. to go; jptfT pre. ?^|q perf. |fa?iT per. fat. 

1 A. 3^q% ^ to neigh, to go; j|<T^ pre. fjf^^ perf. (S 

1 P. to go; ^kl% pre. 

1 P. Renut. to cover; ^UU% pre. srl^HI perf. <?f?t?T{ p fnt* 


10 U. sqxivRl g[Jl% to speak, to" sound; ^mqirT-^ pre. 
c. prf. ^Hi^T%-^ fut. 3T^q^ Aor. 

1 P. 313^ to Bound; (gWn pre. 3T|gTfl perf. 


1 A. Q&, S?sq4fc ST*^ ^ to he glad, to pound; 1{A pre. 
perf. $Tft<n p. f ut. sigflfc aor. Can. 5T*qft-!t pro. 
des. $* pp. 

1 P. $5^ to be afflicted, to go, to shake; gcsfo pre 
perf. gl&m p. fnt. 3?gT^I^ aor - ^ atl - S^?^-^ 
( with a pre. fc4jjrl-?fr only ) pre. rf^g<5^ aor. 
des. ufeT pp. 

g IP. aftfeF^ to be crooked, to deceive, to be atflicted; 
pre. 515K perf. g} p. fut. gli^lrl fut. 
ben. ^5irf des. Can. $Tnn^-fr P re - S^ PP- 

1 U. W^l^T ^ *3 to vie with, to-call by name, to bvoke, t* 
call opon, to ask; *n%-?T pre. sggFf, 555% perf. |^HT p. fn 
ST^ aor - f^n^, STtfte ben. ^^1%-?r des. Pass.- 
pre. 9?gl(q aor. Can. 
aor. ?f pp. gccfT ger. ^^ inf. 



cop. 2 

Kale, Moreshvar Ramchandra 
A higher Sanskrit grammar